Abstract

The growth of a two-section, core-shell, InGaN/GaN quantum-well (QW) nanorod- (NR-) array light-emitting diode device based on a pulsed growth technique with metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is demonstrated. A two-section n-GaN NR is grown through a tapering process for forming two uniform NR sections of different cross-sectional sizes. The cathodoluminescence (CL), photoluminescence (PL), and electrolumines-cence (EL) characterization results of the two-section NR structure are compared with those of a single-section NR sample, which is prepared under the similar condition to that for the first uniform NR section of the two-section sample. All the CL, PL, and EL spectra of the two-section sample (peaked between 520 and 525 nm) are red-shifted from those of the single-section sample (peaked around 490 nm) by >30 nm in wavelength. Also, the emitted spectral widths of the two-section sample become significantly larger than their counterparts of the single-section sample. The PL spectral full-width at half-maximum increases from ~37 to ~61 nm. Such variations are attributed to the higher indium incorporation in the sidewall QWs of the two-section sample due to the stronger strain relaxation in an NR section of a smaller cross-sectional size and the more constituent atom supply from the larger gap volume between neighboring NRs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  21. Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
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2015 (1)

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, S. Y. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Lee, D. S. Lee, Y. Kato, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Highly ordered catalyst-free InGaN/GaN core–shell architecture arrays with expanded active area region,” Nano Energy 11, 294–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (6)

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. T. Lin, T. W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free GaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, Y. Kato, M. Imura, D. S. Lee, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Morphology development of GaN nanowires using a pulsed-mode MOCVD growth technique,” CrystEngComm 16(11), 2273–2282 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (3)

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T.-C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (4)

2011 (1)

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ahn, B.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amano, H.

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, S. Y. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Lee, D. S. Lee, Y. Kato, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Highly ordered catalyst-free InGaN/GaN core–shell architecture arrays with expanded active area region,” Nano Energy 11, 294–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, Y. Kato, M. Imura, D. S. Lee, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Morphology development of GaN nanowires using a pulsed-mode MOCVD growth technique,” CrystEngComm 16(11), 2273–2282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bae, S. Y.

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, S. Y. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Lee, D. S. Lee, Y. Kato, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Highly ordered catalyst-free InGaN/GaN core–shell architecture arrays with expanded active area region,” Nano Energy 11, 294–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, Y. Kato, M. Imura, D. S. Lee, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Morphology development of GaN nanowires using a pulsed-mode MOCVD growth technique,” CrystEngComm 16(11), 2273–2282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bergbauer, W.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butzen, E.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cao, W.

Chang, W. M.

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T.-C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, H. S.

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T.-C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, H. T.

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T.-C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, L. C.

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. C.

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, W. H.

Chen, Y. S.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Cherns, D.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Christiansen, S.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chung, W. L.

Chuo, C. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chyi, J. I.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dapkus, P. D.

Y. T. Lin, T. W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free GaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Lin, T. W. Yeh, and P. D. Dapkus, “Mechanism of selective area growth of GaN nanorods by pulsed mode metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dieker, C.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Fairchild, M.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feng, S. W.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Fündling, S.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Griffiths, I.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haab, A.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hardtdegen, H.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Heilmann, M.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hersee, S. D.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Honda, Y.

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, S. Y. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Lee, D. S. Lee, Y. Kato, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Highly ordered catalyst-free InGaN/GaN core–shell architecture arrays with expanded active area region,” Nano Energy 11, 294–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, Y. Kato, M. Imura, D. S. Lee, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Morphology development of GaN nanowires using a pulsed-mode MOCVD growth technique,” CrystEngComm 16(11), 2273–2282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, C.

Hsu, C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hsu, M. C.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T. C.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T.-C.

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T.-C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

Huang, J. J.

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Imura, M.

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, Y. Kato, M. Imura, D. S. Lee, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Morphology development of GaN nanowires using a pulsed-mode MOCVD growth technique,” CrystEngComm 16(11), 2273–2282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Jahn, U.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jung, B. O.

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, S. Y. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Lee, D. S. Lee, Y. Kato, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Highly ordered catalyst-free InGaN/GaN core–shell architecture arrays with expanded active area region,” Nano Energy 11, 294–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, Y. Kato, M. Imura, D. S. Lee, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Morphology development of GaN nanowires using a pulsed-mode MOCVD growth technique,” CrystEngComm 16(11), 2273–2282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kato, Y.

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, S. Y. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Lee, D. S. Lee, Y. Kato, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Highly ordered catalyst-free InGaN/GaN core–shell architecture arrays with expanded active area region,” Nano Energy 11, 294–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, Y. Kato, M. Imura, D. S. Lee, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Morphology development of GaN nanowires using a pulsed-mode MOCVD growth technique,” CrystEngComm 16(11), 2273–2282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kiang, Y. W.

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T.-C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, S. Y.

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, S. Y. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Lee, D. S. Lee, Y. Kato, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Highly ordered catalyst-free InGaN/GaN core–shell architecture arrays with expanded active area region,” Nano Energy 11, 294–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Kölper, Ch.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubota, M.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lähnemann, J.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ledig, J.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. M.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lee, D. S.

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, S. Y. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Lee, D. S. Lee, Y. Kato, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Highly ordered catalyst-free InGaN/GaN core–shell architecture arrays with expanded active area region,” Nano Energy 11, 294–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, Y. Kato, M. Imura, D. S. Lee, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Morphology development of GaN nanowires using a pulsed-mode MOCVD growth technique,” CrystEngComm 16(11), 2273–2282 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, S. Y. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Lee, D. S. Lee, Y. Kato, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Highly ordered catalyst-free InGaN/GaN core–shell architecture arrays with expanded active area region,” Nano Energy 11, 294–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, S. Y. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Lee, D. S. Lee, Y. Kato, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Highly ordered catalyst-free InGaN/GaN core–shell architecture arrays with expanded active area region,” Nano Energy 11, 294–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

Li, S. F.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liao, C. C.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liao, C. H.

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T.-C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. H.

Lin, Y. S.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y. T.

Y. T. Lin, T. W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free GaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. T. Lin, T. W. Yeh, and P. D. Dapkus, “Mechanism of selective area growth of GaN nanorods by pulsed mode metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Linder, N.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, T. C.

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, K. J.

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Mandl, M.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mohajerani, M. S.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nakajima, Y.

Y. T. Lin, T. W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free GaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nutt, S. R.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Brien, J. D.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ohta, H.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Riechert, H.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Roder, C.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarkissian, R.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shen, K. C.

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shiao, W. Y.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shih, P. Y.

Spiecker, E.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Steegmüller, U.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

Stewart, L. S.

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strassburg, M.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Su, C. Y.

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T.-C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sun, X.

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tanaka, T.

M. Kubota, K. Okamoto, T. Tanaka, and H. Ohta, “Temperature dependence of polarized photoluminescence from nonpolar m-plane InGaN multiple quantum wells for blue laser diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(1), 011920 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tang, T. Y.

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tessarek, C.

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ting, S. Y.

Trampert, A.

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tu, C. G.

Waag, A.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, X.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Wang, X. Sun, M. Fairchild, and S. D. Hersee, “Fabrication of GaN nanowire arrays by confined epitaxy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 233115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wehmann, H. H.

X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T.-C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Lin, K. J. Ma, C. Hsu, S. W. Feng, Y. C. Cheng, C. C. Liao, C. C. Yang, C. C. Chuo, C. M. Lee, and J. I. Chyi, “Dependence of composition fluctuation on indium content in InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(19), 2988 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yao, C. L.

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y. F.

C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, W. M. Chang, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, H. T. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. K. Yu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Dependencies of the emission behavior and quantum well structure of a regularly-patterned, InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod array on growth condition,” Opt. Express 22(14), 17303–17319 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Hsieh, C. H. Lin, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Phosphor-free, white-light LED under alternating-current operation,” Opt. Lett. 39(22), 6371–6374 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Tu, C. H. Liao, Y. F. Yao, H. S. Chen, C. H. Lin, C. Y. Su, P. Y. Shih, W. H. Chen, E. Zhu, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Regularly patterned non-polar InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Express 22(S7), A1799–A1809 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, C. H. Liao, C. G. Tu, C. Y. Su, W. M. Chang, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Light-emitting device with regularly patterned growth of an InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod light-emitting diode array,” Opt. Lett. 38(17), 3370–3373 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, H. S. Chen, C. G. Tu, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and T.-C. Hsu, “Cross-sectional sizes and emission wavelengths of regularly patterned GaN and core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum-well nanorod arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(5), 054315 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Chen, C. Hsieh, C. H. Liao, W. L. Chung, H. T. Chen, W. Cao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, Y. F. Yao, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, C. C. Yang, and X. Hu, “Effects of overgrown p-layer on the emission characteristics of the InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a high-indium light-emitting diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11321–11335 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Liao, W. M. Chang, H. S. Chen, C. Y. Chen, Y. F. Yao, H. T. Chen, C. Y. Su, S. Y. Ting, Y. W. Kiang, and C. C. Yang, “Geometry and composition comparisons between c-plane disc-like and m-plane core-shell InGaN/GaN quantum wells in a nitride nanorod,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15859–15871 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yeh, J. H.

T. Y. Tang, W. Y. Shiao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, J. J. Huang, S. Y. Ting, T. C. Liu, C. C. Yang, C. L. Yao, J. H. Yeh, T. C. Hsu, W. C. Chen, and L. C. Chen, “Coalescence overgrowth of GaN nanocolumns on sapphire with patterned metal organic vapor phase epitaxy,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(2), 023501 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. S. Chen, W. Y. Shiao, T. Y. Tang, W. M. Chang, C. H. Liao, C. H. Lin, K. C. Shen, C. C. Yang, M. C. Hsu, J. H. Yeh, and T. C. Hsu, “Threading dislocation evolution in patterned GaN nanocolumn growth and coalescence overgrowth,” J. Appl. Phys. 106(2), 023521 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yeh, T. W.

Y. T. Lin, T. W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free GaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Lin, T. W. Yeh, and P. D. Dapkus, “Mechanism of selective area growth of GaN nanorods by pulsed mode metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu, C. K.

Zhu, E.

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y. T. Lin, T. W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free GaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
[Crossref]

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Cryst. Growth Des. (2)

C. Tessarek, M. Heilmann, E. Butzen, A. Haab, H. Hardtdegen, C. Dieker, E. Spiecker, and S. Christiansen, “The role of Si during the growth of GaN micro- and nanorods,” Cryst. Growth Des. 14(3), 1486–1492 (2014).
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X. Wang, S. F. Li, M. S. Mohajerani, J. Ledig, H. H. Wehmann, M. Mandl, M. Strassburg, U. Steegmüller, U. Jahn, J. Lähnemann, H. Riechert, I. Griffiths, D. Cherns, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flow MOVPE of Ga-Polar GaN column arrays and core–shell LED structures,” Cryst. Growth Des. 13(8), 3475–3480 (2013).
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CrystEngComm (1)

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, Y. Kato, M. Imura, D. S. Lee, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Morphology development of GaN nanowires using a pulsed-mode MOCVD growth technique,” CrystEngComm 16(11), 2273–2282 (2014).
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J. Cryst. Growth (1)

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “N-face GaN nanorods: continuous-flux MOVPE growth and morphological properties,” J. Cryst. Growth 315(1), 164–167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nano Energy (1)

B. O. Jung, S. Y. Bae, S. Y. Kim, S. Lee, J. Y. Lee, D. S. Lee, Y. Kato, Y. Honda, and H. Amano, “Highly ordered catalyst-free InGaN/GaN core–shell architecture arrays with expanded active area region,” Nano Energy 11, 294–303 (2015).
[Crossref]

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S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Yeh, Y. T. Lin, L. S. Stewart, P. D. Dapkus, R. Sarkissian, J. D. O’Brien, B. Ahn, and S. R. Nutt, “InGaN/GaN multiple quantum wells grown on nonpolar facets of vertical GaN nanorod arrays,” Nano Lett. 12(6), 3257–3262 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanotechnology (2)

Y. T. Lin, T. W. Yeh, and P. D. Dapkus, “Mechanism of selective area growth of GaN nanorods by pulsed mode metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Nanotechnology 23(46), 465601 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Bergbauer, M. Strassburg, Ch. Kölper, N. Linder, C. Roder, J. Lähnemann, A. Trampert, S. Fündling, S. F. Li, H. H. Wehmann, and A. Waag, “Continuous-flux MOVPE growth of position-controlled N-face GaN nanorods and embedded InGaN quantum wells,” Nanotechnology 21(30), 305201 (2010).
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Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (2)

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a): Tilted SEM image of the n-GaN NR-core array of sample S. (b): Tilted SEM image of the NR-LED array of sample S. (c): Tilted SEM image of the NR-LED array of sample S after GaZnO deposition. (d)-(f): Similar to parts (a)-(c), respectively, except for sample T.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a): TEM image of an NR of LED sample T. Dashed lines are plotted to roughly indicate the boundaries of different materials. (b)-(d): Magnified TEM images in the regions indicated by the three dotted-line squares. Three QWs on the sidewalls of the two uniform NR sections are indicated by the (pink) arrows.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a): Cross-sectional SEM image of a QW-NR array of sample S with three locations for local CL spectral measurements being marked as 1-3. (b): CL spectra at locations 1-3, as marked in part (a), and the overall cross-sectional CL spectrum (labeled by “Cross-section”).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a): Cross-sectional SEM image of a QW-NR array of sample T with four locations for local CL spectral measurements being marked as 1-4. (b): CL spectra at locations 1-4, as marked in part (a), and the overall cross-sectional CL spectrum (labeled by “Cross-section”).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) and (b): Cross-sectional CL mapping images of samples S and T, respectively, overlaid on the individual cross-sectional SEM images.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 PL spectra of samples S and T at 10 and 300 K.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Variations of normalized PL intensity (the left ordinate) and PL spectral peak energy (the right ordinate) with temperature of the two QW-NR samples.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Relations between injected current density and applied voltage (J-V curves) of the two NR-LED samples. The insets show the photographs of lit devices of samples S and T when the applied voltage is 8 V.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Output intensities per unit active area as functions of injected current density of the two NR-LED samples.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Variations of normalized efficiency with injected current density of the two NR-LED samples.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Output spectra at two injected current densities (95 and 325 A/cm2) of the two NR-LED samples.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Output spectral peak wavelengths as functions of injected current density of the two NR-LED samples.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Variations of EL spectral FWHM with injected current density of the two NR-LED samples in terms of meV (nm) with the left (right) ordinate.

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