Abstract

Fabrication and electrical and optical characterization of 4H-SiC Schottky UV photodetectors with nickel silicide interdigitated contacts is reported. Dark capacitance and current measurements as a function of applied voltage over the temperature range 20 °C – 120 °C are presented. The results show consistent performance among devices. Their leakage current density, at the highest investigated temperature (120 °C), is in the range of nA/cm2 at high internal electric field. Properties such as barrier height and ideality factor are also computed as a function of temperature. The responsivities of the diodes as functions of applied voltage were measured using a UV spectrophotometer in the wavelength range 200 nm - 380 nm and compared with theoretically calculated values. The devices had a mean peak responsivity of 0.093 A/W at 270 nm and −15 V reverse bias.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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  29. G. Brezeanu, F. Udrea, A. Mihaila, G. Amaratunga, J. Millan, P. Godignon, M. Badila, F. Draghici, C. Boianceanu, and M. Brezeanu, “Numerical and analytical study of 6H-SiC detectors with high UV performance,” in Proceedings of Semiconductor Conference, (2002), pp. 185–188.
    [Crossref]
  30. K. S. Park, “High quantum-efficiency 4H-SiC UV photodiode,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 30(1), 123–130 (1997).
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    [Crossref]
  32. A. Sciuto, M. Mazzillo, P. Badala, M. Scuderi, B. Carbone, and S. Coffa, “Thin metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(17), 1782–1785 (2014).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

R. J. Drost and B. M. Sadler, “Survey of ultraviolet non-line-of-sight communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084006 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Cai, X. Chen, R. Hong, W. Yang, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodiode and investigation of its capacitance characteristics,” Opt. Commun. 333(0), 182–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Sciuto, M. Mazzillo, P. Badala, M. Scuderi, B. Carbone, and S. Coffa, “Thin metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(17), 1782–1785 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

D. Prasai, W. John, L. Weixelbaum, O. Krüger, G. Wagner, P. Sperfeld, S. Nowy, D. Friedrich, S. Winter, and T. Weiss, “Highly reliable silicon carbide photodiodes for visible-blind ultraviolet detector applications,” J. Mater. Res. 28(01), 33–37 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

N. Watanabe, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “4H-SiC pn photodiodes with temperature-independent photoresponse up to 300 °C,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 094101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, A. Sciuto, G. Catania, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Temperature and light induced effects on the capacitance of 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1127–1130 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

G. Bertuccio, S. Caccia, D. Puglisi, and D. Macera, “Advances in silicon carbide X-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 193–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, M. E. Castagna, G. Catania, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Highly efficient low reverse biased 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for UV-light detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1782–1784 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Y. Cha and P. M. Sandvik, “Electrical and optical modeling of 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5423–5425 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

X. Chen, H. Zhu, J. Cai, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024505 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, S. Di Franco, V. Raineri, and G. Bonanno, “High responsivity 4H-SiC Schottky UV photodiodes based on the pinch-off surface effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081111 (2006).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, W. Yang, and Z. Wu, “Visible blind p-i-n ultraviolet photodetector fabricated on 4H-SiC,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(1), 104–106 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Hu, X. Xin, J. H. Zhao, F. Yan, B. Guan, J. Seely, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Highly sensitive visible-blind extreme ultraviolet Ni/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes with large detection area,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1591–1593 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1315–1320 (2004).

2003 (4)

J. L. Barth, C. S. Dyer, and E. G. Stassinopoulos, “Space, atmospheric, and terrestrial radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(3), 466–482 (2003).
[Crossref]

E. Monroy, F. Omnès, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Roccaforte, F. La Via, A. La Magna, S. Di Franco, and V. Raineri, “Silicon carbide pinch rectifiers using a dual-metal Ti-Ni2Si Schottky barrier,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(8), 1741–1747 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Roccaforte, F. La Via, V. Raineri, R. Pierobon, and E. Zanoni, “Richardson’s constant in inhomogeneous silicon carbide Schottky contacts,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9137–9144 (2003).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

S. G. Sridhara, R. P. Devaty, and W. J. Choyke, “Absorption coefficient of 4H silicon carbide from 3900 to 3250 Å,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(5), 2963–2964 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

K. S. Park, “High quantum-efficiency 4H-SiC UV photodiode,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 30(1), 123–130 (1997).

1996 (1)

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7433–7473 (1996).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

R. T. Tung, “Electron transport of inhomogeneous Schottky barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(24), 2821–2823 (1991).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

S. K. Cheung and N. W. Cheung, “Extraction of Schottky diode parameters from forward current‐voltage characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(2), 85–87 (1986).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

G. Gramberg, “Temperature dependence of space charge capacitance of silicon carbide diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 14(11), 1067–1070 (1971).
[Crossref]

Absil, P.

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Adamo, G.

G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
[Crossref]

Agro, D.

G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
[Crossref]

Amaratunga, G.

G. Brezeanu, F. Udrea, A. Mihaila, G. Amaratunga, J. Millan, P. Godignon, M. Badila, F. Draghici, C. Boianceanu, and M. Brezeanu, “Numerical and analytical study of 6H-SiC detectors with high UV performance,” in Proceedings of Semiconductor Conference, (2002), pp. 185–188.
[Crossref]

Ando, A.

G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
[Crossref]

Anil, K. G.

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Aslam, S.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1315–1320 (2004).

Badala, P.

A. Sciuto, M. Mazzillo, P. Badala, M. Scuderi, B. Carbone, and S. Coffa, “Thin metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(17), 1782–1785 (2014).
[Crossref]

Badila, M.

G. Brezeanu, F. Udrea, A. Mihaila, G. Amaratunga, J. Millan, P. Godignon, M. Badila, F. Draghici, C. Boianceanu, and M. Brezeanu, “Numerical and analytical study of 6H-SiC detectors with high UV performance,” in Proceedings of Semiconductor Conference, (2002), pp. 185–188.
[Crossref]

Barth, J. L.

J. L. Barth, C. S. Dyer, and E. G. Stassinopoulos, “Space, atmospheric, and terrestrial radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(3), 466–482 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bertuccio, G.

G. Bertuccio, S. Caccia, D. Puglisi, and D. Macera, “Advances in silicon carbide X-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 193–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

Biesemans, S.

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boianceanu, C.

G. Brezeanu, F. Udrea, A. Mihaila, G. Amaratunga, J. Millan, P. Godignon, M. Badila, F. Draghici, C. Boianceanu, and M. Brezeanu, “Numerical and analytical study of 6H-SiC detectors with high UV performance,” in Proceedings of Semiconductor Conference, (2002), pp. 185–188.
[Crossref]

Bonanno, G.

A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, S. Di Franco, V. Raineri, and G. Bonanno, “High responsivity 4H-SiC Schottky UV photodiodes based on the pinch-off surface effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081111 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brezeanu, G.

G. Brezeanu, F. Udrea, A. Mihaila, G. Amaratunga, J. Millan, P. Godignon, M. Badila, F. Draghici, C. Boianceanu, and M. Brezeanu, “Numerical and analytical study of 6H-SiC detectors with high UV performance,” in Proceedings of Semiconductor Conference, (2002), pp. 185–188.
[Crossref]

Brezeanu, M.

G. Brezeanu, F. Udrea, A. Mihaila, G. Amaratunga, J. Millan, P. Godignon, M. Badila, F. Draghici, C. Boianceanu, and M. Brezeanu, “Numerical and analytical study of 6H-SiC detectors with high UV performance,” in Proceedings of Semiconductor Conference, (2002), pp. 185–188.
[Crossref]

Busacca, A. C.

G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
[Crossref]

Caccia, S.

G. Bertuccio, S. Caccia, D. Puglisi, and D. Macera, “Advances in silicon carbide X-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 193–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cai, J.

J. Cai, X. Chen, R. Hong, W. Yang, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodiode and investigation of its capacitance characteristics,” Opt. Commun. 333(0), 182–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, H. Zhu, J. Cai, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Calle, F.

E. Monroy, F. Omnès, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
[Crossref]

Carbone, B.

A. Sciuto, M. Mazzillo, P. Badala, M. Scuderi, B. Carbone, and S. Coffa, “Thin metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(17), 1782–1785 (2014).
[Crossref]

Castagna, M. E.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, M. E. Castagna, G. Catania, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Highly efficient low reverse biased 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for UV-light detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1782–1784 (2009).
[Crossref]

Catania, G.

M. Mazzillo, A. Sciuto, G. Catania, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Temperature and light induced effects on the capacitance of 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1127–1130 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, M. E. Castagna, G. Catania, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Highly efficient low reverse biased 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for UV-light detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1782–1784 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cha, H. Y.

H. Y. Cha and P. M. Sandvik, “Electrical and optical modeling of 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5423–5425 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chen, X.

J. Cai, X. Chen, R. Hong, W. Yang, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodiode and investigation of its capacitance characteristics,” Opt. Commun. 333(0), 182–186 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, H. Zhu, J. Cai, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024505 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Chen, W. Yang, and Z. Wu, “Visible blind p-i-n ultraviolet photodetector fabricated on 4H-SiC,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(1), 104–106 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cheung, N. W.

S. K. Cheung and N. W. Cheung, “Extraction of Schottky diode parameters from forward current‐voltage characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(2), 85–87 (1986).
[Crossref]

Cheung, S. K.

S. K. Cheung and N. W. Cheung, “Extraction of Schottky diode parameters from forward current‐voltage characteristics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49(2), 85–87 (1986).
[Crossref]

Choyke, W. J.

S. G. Sridhara, R. P. Devaty, and W. J. Choyke, “Absorption coefficient of 4H silicon carbide from 3900 to 3250 Å,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(5), 2963–2964 (1998).
[Crossref]

Coffa, S.

A. Sciuto, M. Mazzillo, P. Badala, M. Scuderi, B. Carbone, and S. Coffa, “Thin metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(17), 1782–1785 (2014).
[Crossref]

Condorelli, G.

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, M. E. Castagna, G. Catania, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Highly efficient low reverse biased 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for UV-light detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1782–1784 (2009).
[Crossref]

Curcio, L.

G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
[Crossref]

Demeurisse, C.

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Devaty, R. P.

S. G. Sridhara, R. P. Devaty, and W. J. Choyke, “Absorption coefficient of 4H silicon carbide from 3900 to 3250 Å,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(5), 2963–2964 (1998).
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A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, S. Di Franco, V. Raineri, and G. Bonanno, “High responsivity 4H-SiC Schottky UV photodiodes based on the pinch-off surface effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081111 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Roccaforte, F. La Via, A. La Magna, S. Di Franco, and V. Raineri, “Silicon carbide pinch rectifiers using a dual-metal Ti-Ni2Si Schottky barrier,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(8), 1741–1747 (2003).
[Crossref]

Draghici, F.

G. Brezeanu, F. Udrea, A. Mihaila, G. Amaratunga, J. Millan, P. Godignon, M. Badila, F. Draghici, C. Boianceanu, and M. Brezeanu, “Numerical and analytical study of 6H-SiC detectors with high UV performance,” in Proceedings of Semiconductor Conference, (2002), pp. 185–188.
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Drost, R. J.

R. J. Drost and B. M. Sadler, “Survey of ultraviolet non-line-of-sight communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084006 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dyer, C. S.

J. L. Barth, C. S. Dyer, and E. G. Stassinopoulos, “Space, atmospheric, and terrestrial radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(3), 466–482 (2003).
[Crossref]

Fallica, G.

G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
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Franz, D.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1315–1320 (2004).

Friedrich, D.

D. Prasai, W. John, L. Weixelbaum, O. Krüger, G. Wagner, P. Sperfeld, S. Nowy, D. Friedrich, S. Winter, and T. Weiss, “Highly reliable silicon carbide photodiodes for visible-blind ultraviolet detector applications,” J. Mater. Res. 28(01), 33–37 (2013).
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Giaconia, C.

G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
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Godignon, P.

G. Brezeanu, F. Udrea, A. Mihaila, G. Amaratunga, J. Millan, P. Godignon, M. Badila, F. Draghici, C. Boianceanu, and M. Brezeanu, “Numerical and analytical study of 6H-SiC detectors with high UV performance,” in Proceedings of Semiconductor Conference, (2002), pp. 185–188.
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G. Gramberg, “Temperature dependence of space charge capacitance of silicon carbide diodes,” Solid-State Electron. 14(11), 1067–1070 (1971).
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Guan, B.

Hong, R.

J. Cai, X. Chen, R. Hong, W. Yang, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodiode and investigation of its capacitance characteristics,” Opt. Commun. 333(0), 182–186 (2014).
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Hu, J.

John, W.

D. Prasai, W. John, L. Weixelbaum, O. Krüger, G. Wagner, P. Sperfeld, S. Nowy, D. Friedrich, S. Winter, and T. Weiss, “Highly reliable silicon carbide photodiodes for visible-blind ultraviolet detector applications,” J. Mater. Res. 28(01), 33–37 (2013).
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Kimoto, T.

N. Watanabe, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “4H-SiC pn photodiodes with temperature-independent photoresponse up to 300 °C,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 094101 (2012).
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Kittl, J. A.

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

Krüger, O.

D. Prasai, W. John, L. Weixelbaum, O. Krüger, G. Wagner, P. Sperfeld, S. Nowy, D. Friedrich, S. Winter, and T. Weiss, “Highly reliable silicon carbide photodiodes for visible-blind ultraviolet detector applications,” J. Mater. Res. 28(01), 33–37 (2013).
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Kubicek, S.

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

La Magna, A.

F. Roccaforte, F. La Via, A. La Magna, S. Di Franco, and V. Raineri, “Silicon carbide pinch rectifiers using a dual-metal Ti-Ni2Si Schottky barrier,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(8), 1741–1747 (2003).
[Crossref]

La Via, F.

F. Roccaforte, F. La Via, A. La Magna, S. Di Franco, and V. Raineri, “Silicon carbide pinch rectifiers using a dual-metal Ti-Ni2Si Schottky barrier,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(8), 1741–1747 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Roccaforte, F. La Via, V. Raineri, R. Pierobon, and E. Zanoni, “Richardson’s constant in inhomogeneous silicon carbide Schottky contacts,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9137–9144 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lauwers, A.

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Macera, D.

G. Bertuccio, S. Caccia, D. Puglisi, and D. Macera, “Advances in silicon carbide X-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 193–196 (2011).
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Maex, K.

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
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A. Sciuto, M. Mazzillo, P. Badala, M. Scuderi, B. Carbone, and S. Coffa, “Thin metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(17), 1782–1785 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, A. Sciuto, G. Catania, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Temperature and light induced effects on the capacitance of 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1127–1130 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, M. E. Castagna, G. Catania, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Highly efficient low reverse biased 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for UV-light detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1782–1784 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for ultraviolet light detection,” in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, (2011), pp. 1642–1646.
[Crossref]

Mazzillo, M. C.

G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
[Crossref]

Mihaila, A.

G. Brezeanu, F. Udrea, A. Mihaila, G. Amaratunga, J. Millan, P. Godignon, M. Badila, F. Draghici, C. Boianceanu, and M. Brezeanu, “Numerical and analytical study of 6H-SiC detectors with high UV performance,” in Proceedings of Semiconductor Conference, (2002), pp. 185–188.
[Crossref]

Millan, J.

G. Brezeanu, F. Udrea, A. Mihaila, G. Amaratunga, J. Millan, P. Godignon, M. Badila, F. Draghici, C. Boianceanu, and M. Brezeanu, “Numerical and analytical study of 6H-SiC detectors with high UV performance,” in Proceedings of Semiconductor Conference, (2002), pp. 185–188.
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Monroy, E.

E. Monroy, F. Omnès, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
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D. Prasai, W. John, L. Weixelbaum, O. Krüger, G. Wagner, P. Sperfeld, S. Nowy, D. Friedrich, S. Winter, and T. Weiss, “Highly reliable silicon carbide photodiodes for visible-blind ultraviolet detector applications,” J. Mater. Res. 28(01), 33–37 (2013).
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E. Monroy, F. Omnès, and F. Calle, “Wide-bandgap semiconductor ultraviolet photodetectors,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 18(4), R33–R51 (2003).
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J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Parisi, A.

G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
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J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pierobon, R.

F. Roccaforte, F. La Via, V. Raineri, R. Pierobon, and E. Zanoni, “Richardson’s constant in inhomogeneous silicon carbide Schottky contacts,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9137–9144 (2003).
[Crossref]

Prasai, D.

D. Prasai, W. John, L. Weixelbaum, O. Krüger, G. Wagner, P. Sperfeld, S. Nowy, D. Friedrich, S. Winter, and T. Weiss, “Highly reliable silicon carbide photodiodes for visible-blind ultraviolet detector applications,” J. Mater. Res. 28(01), 33–37 (2013).
[Crossref]

Puglisi, D.

G. Bertuccio, S. Caccia, D. Puglisi, and D. Macera, “Advances in silicon carbide X-ray detectors,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 652(1), 193–196 (2011).
[Crossref]

Raineri, V.

M. Mazzillo, A. Sciuto, G. Catania, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Temperature and light induced effects on the capacitance of 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1127–1130 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, M. E. Castagna, G. Catania, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Highly efficient low reverse biased 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for UV-light detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1782–1784 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, S. Di Franco, V. Raineri, and G. Bonanno, “High responsivity 4H-SiC Schottky UV photodiodes based on the pinch-off surface effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081111 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Roccaforte, F. La Via, V. Raineri, R. Pierobon, and E. Zanoni, “Richardson’s constant in inhomogeneous silicon carbide Schottky contacts,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9137–9144 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Roccaforte, F. La Via, A. La Magna, S. Di Franco, and V. Raineri, “Silicon carbide pinch rectifiers using a dual-metal Ti-Ni2Si Schottky barrier,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(8), 1741–1747 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for ultraviolet light detection,” in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, (2011), pp. 1642–1646.
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Razeghi, M.

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7433–7473 (1996).
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Roccaforte, F.

M. Mazzillo, A. Sciuto, G. Catania, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Temperature and light induced effects on the capacitance of 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1127–1130 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, M. E. Castagna, G. Catania, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Highly efficient low reverse biased 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for UV-light detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1782–1784 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, S. Di Franco, V. Raineri, and G. Bonanno, “High responsivity 4H-SiC Schottky UV photodiodes based on the pinch-off surface effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081111 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Roccaforte, F. La Via, V. Raineri, R. Pierobon, and E. Zanoni, “Richardson’s constant in inhomogeneous silicon carbide Schottky contacts,” J. Appl. Phys. 93(11), 9137–9144 (2003).
[Crossref]

F. Roccaforte, F. La Via, A. La Magna, S. Di Franco, and V. Raineri, “Silicon carbide pinch rectifiers using a dual-metal Ti-Ni2Si Schottky barrier,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 50(8), 1741–1747 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for ultraviolet light detection,” in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, (2011), pp. 1642–1646.
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Rogalski, A.

M. Razeghi and A. Rogalski, “Semiconductor ultraviolet detectors,” J. Appl. Phys. 79(10), 7433–7473 (1996).
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Sadler, B. M.

R. J. Drost and B. M. Sadler, “Survey of ultraviolet non-line-of-sight communications,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 29(8), 084006 (2014).
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H. Y. Cha and P. M. Sandvik, “Electrical and optical modeling of 4H-SiC avalanche photodiodes,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(7), 5423–5425 (2008).
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G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
[Crossref]

Sciuto, A.

A. Sciuto, M. Mazzillo, P. Badala, M. Scuderi, B. Carbone, and S. Coffa, “Thin metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(17), 1782–1785 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, A. Sciuto, G. Catania, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Temperature and light induced effects on the capacitance of 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Sens. J. 12(5), 1127–1130 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, G. Condorelli, M. E. Castagna, G. Catania, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “Highly efficient low reverse biased 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for UV-light detection,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(23), 1782–1784 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, S. Di Franco, V. Raineri, and G. Bonanno, “High responsivity 4H-SiC Schottky UV photodiodes based on the pinch-off surface effect,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(8), 081111 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Mazzillo, A. Sciuto, F. Roccaforte, and V. Raineri, “4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes for ultraviolet light detection,” in IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference, (2011), pp. 1642–1646.
[Crossref]

Scuderi, M.

A. Sciuto, M. Mazzillo, P. Badala, M. Scuderi, B. Carbone, and S. Coffa, “Thin metal film Ni2Si/4H-SiC vertical Schottky photodiodes,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(17), 1782–1785 (2014).
[Crossref]

Seely, J.

Sperfeld, P.

D. Prasai, W. John, L. Weixelbaum, O. Krüger, G. Wagner, P. Sperfeld, S. Nowy, D. Friedrich, S. Winter, and T. Weiss, “Highly reliable silicon carbide photodiodes for visible-blind ultraviolet detector applications,” J. Mater. Res. 28(01), 33–37 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sridhara, S. G.

S. G. Sridhara, R. P. Devaty, and W. J. Choyke, “Absorption coefficient of 4H silicon carbide from 3900 to 3250 Å,” J. Appl. Phys. 84(5), 2963–2964 (1998).
[Crossref]

Stassinopoulos, E. G.

J. L. Barth, C. S. Dyer, and E. G. Stassinopoulos, “Space, atmospheric, and terrestrial radiation environments,” IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci. 50(3), 466–482 (2003).
[Crossref]

Stivala, S.

G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
[Crossref]

Suda, J.

N. Watanabe, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “4H-SiC pn photodiodes with temperature-independent photoresponse up to 300 °C,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 094101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tomasino, A.

G. Adamo, D. Agro, S. Stivala, A. Parisi, L. Curcio, A. Ando, A. Tomasino, C. Giaconia, A. C. Busacca, M. C. Mazzillo, D. Sanfilippo, and G. Fallica, “Responsivity measurements of silicon carbide Schottky photodiodes in the UV range,” in Third Mediterranean Photonics Conference, (IEEE, 2014), pp. 1–3
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R. T. Tung, “Electron transport of inhomogeneous Schottky barriers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58(24), 2821–2823 (1991).
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G. Brezeanu, F. Udrea, A. Mihaila, G. Amaratunga, J. Millan, P. Godignon, M. Badila, F. Draghici, C. Boianceanu, and M. Brezeanu, “Numerical and analytical study of 6H-SiC detectors with high UV performance,” in Proceedings of Semiconductor Conference, (2002), pp. 185–188.
[Crossref]

van Dal, M. J. H.

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Veloso, A.

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
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Vrancken, C.

J. A. Kittl, M. A. Pawlak, A. Lauwers, C. Demeurisse, K. Opsomer, K. G. Anil, C. Vrancken, M. J. H. van Dal, A. Veloso, S. Kubicek, P. Absil, K. Maex, and S. Biesemans, “Work function of Ni Silicide phases on HfSiON and SiO2: NiSi, Ni2Si, Ni31Si12, and Ni3Si fully silicided gates,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 27(1), 34–36 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wagner, G.

D. Prasai, W. John, L. Weixelbaum, O. Krüger, G. Wagner, P. Sperfeld, S. Nowy, D. Friedrich, S. Winter, and T. Weiss, “Highly reliable silicon carbide photodiodes for visible-blind ultraviolet detector applications,” J. Mater. Res. 28(01), 33–37 (2013).
[Crossref]

Watanabe, N.

N. Watanabe, T. Kimoto, and J. Suda, “4H-SiC pn photodiodes with temperature-independent photoresponse up to 300 °C,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(9), 094101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Weiner, M.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1315–1320 (2004).

Weiss, T.

D. Prasai, W. John, L. Weixelbaum, O. Krüger, G. Wagner, P. Sperfeld, S. Nowy, D. Friedrich, S. Winter, and T. Weiss, “Highly reliable silicon carbide photodiodes for visible-blind ultraviolet detector applications,” J. Mater. Res. 28(01), 33–37 (2013).
[Crossref]

Weixelbaum, L.

D. Prasai, W. John, L. Weixelbaum, O. Krüger, G. Wagner, P. Sperfeld, S. Nowy, D. Friedrich, S. Winter, and T. Weiss, “Highly reliable silicon carbide photodiodes for visible-blind ultraviolet detector applications,” J. Mater. Res. 28(01), 33–37 (2013).
[Crossref]

Winter, S.

D. Prasai, W. John, L. Weixelbaum, O. Krüger, G. Wagner, P. Sperfeld, S. Nowy, D. Friedrich, S. Winter, and T. Weiss, “Highly reliable silicon carbide photodiodes for visible-blind ultraviolet detector applications,” J. Mater. Res. 28(01), 33–37 (2013).
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Wu, Z.

J. Cai, X. Chen, R. Hong, W. Yang, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodiode and investigation of its capacitance characteristics,” Opt. Commun. 333(0), 182–186 (2014).
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X. Chen, H. Zhu, J. Cai, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based ultraviolet p-i-n photodetector,” J. Appl. Phys. 102(2), 024505 (2007).
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X. Chen, W. Yang, and Z. Wu, “Visible blind p-i-n ultraviolet photodetector fabricated on 4H-SiC,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(1), 104–106 (2006).
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Yan, F.

J. Hu, X. Xin, J. H. Zhao, F. Yan, B. Guan, J. Seely, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Highly sensitive visible-blind extreme ultraviolet Ni/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes with large detection area,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1591–1593 (2006).
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J. Cai, X. Chen, R. Hong, W. Yang, and Z. Wu, “High-performance 4H-SiC-based p-i-n ultraviolet photodiode and investigation of its capacitance characteristics,” Opt. Commun. 333(0), 182–186 (2014).
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J. Hu, X. Xin, J. H. Zhao, F. Yan, B. Guan, J. Seely, and B. Kjornrattanawanich, “Highly sensitive visible-blind extreme ultraviolet Ni/4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes with large detection area,” Opt. Lett. 31(11), 1591–1593 (2006).
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Zhao, Y.

F. Yan, X. Xin, S. Aslam, Y. Zhao, D. Franz, J. H. Zhao, and M. Weiner, “4H-SiC UV photo detectors with large area and very high specific detectivity,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 40(9), 1315–1320 (2004).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode (a) layout top view and (b) a schematic side drawing.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Capacitance – Voltage characteristics measured at a temperature of 20 °C for the four 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes, D1 – D4, as a function of (a) reverse and (b) forward bias.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Forward (a) and reverse (b) Capacitance – Voltage measurements as a function of temperature (20 °C - 120 °C) for a representative diode (D3).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The effective doping density for a representative diode as determined by Capacitance-Voltage measurements at 20 °C (filled circles) and 120 °C ( × symbol).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Current as a function of applied forward bias at a temperature of 20 °C for the four 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes (D1 – D4).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Forward IV characteristics measured for diode D4 in the temperature range 20 °C – 120 °C.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Barrier height (filled circles) and ideality factor (stars) extracted from forward current – voltage measurements using the Cheung method in the temperature range 20 °C – 120 °C for D4.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured leakage current as a function of applied reverse bias for the four 4H-SiC Schottky photodiodes, when measured at a temperature of 20 °C.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Measured leakage current as a function of applied reverse bias for a representative 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode, D4, in the temperature range 20 °C - 120 °C.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Measured current density of a SiC Schottky photodiode as a function of temperature at three electric fields.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Responsivity as a function of wavelength (210 nm to 380 nm) measured for each 4H-SiC Schottky photodiode, D1 – D4, at room temperature when biased at 0 V.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Theoretical (crosses) and measured photoresponsivity for D1 (open triangles), D2 (open squares), D3 (open circles) and D4 (open diamonds) as a function of applied reverse bias, at room temperature.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Photoresponsivity spectra measured with representative diode D2 at room temperatureat reverse biases of 0 V (filled circles); 5 V (open squares); 10 V (filled triangles) and 15 V (open diamonds).

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

W= A ε s C
N eff = 2 q  ε s A 2 d( 1 C 2 ) dV  
ϕ B = kT q ln( S A * T 2 I s )
  Q E int =( 1 e αW 1+α L p )
QE=T× f geo ×Q E int
T=  4 n SiC n 0 ( n SiC + n 0 ) 2
QE=R×1.24/λ

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