Abstract

We present the design and experimental evaluation of an Optical Multicast System for Data Center Networks, a hardware-software system architecture that uniquely integrates passive optical splitters in a hybrid network architecture for faster and simpler delivery of multicast traffic flows. An application-driven control plane manages the integrated optical and electronic switched traffic routing in the data plane layer. The control plane includes a resource allocation algorithm to optimally assign optical splitters to the flows. The hardware architecture is built on a hybrid network with both Electronic Packet Switching (EPS) and Optical Circuit Switching (OCS) networks to aggregate Top-of-Rack switches. The OCS is also the connectivity substrate of splitters to the optical network. The optical multicast system implementation requires only commodity optical components. We built a prototype and developed a simulation environment to evaluate the performance of the system for bulk multicasting. Experimental and numerical results show simultaneous delivery of multicast flows to all receivers with steady throughput. Compared to IP multicast that is the electronic counterpart, optical multicast performs with less protocol complexity and reduced energy consumption. Compared to peer-to-peer multicast methods, it achieves at minimum an order of magnitude higher throughput for flows under 250 MB with significantly less connection overheads. Furthermore, for delivering 20 TB of data containing only 15% multicast flows, it reduces the total delivery energy consumption by 50% and improves latency by 55% compared to a data center with a sole non-blocking EPS network.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2015 (1)

D. Kreutz, F. Ramos, P. Esteves Verissimo, C. Esteve Rothenberg, S. Azodolmolky, and S. Uhlig, “Software-defined networking: A comprehensive survey,” Proceedings of the IEEE 103(1), 14–76 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (1)

D. Kilper, K. Bergman, V. W. Chan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical networks come of age,” Opt. Photon. News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (7)

N. Sambo, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, F. Paolucci, A. Malacarne, A. Bogoni, F. Cugini, L. Poti, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of data and control plane for optical multicast at 100 and 200 Gb/s with and without frequency conversion,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(7), 667–676 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lai, D. Brunina, B. Buckley, C. Ware, W. Zhang, A. Garg, B. Jalali, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of a cross-layer enabled network node,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(9), 1512–1525 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Luo, X. Zhou, F. Effenberger, X. Yan, G. Peng, Y. Qian, and Y. Ma, “Time- and wavelength-division multiplexed passive optical network (TWDM-PON) for next-generation PON stage 2 (NG-PON2),” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(4), 587–593 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Y. Xia, K. Bergman, T. E. Ng, S. Sahu, and K. Sripanidkulchai, “Rethinking the physical layer of data center networks of the next decade: Using optics to enable efficient *-cast connectivity,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  43(3), 52–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

G.N. Rouskas, “Optical layer multicast: rationale, building blocks, and challenges,” IEEE Network 17(1), 60–65 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. Jain, A. Kumar, S. Mandal, J. Ong, L. Poutievski, A. Singh, S. Venkata, J. Wanderer, J. Zhou, M. Zhu, J. Zolla, U. Hölzle, S. Stuart, and A. Vahdat, “B4: Experience with a globally-deployed software defined WAN,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 43(4), 3–14 (2013).

C.-Y. Hong, S. Kandula, R. Mahajan, M. Zhang, V. Gill, M. Nanduri, and R. Wattenhofer, “Achieving high utilization with software-driven WAN,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 43(4), 15–26 (2013).

2012 (2)

D. Li, Y. Li, J. Wu, S. Su, and J. Yu, “ESM: efficient and scalable data center multicast routing,” ACM Trans. Netw. 20(3), 944–955 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Cao, C. Guo, G. Lu, Y. Xiong, Y. Zheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, and C. Chen, “Datacast: a scalable and efficient reliable group data delivery service for data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 31(12), 2632–2645 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: A scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
[Crossref]

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 339–350 (2011).

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-through: Part-time optics in data centers,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  41(4), 327–338 (2011).

2009 (3)

P. Jokela, A. Zahemszky, C. Esteve Rothenberg, S. Arianfar, and P. Nikander, “LIPSIN: line speed publish/subscribe inter-networking,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 39(4), 195–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Chowdhury, M. Zaharia, J. Ma, M. I. Jordan, and I. Stoica, “Managing data transfers in computer clusters with orchestra,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 98–109 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Greenberg, J. Hamilton, D. A. Maltz, and P. Parveen, “The cost of a cloud: research problems in data center networks,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  39(1), 68–73 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

Y. Li and L. Tong, “Mach-Zehnder interferometers assembled with optical microfibers or nanofibers,” Opt. Lett. 33(4), 303–305 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Openflow: Enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  38(2), 69–742008.
[Crossref]

J. Dean and S. Ghemawat, “Mapreduce: Simplified data processing on large clusters,” Commun. ACM 51(1), 107–113 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 38(4), 63–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

A. Fréville, “The multidimensional 0–1 knapsack problem: An overview,” Eur. J. Oper. Res. 155(1), 1–21 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Let. 15(11), 1537–1539 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Ghemawat, H. Gobioff, and S.-T. Leung, “The Google File System,” SIGOPS Oper. Syst. Rev. 37(5), 29–43 (2003).
[Crossref]

X. Ma and G.-S. Kuo, “Optical switching technology comparison: optical MEMS vs. other technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(11), 16–23 (2003).

2000 (1)

C. Diot, B. N. Levine, B. Lyles, H. Kassem, and D. Balensiefen, “Deployment issues for the IP multicast service and architecture,” IEEE Netw. 14(1), 78–88 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

L.H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(2), 67–73 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

L. Lamport, “The part-time parliament,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 16(2), 133–169 (1998).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Y. Amir, L. E. Moser, P. M. Melliar-Smith, D. A. Agarwal, and P. Ciarfella, “The totem single-ring ordering and membership protocol,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 13(4), 311–342 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

H. Takahashi, S. Suzuki, K. Kato, and I. Nishi, “Arrayed-waveguide grating for wavelength division multi/demultiplexer with nanometre resolution,” IEEE Electron. Lett.,  26(2), 87–88 (1990).
[Crossref]

Abakoumov, D.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2.

Agarwal, D. A.

Y. Amir, L. E. Moser, P. M. Melliar-Smith, D. A. Agarwal, and P. Ciarfella, “The totem single-ring ordering and membership protocol,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 13(4), 311–342 (1995).
[Crossref]

Al-Fares, M.

M. Al-Fares, A. Loukissas, and A. Vahdat, “A scalable, commodity data center network architecture,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 38(4), 63–74 (2008).
[Crossref]

Almeroth, K.

B. Quinn and K. Almeroth, “IP multicast applications: Challenges and solutions,” IETF, Internet Draft, (2001).

Amir, Y.

Y. Amir, L. E. Moser, P. M. Melliar-Smith, D. A. Agarwal, and P. Ciarfella, “The totem single-ring ordering and membership protocol,” ACM Trans. Comput. Syst. 13(4), 311–342 (1995).
[Crossref]

Andersen, D. G.

G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-through: Part-time optics in data centers,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  41(4), 327–338 (2011).

Anderson, T.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Openflow: Enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  38(2), 69–742008.
[Crossref]

Arianfar, S.

P. Jokela, A. Zahemszky, C. Esteve Rothenberg, S. Arianfar, and P. Nikander, “LIPSIN: line speed publish/subscribe inter-networking,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 39(4), 195–206 (2009).
[Crossref]

Azodolmolky, S.

D. Kreutz, F. Ramos, P. Esteves Verissimo, C. Esteve Rothenberg, S. Azodolmolky, and S. Uhlig, “Software-defined networking: A comprehensive survey,” Proceedings of the IEEE 103(1), 14–76 (2015).
[Crossref]

Balakrishnan, H.

N. McKeown, T. Anderson, H. Balakrishnan, G. Parulkar, L. Peterson, J. Rexford, S. Shenker, and J. Turner, “Openflow: Enabling innovation in campus networks,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  38(2), 69–742008.
[Crossref]

Balensiefen, D.

C. Diot, B. N. Levine, B. Lyles, H. Kassem, and D. Balensiefen, “Deployment issues for the IP multicast service and architecture,” IEEE Netw. 14(1), 78–88 (2000).
[Crossref]

Balus, F.

F. Balus, M. Pisica, N. Bitar, W. Henderickx, and D. Stiliadis, “Software driven networks: Use cases and framework,” IETF, Internet Draft (2011).

Bartos, A.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2.

Baxter, G.

G. Baxter, S. Frisken, D. Abakoumov, H. Zhou, I. Clarke, A. Bartos, and S. Poole, “Highly programmable wavelength selective switch based on liquid crystal on silicon switching elements,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2006), paper OTuF2.

Bazzaz, H. H.

N. Farrington, G. Porter, S. Radhakrishnan, H. H. Bazzaz, V. Subramanya, Y. Fainman, G. Papen, and A. Vahdat, “Helios: A hybrid electrical/optical switch architecture for modular data centers,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 339–350 (2011).

Bergman, K.

D. Kilper, K. Bergman, V. W. Chan, I. Monga, G. Porter, and K. Rauschenbach, “Optical networks come of age,” Opt. Photon. News 25(9), 50–57 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Wang, Y. Xia, K. Bergman, T. E. Ng, S. Sahu, and K. Sripanidkulchai, “Rethinking the physical layer of data center networks of the next decade: Using optics to enable efficient *-cast connectivity,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  43(3), 52–58 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Lai, D. Brunina, B. Buckley, C. Ware, W. Zhang, A. Garg, B. Jalali, and K. Bergman, “First demonstration of a cross-layer enabled network node,” J. Lightwave Technol. 31(9), 1512–1525 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Birand, H. Wang, K. Bergman, and G. Zussman, “Measurements-based power control - a cross-layered framework,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.66.

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H. Wang, Y. Xia, K. Bergman, T. E. Ng, S. Sahu, and K. Sripanidkulchai, “Rethinking the physical layer of data center networks of the next decade: Using optics to enable efficient *-cast connectivity,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  43(3), 52–58 (2013).
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J. Kim, C. J. Nuzman, B. Kumar, D. F. Lieuwen, J. S. Kraus, A. Weiss, C. P. Lichtenwalner, A. R. Papazian, R. E. Frahm, and J. V. Gates, “1100 × 1100 port MEMS-based optical crossconnect with 4-dB maximum loss,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Let. 15(11), 1537–1539 (2003).
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N. Sambo, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, F. Paolucci, A. Malacarne, A. Bogoni, F. Cugini, L. Poti, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of data and control plane for optical multicast at 100 and 200 Gb/s with and without frequency conversion,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(7), 667–676 (2013).
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P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4G.6.

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N. Sambo, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, F. Paolucci, A. Malacarne, A. Bogoni, F. Cugini, L. Poti, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of data and control plane for optical multicast at 100 and 200 Gb/s with and without frequency conversion,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(7), 667–676 (2013).
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H. Wang, Y. Xia, K. Bergman, T. E. Ng, S. Sahu, and K. Sripanidkulchai, “Rethinking the physical layer of data center networks of the next decade: Using optics to enable efficient *-cast connectivity,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  43(3), 52–58 (2013).
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G. Wang, D. G. Andersen, M. Kaminsky, K. Papagiannaki, T. E. Ng, M. Kozuch, and M. Ryan, “c-through: Part-time optics in data centers,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  41(4), 327–338 (2011).

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H. Wang, Y. Xia, K. Bergman, T. E. Ng, S. Sahu, and K. Sripanidkulchai, “Rethinking the physical layer of data center networks of the next decade: Using optics to enable efficient *-cast connectivity,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev.,  43(3), 52–58 (2013).
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Wattenhofer, R.

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P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Virtual machine migration over optical circuit switching network in a converged inter/intra data center architecture,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Th4G.6.

P. Samadi, J. Xu, and K. Bergman, “Experimental demonstration of one-to-many virtual machine migration by reliable optical multicast,” in European Conference and Exhibition on Optical Communication, OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper 689.

Yan, X.

Yu, J.

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M. Chowdhury, M. Zaharia, J. Ma, M. I. Jordan, and I. Stoica, “Managing data transfers in computer clusters with orchestra,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 41(4), 98–109 (2009).
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P. Jokela, A. Zahemszky, C. Esteve Rothenberg, S. Arianfar, and P. Nikander, “LIPSIN: line speed publish/subscribe inter-networking,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 39(4), 195–206 (2009).
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Zhang, M.

C.-Y. Hong, S. Kandula, R. Mahajan, M. Zhang, V. Gill, M. Nanduri, and R. Wattenhofer, “Achieving high utilization with software-driven WAN,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 43(4), 15–26 (2013).

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J. Cao, C. Guo, G. Lu, Y. Xiong, Y. Zheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, and C. Chen, “Datacast: a scalable and efficient reliable group data delivery service for data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 31(12), 2632–2645 (2012).
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S. Jain, A. Kumar, S. Mandal, J. Ong, L. Poutievski, A. Singh, S. Venkata, J. Wanderer, J. Zhou, M. Zhu, J. Zolla, U. Hölzle, S. Stuart, and A. Vahdat, “B4: Experience with a globally-deployed software defined WAN,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 43(4), 3–14 (2013).

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Zhu, M.

S. Jain, A. Kumar, S. Mandal, J. Ong, L. Poutievski, A. Singh, S. Venkata, J. Wanderer, J. Zhou, M. Zhu, J. Zolla, U. Hölzle, S. Stuart, and A. Vahdat, “B4: Experience with a globally-deployed software defined WAN,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 43(4), 3–14 (2013).

Zhu, Y.

J. Cao, C. Guo, G. Lu, Y. Xiong, Y. Zheng, Y. Zhang, Y. Zhu, and C. Chen, “Datacast: a scalable and efficient reliable group data delivery service for data centers,” IEEE J. Sel. Areas Commun. 31(12), 2632–2645 (2012).
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S. Jain, A. Kumar, S. Mandal, J. Ong, L. Poutievski, A. Singh, S. Venkata, J. Wanderer, J. Zhou, M. Zhu, J. Zolla, U. Hölzle, S. Stuart, and A. Vahdat, “B4: Experience with a globally-deployed software defined WAN,” SIGCOMM Comput. Commun. Rev. 43(4), 3–14 (2013).

Zussman, G.

B. Birand, H. Wang, K. Bergman, and G. Zussman, “Measurements-based power control - a cross-layered framework,” in Optical Fiber Communications Conference, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper JTh2A.66.

P. Samadi, V. Gupta, B. Birand, H. Wang, G. Zussman, and K. Bergman, “Accelerating incast and multicast traffic delivery for data-intensive applications using physical layer optics,” in Proceedings of the ACM Conference on SIGCOMM (ACM, 2014), pp. 373–374.

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ACM Trans. Netw. (1)

D. Li, Y. Li, J. Wu, S. Su, and J. Yu, “ESM: efficient and scalable data center multicast routing,” ACM Trans. Netw. 20(3), 944–955 (2012).
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Commun. ACM (2)

A. Greenberg, J. R. Hamilton, N. Jain, S. Kandula, C. Kim, P. Lahiri, D. A. Maltz, P. Patel, and S. Sengupta, “VL2: A scalable and flexible data center network,” Commun. ACM 54(3), 95–104 (2011).
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L.H. Sahasrabuddhe and B. Mukherjee, “Light trees: optical multicasting for improved performance in wavelength routed networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 37(2), 67–73 (1999).
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X. Ma and G.-S. Kuo, “Optical switching technology comparison: optical MEMS vs. other technologies,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(11), 16–23 (2003).

IEEE Electron. Lett. (1)

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IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. (1)

N. Sambo, G. Meloni, G. Berrettini, F. Paolucci, A. Malacarne, A. Bogoni, F. Cugini, L. Poti, and P. Castoldi, “Demonstration of data and control plane for optical multicast at 100 and 200 Gb/s with and without frequency conversion,” IEEE J. Opt. Commun. Netw. 5(7), 667–676 (2013).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Optical multicast system network architecture built over a hybrid network, enabling optical multicast by passive optical splitters and an SDN control plane, (ToR: Top-of-Rack).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Intensity profile of an integrated optical splitter [37], that supports 1:8 optical multicast by dividing the input power, ( P o u t ( i ) = P i n 8 , i = 1 , , 8 ), (b) An example of multicast trees constructed by using passive optical splitters and configuring the OSS ports’ connectivity of the senders and receivers ToRs.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The 3-layered software architecture performs: i) Configuration of the OSS and ToRs, and connectivity of the optical splitters in the data plane layer, ii) Receipt of multicast traffic matrix at the application layer from the central compute and storage controllers, iii) Assignment of optical splitters to the flows by a resource allocation algorithm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical multicast system prototype: (a) Configuration, and (b) Picture. The prototype consists of an Ethernet switch, an OSS, 8 ToR emulated by an OpenFlow switch, 8 servers, two 1:4 optical splitters, and an SDN server that runs the control plane software.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Achievable and effective throughput of the optimal and greedy algorithms vs. the traffic matrix size, (b) Impact of the reallocation strategy on the maximum achievable and effective throughput, and (c) Effect of optical splitter size on the maximum achievable throughput for 160-640 racks.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Experimental results: (a) Latency to deliver 50 multicast flows in a configuration of 8 racks and two 1:4 optical splitters. (b, c) Evaluating the effect of increasing number of multicast receivers on the transmission time and the throughput of a 250 MB flow, (d, e) Evaluating the effect of flow size on throughput for mice and elephant flows, (f) Evaluating the effect of flow and multicast group size on peer-to-peer multicast connection overheads, (BG: Background Traffic).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a, b) Numerical results on the latency of delivering 320 multicast flows among 320 racks with ten 1:32 optical splitters, comparing optical with IP multicast and unicast on an EPS network in non-blocking and over-subscription configurations, (c, d) Effect of multicast group size on transmission time and throughput for a 250 MB flow, (e) Latency improvement of a hybrid and optical multicast-equipped data center network in delivering 20 TB of data compared to a sole EPS network vs. percentage of multicast flows, (f) Calculation of switching energy on delivering a 250 MB multicast flows to achieve similar latency vs. Multicast Group Size, (OS: Over-subscribed, NB: Non-blocking).
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Improvement in energy consumption on delivering 20 TB of data with Hybrid + optical multicast network compared to a sole EPS network in non-blocking, 1:4 and 1:10 configurations (OS: Over-subscribed, NB: Non-blocking), (b) Ring Paxos run on IP multicast supported EPS network and optical multicast-enabled network (message size: 8, 16 and 32 kbytes), (c) Enabling optical incast using passive optical combiners and Time-Division Multiplexing of the senders by the SDN controller.

Tables (4)

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Table 1 Insertion loss and cost of the commodity passive optical splitters [39].

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Table 2 Average control plane delays measured on the prototype.

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Table 3 Power consumption and cost of the EPS, OCS and the Optical Multicast System network components.

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Table 4 Cost increase in adding an OCS network + Optical Multicast System to a 320 rack data center EPS network under different over-subscription conditions.

Equations (3)

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max i a i f i
i = 1 F a i m i j r j j = 1 R
i = 1 F a i s i S

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