Abstract

We present a scheme for thermal stabilization of micro-ring resonator modulators through direct measurement of ring temperature using a monolithic PTAT temperature sensor. The measured temperature is used in a feedback loop to adjust the thermal tuner of the ring. The closed-loop feedback system is demonstrated to operate in presence of thermal perturbations at 20Gb/s.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
A high-speed, tunable silicon photonic ring modulator integrated with ultra-efficient active wavelength control

Xuezhe Zheng, Eric Chang, Philip Amberg, Ivan Shubin, Jon Lexau, Frankie Liu, Hiren Thacker, Stevan S. Djordjevic, Shiyun Lin, Ying Luo, Jin Yao, Jin-Hyoung Lee, Kannan Raj, Ron Ho, John E. Cunningham, and Ashok V. Krishnamoorthy
Opt. Express 22(10) 12628-12633 (2014)

Highly sensitive optical temperature sensor based on a SiN micro-ring resonator with liquid crystal cladding

Chun-Ta Wang, Cheng-Yu Wang, Jui-Hao Yu, I-Tun Kuo, Chih-Wei Tseng, Hung-Chang Jau, Yung-Jui Chen, and Tsung-Hsien Lin
Opt. Express 24(2) 1002-1007 (2016)

Resonance control of a silicon micro-ring resonator modulator under high-speed operation using the intrinsic defect-mediated photocurrent

Zhao Wang, Dixon Paez, Ahmed I. Abd El-Rahman, Peng Wang, Liam Dow, John C. Cartledge, and Andrew P. Knights
Opt. Express 25(20) 24827-24836 (2017)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” J. Solid-State Circ. 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power, high- performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2010 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Dong, S. Liao, H. Liang, W. Qian, X. Wang, R. Shafiiha, D. Feng, G. Li, X. Zheng, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High-speed and compact silicon modulator based on a racetrack resonator with a 1 V drive voltage,” Opt. Lett. 35(19), 3246–3248 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High speed carrier injection 18Gb/s silicon micro-ring electro-optic modulator,” in Proceedings of Laser and Electro-Optics Society (2007), pp. 537–538.
  5. M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicom microdisk modulators and switches,” in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE 2008), pp. 4–6.
  6. E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CM2M.1.
  7. W. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Bit-error-rate monitoring for active wavelength control of resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. C. Qiu, J. Shu, Z. Li, X. Zhang, and Q. Xu, “Wavelength tracking with thermally controlled silicon resonators,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5143–5148 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Control of integrated micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11279–11289 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. B. Guha, B. B. Kyotoku, and M. Lipson, “CMOS-compatible athermal silicon microring resonators,” Opt. Express 18(4), 3487–3493 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.
    [Crossref]
  12. Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, T. Pinguet, Z. Xuan, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon multi-project wafer platforms for optoelectronic system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 63– 65.
    [Crossref]
  13. J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, G. Li, J. Yao, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Highly-efficient thermally-tuned resonant optical filters,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19055–19063 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

2013 (1)

W. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Bit-error-rate monitoring for active wavelength control of resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

2010 (4)

Asghari, M.

Baehr-Jones, T.

Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, T. Pinguet, Z. Xuan, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon multi-project wafer platforms for optoelectronic system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 63– 65.
[Crossref]

Block, B. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” J. Solid-State Circ. 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, P. L.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” J. Solid-State Circ. 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cox, J. A.

Cunningham, J. E.

Ding, R.

Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, T. Pinguet, Z. Xuan, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon multi-project wafer platforms for optoelectronic system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 63– 65.
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

Feng, D.

Guha, B.

Hochberg, M.

Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, T. Pinguet, Z. Xuan, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon multi-project wafer platforms for optoelectronic system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 63– 65.
[Crossref]

Kern, A. M.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” J. Solid-State Circ. 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kyotoku, B. B.

Lentine, A. L.

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Control of integrated micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11279–11289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Bit-error-rate monitoring for active wavelength control of resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, Z.

Liang, H.

Liao, J. T.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” J. Solid-State Circ. 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Liao, S.

Lipson, M.

Luo, Y.

Mekis, A.

Mohammed, E.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” J. Solid-State Circ. 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Palermo, S.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” J. Solid-State Circ. 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

J. E. Cunningham, I. Shubin, X. Zheng, T. Pinguet, A. Mekis, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, G. Li, J. Yao, K. Raj, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Highly-efficient thermally-tuned resonant optical filters,” Opt. Express 18(18), 19055–19063 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, T. Pinguet, Z. Xuan, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon multi-project wafer platforms for optoelectronic system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 63– 65.
[Crossref]

Qian, W.

Qiu, C.

Raj, K.

Reshotko, M. R.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” J. Solid-State Circ. 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Shafiiha, R.

Shu, J.

Shubin, I.

Starbuck, A. L.

Thacker, H.

Trotter, D. C.

J. A. Cox, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and A. L. Starbuck, “Control of integrated micro-resonator wavelength via balanced homodyne locking,” Opt. Express 22(9), 11279–11289 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Bit-error-rate monitoring for active wavelength control of resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Watts, M. R.

W. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Bit-error-rate monitoring for active wavelength control of resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, Q.

Xuan, Z.

Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, T. Pinguet, Z. Xuan, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon multi-project wafer platforms for optoelectronic system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 63– 65.
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

Young, I. A.

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” J. Solid-State Circ. 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, T. Pinguet, Z. Xuan, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon multi-project wafer platforms for optoelectronic system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 63– 65.
[Crossref]

Zheng, X.

Zortman, W.

W. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Bit-error-rate monitoring for active wavelength control of resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Micro (1)

W. Zortman, A. L. Lentine, D. C. Trotter, and M. R. Watts, “Bit-error-rate monitoring for active wavelength control of resonant modulators,” IEEE Micro 33(1), 42–52 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Solid-State Circ. (1)

I. A. Young, E. Mohammed, J. T. Liao, A. M. Kern, S. Palermo, B. A. Block, M. R. Reshotko, and P. L. Chang, “Optical I/O technology for tera-scale computing,” J. Solid-State Circ. 45(1), 235–248 (2010).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Other (6)

G. Li, X. Zheng, J. Lexau, Y. Luo, H. Thacker, P. Dong, S. Liao, D. Feng, M. Asghari, J. Yao, J. Shi, P. Amberg, N. Pinckney, K. Raj, R. Ho, J. E. Cunningham, and A. V. Krishnamoorthy, “Ultralow-power, high- performance Si photonic transmitter,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, 2010 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper OMI2.
[Crossref]

S. Manipatruni, Q. Xu, B. Schmidt, J. Shakya, and M. Lipson, “High speed carrier injection 18Gb/s silicon micro-ring electro-optic modulator,” in Proceedings of Laser and Electro-Optics Society (2007), pp. 537–538.

M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Ultralow power silicom microdisk modulators and switches,” in Proceedings of 5th IEEE International Conference on Group IV Photonics (IEEE 2008), pp. 4–6.

E. Timurdogan, A. Biberman, D. C. Trotter, C. Sun, M. Moresco, V. Stojanovic, and M. R. Watts, “Automated wavelength recovery for microring resonators,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper CM2M.1.

C. T. DeRose, M. R. Watts, D. C. Trotter, D. L. Luck, G. N. Nielson, and R. W. Young, “Silicon microring modulator with integrated heater and temperature sensor for thermal control,” in Proceedings of Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (Optical Society of America, 2010), paper CThJ3.
[Crossref]

Y. Zhang, T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, T. Pinguet, Z. Xuan, and M. Hochberg, “Silicon multi-project wafer platforms for optoelectronic system integration,” in Proceedings of IEEE Group IV Photonics Conference (2012), pp. 63– 65.
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Proposed structure of ring resonator with integrated heater and PTAT temperature sensor.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Concept of a feedback loop to stabilize micro-ring’s temperature.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 COMSOL heat transfer simulations (a) Temperature uniformity across distributed PTAT sensor (b) Effect of temperature gradient due to heater on PTAT sensor.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Die micrograph of the fabricated micro-ring modulator with integrated heater and PTAT temperature sensor.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) DC static transmission of the micro-ring (b) Measured integrated heater tunability of the micro-ring (c) Measured PTAT voltage vs temperature (d) Measured micro-ring resonance wavelength vs temperature.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 High-speed optical response of the micro-ring (a) at 10Gb/s (b) at 20Gb/s.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 High-speed measurement setup with induced thermal fluctuations and temperature stabilization feedback loop.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Peltier heater/cooler supplied current over time (b) Closed loop integrated heater voltage and PTAT voltage (c) Output optical eye diagram without thermal tuning feedback (d) output eye diagram with thermal tuning feedback.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V D = nKT q ln( I D I S )
V D21 = V D2 V D1 = nKT q ( ln( I D2 I S2 )ln( I D1 I S1 ) )= nKT q ln(N I D2 I D1 )
V Heater =10000×( V PTAT 0.1403)=10000×( V D1 V D2 0.1403)

Metrics