Abstract

In this paper, we propose a novel 1 to N optical power splitter and a 1 to N optical switch for a multi-core fiber (MCF) with N circularly aligned cores. The splitter and the switch are based on the multimode interference (MMI) effect inside a ring core fiber. The MMI effect will convert one image into N output images in the ring and therefore, the ring shape MMI coupler can act as a 1 to N power splitter. These images will have different phases. If two ring shape MMI couplers are used and a tunable phase shifter array and a fixed phase shifter array are placed between them, by properly setting the phases of the N images in the middle of the MMI couplers, the images will converge to one output port of the 2nd MMI coupler. The output port number can be changed by tuning the phase shifters. In this way, the input signal at one of the cores of the MCF can be switched to the other core, and a 1 to N switch can be realized. In the analysis, it is found that only one control parameter is required for the phase adjustment of the tunable phase shifter array in order to achieve the switching between the cores.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2015 (1)

2014 (1)

C. Brunet, B. Ung, P.-A. Bélanger, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Vector mode analysis of ring-core fibers: Design tools for spatial division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(23), 4648–4659 (2014).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (3)

2010 (1)

2009 (1)

Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: Proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(8), 522–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

X. Yang, Y. Yang, Q. Cai, Y. Zhao, A. Fang, W. Hu, and A. Xu, “Primary experiments on 2-D and 1-D fiber-type optical phased array,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 71363J (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Wang, J. Yang, L. Chen, X. Jiang, and M. Wang, “Optical switch based on multimode interference coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 421–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

1998 (1)

1992 (1)

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, and K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(15), 1754–1756 (1992).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

N. Kishi and E. Yamashita, “A simple coupled-mode analysis method for multiple-core optical fiber and coupled dielectric waveguide structures,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 36(12), 1861–1868 (1988).
[Crossref]

Akamatsu, T.

Arakawa, Y.

Bai, N.

Bélanger, P.-A.

C. Brunet, B. Ung, P.-A. Bélanger, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Vector mode analysis of ring-core fibers: Design tools for spatial division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(23), 4648–4659 (2014).
[Crossref]

Besse, P. A.

Birbeck, J. C. H.

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, and K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(15), 1754–1756 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brunet, C.

C. Brunet, B. Ung, P.-A. Bélanger, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Vector mode analysis of ring-core fibers: Design tools for spatial division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(23), 4648–4659 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cai, Q.

X. Yang, Y. Yang, Q. Cai, Y. Zhao, A. Fang, W. Hu, and A. Xu, “Primary experiments on 2-D and 1-D fiber-type optical phased array,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 71363J (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, L.

F. Wang, J. Yang, L. Chen, X. Jiang, and M. Wang, “Optical switch based on multimode interference coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 421–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eckner, J.

Fang, A.

X. Yang, Y. Yang, Q. Cai, Y. Zhao, A. Fang, W. Hu, and A. Xu, “Primary experiments on 2-D and 1-D fiber-type optical phased array,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 71363J (2008).
[Crossref]

Gamper, E.

Gupta, A. R.

Heaton, J. M.

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, and K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(15), 1754–1756 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hilton, K. P.

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, and K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(15), 1754–1756 (1992).
[Crossref]

Hu, W.

X. Yang, Y. Yang, Q. Cai, Y. Zhao, A. Fang, W. Hu, and A. Xu, “Primary experiments on 2-D and 1-D fiber-type optical phased array,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 71363J (2008).
[Crossref]

Ishida, I.

Jenkins, R. M.

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, and K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(15), 1754–1756 (1992).
[Crossref]

Jiang, X.

F. Wang, J. Yang, L. Chen, X. Jiang, and M. Wang, “Optical switch based on multimode interference coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 421–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kishi, N.

N. Kishi and E. Yamashita, “A simple coupled-mode analysis method for multiple-core optical fiber and coupled dielectric waveguide structures,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 36(12), 1861–1868 (1988).
[Crossref]

Kokubun, Y.

Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: Proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(8), 522–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

Koshiba, M.

Kosihba, M.

LaRochelle, S.

C. Brunet, B. Ung, P.-A. Bélanger, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Vector mode analysis of ring-core fibers: Design tools for spatial division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(23), 4648–4659 (2014).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

Li, G.

Matsuo, S.

Melchior, H.

Messaddeq, Y.

C. Brunet, B. Ung, P.-A. Bélanger, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Vector mode analysis of ring-core fibers: Design tools for spatial division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(23), 4648–4659 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nakayama, J.

Okuyama, K.

Ozdur, I.

Parker, J. T.

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, and K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(15), 1754–1756 (1992).
[Crossref]

Rusch, L. A.

C. Brunet, B. Ung, P.-A. Bélanger, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Vector mode analysis of ring-core fibers: Design tools for spatial division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(23), 4648–4659 (2014).
[Crossref]

Saitoh, F.

Saitoh, K.

Sasaki, Y.

Takenaga, K.

Tanigawa, S.

Tsutsumi, K.

Ung, B.

C. Brunet, B. Ung, P.-A. Bélanger, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Vector mode analysis of ring-core fibers: Design tools for spatial division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(23), 4648–4659 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

F. Wang, J. Yang, L. Chen, X. Jiang, and M. Wang, “Optical switch based on multimode interference coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 421–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

F. Wang, J. Yang, L. Chen, X. Jiang, and M. Wang, “Optical switch based on multimode interference coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 421–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wight, D. R.

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, and K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(15), 1754–1756 (1992).
[Crossref]

Xia, C.

Xu, A.

X. Yang, Y. Yang, Q. Cai, Y. Zhao, A. Fang, W. Hu, and A. Xu, “Primary experiments on 2-D and 1-D fiber-type optical phased array,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 71363J (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamashita, E.

N. Kishi and E. Yamashita, “A simple coupled-mode analysis method for multiple-core optical fiber and coupled dielectric waveguide structures,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 36(12), 1861–1868 (1988).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

F. Wang, J. Yang, L. Chen, X. Jiang, and M. Wang, “Optical switch based on multimode interference coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 421–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yang, X.

X. Yang, Y. Yang, Q. Cai, Y. Zhao, A. Fang, W. Hu, and A. Xu, “Primary experiments on 2-D and 1-D fiber-type optical phased array,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 71363J (2008).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y.

X. Yang, Y. Yang, Q. Cai, Y. Zhao, A. Fang, W. Hu, and A. Xu, “Primary experiments on 2-D and 1-D fiber-type optical phased array,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 71363J (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y.

X. Yang, Y. Yang, Q. Cai, Y. Zhao, A. Fang, W. Hu, and A. Xu, “Primary experiments on 2-D and 1-D fiber-type optical phased array,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 71363J (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, J.

Zhou, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. M. Heaton, R. M. Jenkins, D. R. Wight, J. T. Parker, J. C. H. Birbeck, and K. P. Hilton, “Novel 1-to-N way integrated optical beam splitters using symmetric mode mixing in GaAs/AlGaAs multimode waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61(15), 1754–1756 (1992).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Wang, J. Yang, L. Chen, X. Jiang, and M. Wang, “Optical switch based on multimode interference coupler,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 18(2), 421–423 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

N. Kishi and E. Yamashita, “A simple coupled-mode analysis method for multiple-core optical fiber and coupled dielectric waveguide structures,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 36(12), 1861–1868 (1988).
[Crossref]

IEICE Electron. Express (1)

Y. Kokubun and M. Koshiba, “Novel multi-core fibers for mode division multiplexing: Proposal and design principle,” IEICE Electron. Express 6(8), 522–528 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (2)

C. Brunet, B. Ung, P.-A. Bélanger, Y. Messaddeq, S. LaRochelle, and L. A. Rusch, “Vector mode analysis of ring-core fibers: Design tools for spatial division multiplexing,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(23), 4648–4659 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Leuthold, J. Eckner, E. Gamper, P. A. Besse, and H. Melchior, “Multimode interference couplers for the conversion and combining of zero- and first-order modes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 16(7), 1228–1239 (1998).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

Proc. SPIE (1)

X. Yang, Y. Yang, Q. Cai, Y. Zhao, A. Fang, W. Hu, and A. Xu, “Primary experiments on 2-D and 1-D fiber-type optical phased array,” Proc. SPIE 7136, 71363J (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

T. Watanabe, K. Suzuki, and T. Takahashi, “Silica-based PLC transponder aggregators for colorless, directionless, and contentionless ROADM,” Proc. of the OFC/NFOEC 2012, Paper OTh3D.1, Los Angeles, CA, USA, (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Hayashi, T. Taru, O. Shimakawa, T. Sasaki, and E. Sasaoka, “Ultra-low-crosstalk multi-core fiber feasible to ultra-long-haul transmission,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2011, OSA Technical Digest (CD) (Optical Society of America, 2011), paper PDPC2.
[Crossref]

K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, and R. Sugizaki, “19-core multi core fiber to realize high density space division multiplexing transmission,” Photonics Society Summer Topical Meeting Series, 2012 IEEE, 208–209 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Sakaguchi, B. J. Puttnam, W. Klaus, Y. Awaji, N. Wada, A. Kanno, T. Kawanishi, K. Imamura, H. Inaba, K. Mukasa, R. Sugizaki, T. Kobayashi, and M. Watanabe, “19-core fiber transmission of 19×100×172-Gb/s SDM-WDM-PDM-QPSK signals at 305Tb/s,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference and Exposition (OFC/NFOEC),2012and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, March 2012.
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (2)

NameDescription
» Visualization 1: MP4 (2578 KB)      Evolution of the beam amplitude in the ring core fiber
» Visualization 2: MP4 (9333 KB)      Evolution of the beam phase in the ring core fiber

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) cross section of the MMI device used for the power splitter and the optical switch (b) schematic of the power splitter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 input and output field of the MMI coupler and the evolution of the field inside the ring core fiber if the input is injected into the 0th input port (Visualization 1 and Visualization 2).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 the basic device structure of the proposed optical switch.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 the output of the switch when the input is injected into the 0th input port and the control number l varies from 0 to 3.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 the input and output signal amplitudes in the MCF before and after switching, the control number l is 0.

Equations (11)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

L N = 2 k a 2 π N
b = T a
T m n = exp ( j π 4 ) N exp ( j m 2 π N ) exp ( j 2 m n π N ) exp ( j n 2 π N ) m = 0 , , N 1 n = 0 , , N 1
exp ( j n 2 π N )
T m n = exp ( j π 4 ) N exp ( j 2 m n π N ) exp ( j m 2 π N )
n = 0 N 1 1 N exp ( j 2 m n π N ) exp ( j 2 m ' n π N ) = { 1 m ' = N m 0 m ' N m
( 0 , φ 0 , , n φ 0 , , ( N 1 ) φ 0 ) φ 0 = 2 π l N
V = k b n 2 2 n 1 2 V m = ( m 1 ) π 1 ρ
π 1 ρ < V = k b n 2 2 n 1 2 < 2 π 1 ρ
exp ( j 2 n 2 π N )
exp ( j 2 l n π N )

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