Abstract

Low dark current (off-current) and high photo current are both essential for a solution processed organic photodetector (OPD) to achieve high photo-responsivity. Currently, most OPDs utilize a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) photo-active layer that is prepared by the one-step deposition of a polymer:fullerene blend solution. However, the BHJ structure is the main cause of the high dark current in solution processed OPDs. It is revealed that the detectivity and spectral responsivity of the OPD can be improved by utilizing a photo-active layer consisting of an interdiffused polymer/fullerene bilayer (ID-BL). This ID-BL is prepared by the sequential solution deposition (SqD) of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) and [6,6] phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) solutions. The ID-BL OPD is found to prevent undesirable electron injection from the hole-collecting electrode to the ID-BL photo-active layer resulting in a reduced dark current in the ID-BL OPD. Based on dark current and external quantum efficiency (EQE) analysis, the detectivity of the ID-BL OPD is determined to be 7.60 × 1011 Jones at 620 nm. This value is 3.4 times higher than that of BHJ OPDs. Furthermore, compared to BHJ OPDs, the ID-BL OPD exhibited a more consistent spectral response in the range of 400 – 660 nm.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]

2015 (2)

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient organic photovoltaics utilizing nanoscale heterojunctions in sequentially deposited polymer/fullerene bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Couto, S. Chambon, C. Aymonier, E. Mignard, B. Pavageau, A. Erriguible, and S. Marre, “Microfluidic supercritical antisolvent continuous processing and direct spray-coating of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanoparticles for OFET devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(6), 1008–1011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

Y. J. Kim, C. E. Park, and D. S. Chung, “Interface engineering of a highly sensitive solution processed organic photodiode,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(34), 18472–18477 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Jin and J. Wang, “PIN architecture for ultrasensitive organic thin film photoconductors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5331 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. H. Kim, J. Mei, A. L. Ayzner, K. Schmidt, G. Giri, A. L. Appleton, M. F. Toney, and Z. Bao, “Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(3), 1103 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Reduced bimolecular charge recombination loss in thermally annealed bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic devices with large external quantum efficiency and fill factor,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(10), 5196–5202 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Lin, J. Seok, S. Yoon, T. Kim, B. Kim, and K. Kim, “Morphological investigation of P3HT/PCBM heterojunction and its effects on the performance of bilayer organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 196, 145–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, R. C. Huber, A. S. Ferreira, S. D. Boyd, C. K. Luscombe, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Crystallinity effects in sequentially processed and blend-cast bulk-heterojunction polymer/fullerene photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(32), 18424–18435 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

Y.-S. Kim, T. Kim, B. Kim, D.-K. Lee, H. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and K. Kim, “Transient photovoltage and dark current analysis on enhanced open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells with hole blocking TiO2 nanoparticle interfacial layer,” Org. Elec. 14(7), 1749–1754 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Arca, S. F. Tedde, M. Sramek, J. Rauh, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Interface trap states in organic photodiodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1324 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

S. Valouch, C. Hönes, S. W. Kettlitz, N. Christ, H. Do, M. F. Klein, H. Kalt, A. Colsmann, and U. Lemmer, “Solution processed small molecule organic interfacial layers for low dark current polymer photodiodes,” Org. Elec. 13(11), 2727–2732 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, H. Wang, T. Yang, W. Zhang, and X. Gong, “Solution-processed ultrasensitive polymer photodetectors with high external quantum efficiency and detectivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(7), 3701–3705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Rochester, S. A. Mauger, and A. J. Moulé, “Investigating the morphology of polymer/fullerene layers coated using orthogonal solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(13), 7287–7292 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

D. Chen, A. Nakahara, D. Wei, D. Nordlund, and T. P. Russell, “P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics: correlating efficiency and morphology,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 561–567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Sarasqueta, K. R. Choudhury, J. Subbiah, and F. So, “Organic and inorganic blocking layers for solution-processed colloidal PbSe nanocrystal infrared photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(1), 167–171 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (3)

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer− fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. F. Tedde, J. Kern, T. Sterzl, J. Fürst, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Fully spray coated organic photodiodes,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 980–983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. Ramuz, L. Bürgi, C. Winnewisser, and P. Seitz, “High sensitivity organic photodiodes with low dark currents and increased lifetimes,” Org. Elec. 9(3), 369–376 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, “Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1551–1566 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

B. C. O’Regan, K. Bakker, J. Kroeze, H. Smit, P. Sommeling, and J. R. Durrant, “Measuring charge transport from transient photovoltage rise times. A new tool to investigate electron transport in nanoparticle films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17155–17160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kim, J. Liu, and D. L. Carroll, “Thermal diffusion processes in bulk heterojunction formation for poly-3-hexylthiophene/C 60 single heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181911 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (3)

B. C. O’Regan, S. Scully, A. C. Mayer, E. Palomares, and J. Durrant, “The effect of Al2O3 barrier layers in TiO2/dye/CuSCN photovoltaic cells explored by recombination and DOS characterization using transient photovoltage measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(10), 4616–4623 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. von Hauff, V. Dyakonov, and J. Parisi, “Study of field effect mobility in PCBM films and P3HT:PCBM blends,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1-4), 149–156 (2005).
[Crossref]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

N. Duffy, L. Peter, R. Rajapakse, and K. Wijayantha, “A novel charge extraction method for the study of electron transport and interfacial transfer in dye sensitised nanocrystalline solar cells,” Electrochem. Commun. 2(9), 658–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

M. Sundberg, O. Inganäs, S. Stafström, G. Gustafsson, and B. Sjögren, “Optical absorption of poly (3-alkylthiophenes) at low temperatures,” Solid State Commun. 71(6), 435–439 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

C. W. Tang, “Two‐layer organic photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(2), 183–185 (1986).
[Crossref]

Aljada, M.

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appleton, A. L.

D. H. Kim, J. Mei, A. L. Ayzner, K. Schmidt, G. Giri, A. L. Appleton, M. F. Toney, and Z. Bao, “Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(3), 1103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Arca, F.

F. Arca, S. F. Tedde, M. Sramek, J. Rauh, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Interface trap states in organic photodiodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1324 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aymonier, C.

R. Couto, S. Chambon, C. Aymonier, E. Mignard, B. Pavageau, A. Erriguible, and S. Marre, “Microfluidic supercritical antisolvent continuous processing and direct spray-coating of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanoparticles for OFET devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(6), 1008–1011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ayzner, A. L.

D. H. Kim, J. Mei, A. L. Ayzner, K. Schmidt, G. Giri, A. L. Appleton, M. F. Toney, and Z. Bao, “Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(3), 1103 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer− fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bakker, K.

B. C. O’Regan, K. Bakker, J. Kroeze, H. Smit, P. Sommeling, and J. R. Durrant, “Measuring charge transport from transient photovoltage rise times. A new tool to investigate electron transport in nanoparticle films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17155–17160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balfour, M. N.

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bao, Z.

D. H. Kim, J. Mei, A. L. Ayzner, K. Schmidt, G. Giri, A. L. Appleton, M. F. Toney, and Z. Bao, “Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(3), 1103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bechgaard, K.

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Blom, P. W. M.

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, “Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1551–1566 (2007).
[Crossref]

Borthwick, R. J.

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Boyd, S. D.

G. Zhang, R. C. Huber, A. S. Ferreira, S. D. Boyd, C. K. Luscombe, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Crystallinity effects in sequentially processed and blend-cast bulk-heterojunction polymer/fullerene photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(32), 18424–18435 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brown, P.

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bürgi, L.

M. Ramuz, L. Bürgi, C. Winnewisser, and P. Seitz, “High sensitivity organic photodiodes with low dark currents and increased lifetimes,” Org. Elec. 9(3), 369–376 (2008).
[Crossref]

Burn, P. L.

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cai, W.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carroll, D. L.

K. Kim, J. Liu, and D. L. Carroll, “Thermal diffusion processes in bulk heterojunction formation for poly-3-hexylthiophene/C 60 single heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181911 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cavaye, H.

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chambon, S.

R. Couto, S. Chambon, C. Aymonier, E. Mignard, B. Pavageau, A. Erriguible, and S. Marre, “Microfluidic supercritical antisolvent continuous processing and direct spray-coating of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanoparticles for OFET devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(6), 1008–1011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, A. Nakahara, D. Wei, D. Nordlund, and T. P. Russell, “P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics: correlating efficiency and morphology,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 561–567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cho, C.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient organic photovoltaics utilizing nanoscale heterojunctions in sequentially deposited polymer/fullerene bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choudhury, K. R.

G. Sarasqueta, K. R. Choudhury, J. Subbiah, and F. So, “Organic and inorganic blocking layers for solution-processed colloidal PbSe nanocrystal infrared photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(1), 167–171 (2011).
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Christ, N.

S. Valouch, C. Hönes, S. W. Kettlitz, N. Christ, H. Do, M. F. Klein, H. Kalt, A. Colsmann, and U. Lemmer, “Solution processed small molecule organic interfacial layers for low dark current polymer photodiodes,” Org. Elec. 13(11), 2727–2732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chung, D. S.

Y. J. Kim, C. E. Park, and D. S. Chung, “Interface engineering of a highly sensitive solution processed organic photodiode,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(34), 18472–18477 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Colsmann, A.

S. Valouch, C. Hönes, S. W. Kettlitz, N. Christ, H. Do, M. F. Klein, H. Kalt, A. Colsmann, and U. Lemmer, “Solution processed small molecule organic interfacial layers for low dark current polymer photodiodes,” Org. Elec. 13(11), 2727–2732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Couto, R.

R. Couto, S. Chambon, C. Aymonier, E. Mignard, B. Pavageau, A. Erriguible, and S. Marre, “Microfluidic supercritical antisolvent continuous processing and direct spray-coating of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanoparticles for OFET devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(6), 1008–1011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Leeuw, D. M.

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Do, H.

S. Valouch, C. Hönes, S. W. Kettlitz, N. Christ, H. Do, M. F. Klein, H. Kalt, A. Colsmann, and U. Lemmer, “Solution processed small molecule organic interfacial layers for low dark current polymer photodiodes,” Org. Elec. 13(11), 2727–2732 (2012).
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Duffy, N.

N. Duffy, L. Peter, R. Rajapakse, and K. Wijayantha, “A novel charge extraction method for the study of electron transport and interfacial transfer in dye sensitised nanocrystalline solar cells,” Electrochem. Commun. 2(9), 658–662 (2000).
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Durrant, J.

B. C. O’Regan, S. Scully, A. C. Mayer, E. Palomares, and J. Durrant, “The effect of Al2O3 barrier layers in TiO2/dye/CuSCN photovoltaic cells explored by recombination and DOS characterization using transient photovoltage measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(10), 4616–4623 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Durrant, J. R.

B. C. O’Regan, K. Bakker, J. Kroeze, H. Smit, P. Sommeling, and J. R. Durrant, “Measuring charge transport from transient photovoltage rise times. A new tool to investigate electron transport in nanoparticle films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17155–17160 (2006).
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Dyakonov, V.

E. von Hauff, V. Dyakonov, and J. Parisi, “Study of field effect mobility in PCBM films and P3HT:PCBM blends,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1-4), 149–156 (2005).
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Emery, K.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[Crossref]

Erriguible, A.

R. Couto, S. Chambon, C. Aymonier, E. Mignard, B. Pavageau, A. Erriguible, and S. Marre, “Microfluidic supercritical antisolvent continuous processing and direct spray-coating of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanoparticles for OFET devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(6), 1008–1011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferreira, A. S.

G. Zhang, R. C. Huber, A. S. Ferreira, S. D. Boyd, C. K. Luscombe, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Crystallinity effects in sequentially processed and blend-cast bulk-heterojunction polymer/fullerene photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(32), 18424–18435 (2014).
[Crossref]

Friend, R.

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Fürst, J.

S. F. Tedde, J. Kern, T. Sterzl, J. Fürst, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Fully spray coated organic photodiodes,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 980–983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gentle, I. R.

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Giri, G.

D. H. Kim, J. Mei, A. L. Ayzner, K. Schmidt, G. Giri, A. L. Appleton, M. F. Toney, and Z. Bao, “Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(3), 1103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gong, X.

X. Liu, H. Wang, T. Yang, W. Zhang, and X. Gong, “Solution-processed ultrasensitive polymer photodetectors with high external quantum efficiency and detectivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(7), 3701–3705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gustafsson, G.

M. Sundberg, O. Inganäs, S. Stafström, G. Gustafsson, and B. Sjögren, “Optical absorption of poly (3-alkylthiophenes) at low temperatures,” Solid State Commun. 71(6), 435–439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Hayden, O.

F. Arca, S. F. Tedde, M. Sramek, J. Rauh, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Interface trap states in organic photodiodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1324 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Tedde, J. Kern, T. Sterzl, J. Fürst, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Fully spray coated organic photodiodes,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 980–983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Heeger, A. J.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herwig, P.

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Hönes, C.

S. Valouch, C. Hönes, S. W. Kettlitz, N. Christ, H. Do, M. F. Klein, H. Kalt, A. Colsmann, and U. Lemmer, “Solution processed small molecule organic interfacial layers for low dark current polymer photodiodes,” Org. Elec. 13(11), 2727–2732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Reduced bimolecular charge recombination loss in thermally annealed bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic devices with large external quantum efficiency and fill factor,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(10), 5196–5202 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huber, R. C.

G. Zhang, R. C. Huber, A. S. Ferreira, S. D. Boyd, C. K. Luscombe, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Crystallinity effects in sequentially processed and blend-cast bulk-heterojunction polymer/fullerene photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(32), 18424–18435 (2014).
[Crossref]

Inganäs, O.

M. Sundberg, O. Inganäs, S. Stafström, G. Gustafsson, and B. Sjögren, “Optical absorption of poly (3-alkylthiophenes) at low temperatures,” Solid State Commun. 71(6), 435–439 (1989).
[Crossref]

James, M.

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Janssen, R. A.

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jin, Z.

Z. Jin and J. Wang, “PIN architecture for ultrasensitive organic thin film photoconductors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5331 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ju, B.-K.

Y.-S. Kim, T. Kim, B. Kim, D.-K. Lee, H. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and K. Kim, “Transient photovoltage and dark current analysis on enhanced open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells with hole blocking TiO2 nanoparticle interfacial layer,” Org. Elec. 14(7), 1749–1754 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kalt, H.

S. Valouch, C. Hönes, S. W. Kettlitz, N. Christ, H. Do, M. F. Klein, H. Kalt, A. Colsmann, and U. Lemmer, “Solution processed small molecule organic interfacial layers for low dark current polymer photodiodes,” Org. Elec. 13(11), 2727–2732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kern, J.

S. F. Tedde, J. Kern, T. Sterzl, J. Fürst, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Fully spray coated organic photodiodes,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 980–983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kettlitz, S. W.

S. Valouch, C. Hönes, S. W. Kettlitz, N. Christ, H. Do, M. F. Klein, H. Kalt, A. Colsmann, and U. Lemmer, “Solution processed small molecule organic interfacial layers for low dark current polymer photodiodes,” Org. Elec. 13(11), 2727–2732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kim, B.

X. Lin, J. Seok, S. Yoon, T. Kim, B. Kim, and K. Kim, “Morphological investigation of P3HT/PCBM heterojunction and its effects on the performance of bilayer organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 196, 145–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Kim, T. Kim, B. Kim, D.-K. Lee, H. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and K. Kim, “Transient photovoltage and dark current analysis on enhanced open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells with hole blocking TiO2 nanoparticle interfacial layer,” Org. Elec. 14(7), 1749–1754 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

D. H. Kim, J. Mei, A. L. Ayzner, K. Schmidt, G. Giri, A. L. Appleton, M. F. Toney, and Z. Bao, “Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(3), 1103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, H.

Y.-S. Kim, T. Kim, B. Kim, D.-K. Lee, H. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and K. Kim, “Transient photovoltage and dark current analysis on enhanced open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells with hole blocking TiO2 nanoparticle interfacial layer,” Org. Elec. 14(7), 1749–1754 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient organic photovoltaics utilizing nanoscale heterojunctions in sequentially deposited polymer/fullerene bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Lin, J. Seok, S. Yoon, T. Kim, B. Kim, and K. Kim, “Morphological investigation of P3HT/PCBM heterojunction and its effects on the performance of bilayer organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 196, 145–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Kim, T. Kim, B. Kim, D.-K. Lee, H. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and K. Kim, “Transient photovoltage and dark current analysis on enhanced open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells with hole blocking TiO2 nanoparticle interfacial layer,” Org. Elec. 14(7), 1749–1754 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Kim, J. Liu, and D. L. Carroll, “Thermal diffusion processes in bulk heterojunction formation for poly-3-hexylthiophene/C 60 single heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181911 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. H.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient organic photovoltaics utilizing nanoscale heterojunctions in sequentially deposited polymer/fullerene bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.

X. Lin, J. Seok, S. Yoon, T. Kim, B. Kim, and K. Kim, “Morphological investigation of P3HT/PCBM heterojunction and its effects on the performance of bilayer organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 196, 145–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Kim, T. Kim, B. Kim, D.-K. Lee, H. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and K. Kim, “Transient photovoltage and dark current analysis on enhanced open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells with hole blocking TiO2 nanoparticle interfacial layer,” Org. Elec. 14(7), 1749–1754 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y. J.

Y. J. Kim, C. E. Park, and D. S. Chung, “Interface engineering of a highly sensitive solution processed organic photodiode,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(34), 18472–18477 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y.-S.

Y.-S. Kim, T. Kim, B. Kim, D.-K. Lee, H. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and K. Kim, “Transient photovoltage and dark current analysis on enhanced open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells with hole blocking TiO2 nanoparticle interfacial layer,” Org. Elec. 14(7), 1749–1754 (2013).
[Crossref]

Klein, M. F.

S. Valouch, C. Hönes, S. W. Kettlitz, N. Christ, H. Do, M. F. Klein, H. Kalt, A. Colsmann, and U. Lemmer, “Solution processed small molecule organic interfacial layers for low dark current polymer photodiodes,” Org. Elec. 13(11), 2727–2732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Koster, L. J. A.

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, “Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1551–1566 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kroeze, J.

B. C. O’Regan, K. Bakker, J. Kroeze, H. Smit, P. Sommeling, and J. R. Durrant, “Measuring charge transport from transient photovoltage rise times. A new tool to investigate electron transport in nanoparticle films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17155–17160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Langeveld-Voss, B.

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, D.-K.

Y.-S. Kim, T. Kim, B. Kim, D.-K. Lee, H. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and K. Kim, “Transient photovoltage and dark current analysis on enhanced open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells with hole blocking TiO2 nanoparticle interfacial layer,” Org. Elec. 14(7), 1749–1754 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. Y.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient organic photovoltaics utilizing nanoscale heterojunctions in sequentially deposited polymer/fullerene bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, K. H.

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lemmer, U.

S. Valouch, C. Hönes, S. W. Kettlitz, N. Christ, H. Do, M. F. Klein, H. Kalt, A. Colsmann, and U. Lemmer, “Solution processed small molecule organic interfacial layers for low dark current polymer photodiodes,” Org. Elec. 13(11), 2727–2732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.

X. Lin, J. Seok, S. Yoon, T. Kim, B. Kim, and K. Kim, “Morphological investigation of P3HT/PCBM heterojunction and its effects on the performance of bilayer organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 196, 145–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.

K. Kim, J. Liu, and D. L. Carroll, “Thermal diffusion processes in bulk heterojunction formation for poly-3-hexylthiophene/C 60 single heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181911 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

X. Liu, H. Wang, T. Yang, W. Zhang, and X. Gong, “Solution-processed ultrasensitive polymer photodetectors with high external quantum efficiency and detectivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(7), 3701–3705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lugli, P.

F. Arca, S. F. Tedde, M. Sramek, J. Rauh, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Interface trap states in organic photodiodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1324 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Tedde, J. Kern, T. Sterzl, J. Fürst, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Fully spray coated organic photodiodes,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 980–983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luscombe, C. K.

G. Zhang, R. C. Huber, A. S. Ferreira, S. D. Boyd, C. K. Luscombe, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Crystallinity effects in sequentially processed and blend-cast bulk-heterojunction polymer/fullerene photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(32), 18424–18435 (2014).
[Crossref]

Markov, D. E.

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, “Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1551–1566 (2007).
[Crossref]

Marre, S.

R. Couto, S. Chambon, C. Aymonier, E. Mignard, B. Pavageau, A. Erriguible, and S. Marre, “Microfluidic supercritical antisolvent continuous processing and direct spray-coating of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanoparticles for OFET devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(6), 1008–1011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mauger, S. A.

C. W. Rochester, S. A. Mauger, and A. J. Moulé, “Investigating the morphology of polymer/fullerene layers coated using orthogonal solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(13), 7287–7292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mayer, A. C.

B. C. O’Regan, S. Scully, A. C. Mayer, E. Palomares, and J. Durrant, “The effect of Al2O3 barrier layers in TiO2/dye/CuSCN photovoltaic cells explored by recombination and DOS characterization using transient photovoltage measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(10), 4616–4623 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mei, J.

D. H. Kim, J. Mei, A. L. Ayzner, K. Schmidt, G. Giri, A. L. Appleton, M. F. Toney, and Z. Bao, “Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(3), 1103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Meijer, E.

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Meredith, P.

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Mignard, E.

R. Couto, S. Chambon, C. Aymonier, E. Mignard, B. Pavageau, A. Erriguible, and S. Marre, “Microfluidic supercritical antisolvent continuous processing and direct spray-coating of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanoparticles for OFET devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(6), 1008–1011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mihailetchi, V. D.

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, “Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1551–1566 (2007).
[Crossref]

Moon, J. S.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moriarty, T.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moulé, A. J.

C. W. Rochester, S. A. Mauger, and A. J. Moulé, “Investigating the morphology of polymer/fullerene layers coated using orthogonal solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(13), 7287–7292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakahara, A.

D. Chen, A. Nakahara, D. Wei, D. Nordlund, and T. P. Russell, “P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics: correlating efficiency and morphology,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 561–567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nielsen, M. M.

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nilsson, B.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nordlund, D.

D. Chen, A. Nakahara, D. Wei, D. Nordlund, and T. P. Russell, “P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics: correlating efficiency and morphology,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 561–567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O’Regan, B. C.

B. C. O’Regan, K. Bakker, J. Kroeze, H. Smit, P. Sommeling, and J. R. Durrant, “Measuring charge transport from transient photovoltage rise times. A new tool to investigate electron transport in nanoparticle films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17155–17160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. O’Regan, S. Scully, A. C. Mayer, E. Palomares, and J. Durrant, “The effect of Al2O3 barrier layers in TiO2/dye/CuSCN photovoltaic cells explored by recombination and DOS characterization using transient photovoltage measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(10), 4616–4623 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Palomares, E.

B. C. O’Regan, S. Scully, A. C. Mayer, E. Palomares, and J. Durrant, “The effect of Al2O3 barrier layers in TiO2/dye/CuSCN photovoltaic cells explored by recombination and DOS characterization using transient photovoltage measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(10), 4616–4623 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Parisi, J.

E. von Hauff, V. Dyakonov, and J. Parisi, “Study of field effect mobility in PCBM films and P3HT:PCBM blends,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1-4), 149–156 (2005).
[Crossref]

Park, C. E.

Y. J. Kim, C. E. Park, and D. S. Chung, “Interface engineering of a highly sensitive solution processed organic photodiode,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(34), 18472–18477 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, S.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient organic photovoltaics utilizing nanoscale heterojunctions in sequentially deposited polymer/fullerene bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pavageau, B.

R. Couto, S. Chambon, C. Aymonier, E. Mignard, B. Pavageau, A. Erriguible, and S. Marre, “Microfluidic supercritical antisolvent continuous processing and direct spray-coating of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanoparticles for OFET devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(6), 1008–1011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peter, L.

N. Duffy, L. Peter, R. Rajapakse, and K. Wijayantha, “A novel charge extraction method for the study of electron transport and interfacial transfer in dye sensitised nanocrystalline solar cells,” Electrochem. Commun. 2(9), 658–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rajapakse, R.

N. Duffy, L. Peter, R. Rajapakse, and K. Wijayantha, “A novel charge extraction method for the study of electron transport and interfacial transfer in dye sensitised nanocrystalline solar cells,” Electrochem. Commun. 2(9), 658–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Ramuz, M.

M. Ramuz, L. Bürgi, C. Winnewisser, and P. Seitz, “High sensitivity organic photodiodes with low dark currents and increased lifetimes,” Org. Elec. 9(3), 369–376 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rauh, J.

F. Arca, S. F. Tedde, M. Sramek, J. Rauh, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Interface trap states in organic photodiodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1324 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rochester, C. W.

C. W. Rochester, S. A. Mauger, and A. J. Moulé, “Investigating the morphology of polymer/fullerene layers coated using orthogonal solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(13), 7287–7292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Russell, T. P.

D. Chen, A. Nakahara, D. Wei, D. Nordlund, and T. P. Russell, “P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics: correlating efficiency and morphology,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 561–567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarasqueta, G.

G. Sarasqueta, K. R. Choudhury, J. Subbiah, and F. So, “Organic and inorganic blocking layers for solution-processed colloidal PbSe nanocrystal infrared photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(1), 167–171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, K.

D. H. Kim, J. Mei, A. L. Ayzner, K. Schmidt, G. Giri, A. L. Appleton, M. F. Toney, and Z. Bao, “Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(3), 1103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schwartz, B. J.

G. Zhang, R. C. Huber, A. S. Ferreira, S. D. Boyd, C. K. Luscombe, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Crystallinity effects in sequentially processed and blend-cast bulk-heterojunction polymer/fullerene photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(32), 18424–18435 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer− fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scully, S.

B. C. O’Regan, S. Scully, A. C. Mayer, E. Palomares, and J. Durrant, “The effect of Al2O3 barrier layers in TiO2/dye/CuSCN photovoltaic cells explored by recombination and DOS characterization using transient photovoltage measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(10), 4616–4623 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Seitz, P.

M. Ramuz, L. Bürgi, C. Winnewisser, and P. Seitz, “High sensitivity organic photodiodes with low dark currents and increased lifetimes,” Org. Elec. 9(3), 369–376 (2008).
[Crossref]

Seok, J.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient organic photovoltaics utilizing nanoscale heterojunctions in sequentially deposited polymer/fullerene bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Lin, J. Seok, S. Yoon, T. Kim, B. Kim, and K. Kim, “Morphological investigation of P3HT/PCBM heterojunction and its effects on the performance of bilayer organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 196, 145–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shaw, P. E.

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shieh, C.-L.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shin, T. J.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient organic photovoltaics utilizing nanoscale heterojunctions in sequentially deposited polymer/fullerene bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shrotriya, V.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sirringhaus, H.

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sjögren, B.

M. Sundberg, O. Inganäs, S. Stafström, G. Gustafsson, and B. Sjögren, “Optical absorption of poly (3-alkylthiophenes) at low temperatures,” Solid State Commun. 71(6), 435–439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Smit, H.

B. C. O’Regan, K. Bakker, J. Kroeze, H. Smit, P. Sommeling, and J. R. Durrant, “Measuring charge transport from transient photovoltage rise times. A new tool to investigate electron transport in nanoparticle films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17155–17160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

So, F.

G. Sarasqueta, K. R. Choudhury, J. Subbiah, and F. So, “Organic and inorganic blocking layers for solution-processed colloidal PbSe nanocrystal infrared photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(1), 167–171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sommeling, P.

B. C. O’Regan, K. Bakker, J. Kroeze, H. Smit, P. Sommeling, and J. R. Durrant, “Measuring charge transport from transient photovoltage rise times. A new tool to investigate electron transport in nanoparticle films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17155–17160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiering, A.

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sramek, M.

F. Arca, S. F. Tedde, M. Sramek, J. Rauh, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Interface trap states in organic photodiodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1324 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stafström, S.

M. Sundberg, O. Inganäs, S. Stafström, G. Gustafsson, and B. Sjögren, “Optical absorption of poly (3-alkylthiophenes) at low temperatures,” Solid State Commun. 71(6), 435–439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Sterzl, T.

S. F. Tedde, J. Kern, T. Sterzl, J. Fürst, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Fully spray coated organic photodiodes,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 980–983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Subbiah, J.

G. Sarasqueta, K. R. Choudhury, J. Subbiah, and F. So, “Organic and inorganic blocking layers for solution-processed colloidal PbSe nanocrystal infrared photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(1), 167–171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sundberg, M.

M. Sundberg, O. Inganäs, S. Stafström, G. Gustafsson, and B. Sjögren, “Optical absorption of poly (3-alkylthiophenes) at low temperatures,” Solid State Commun. 71(6), 435–439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang, “Two‐layer organic photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(2), 183–185 (1986).
[Crossref]

Tao, C.

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Tassone, C. J.

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer− fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[Crossref]

Tedde, S. F.

F. Arca, S. F. Tedde, M. Sramek, J. Rauh, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Interface trap states in organic photodiodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1324 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. F. Tedde, J. Kern, T. Sterzl, J. Fürst, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Fully spray coated organic photodiodes,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 980–983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tolbert, S. H.

G. Zhang, R. C. Huber, A. S. Ferreira, S. D. Boyd, C. K. Luscombe, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Crystallinity effects in sequentially processed and blend-cast bulk-heterojunction polymer/fullerene photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(32), 18424–18435 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer− fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[Crossref]

Toney, M. F.

D. H. Kim, J. Mei, A. L. Ayzner, K. Schmidt, G. Giri, A. L. Appleton, M. F. Toney, and Z. Bao, “Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(3), 1103 (2014).
[Crossref]

Tong, M.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Valouch, S.

S. Valouch, C. Hönes, S. W. Kettlitz, N. Christ, H. Do, M. F. Klein, H. Kalt, A. Colsmann, and U. Lemmer, “Solution processed small molecule organic interfacial layers for low dark current polymer photodiodes,” Org. Elec. 13(11), 2727–2732 (2012).
[Crossref]

von Hauff, E.

E. von Hauff, V. Dyakonov, and J. Parisi, “Study of field effect mobility in PCBM films and P3HT:PCBM blends,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1-4), 149–156 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

X. Liu, H. Wang, T. Yang, W. Zhang, and X. Gong, “Solution-processed ultrasensitive polymer photodetectors with high external quantum efficiency and detectivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(7), 3701–3705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

Z. Jin and J. Wang, “PIN architecture for ultrasensitive organic thin film photoconductors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5331 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wei, D.

D. Chen, A. Nakahara, D. Wei, D. Nordlund, and T. P. Russell, “P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics: correlating efficiency and morphology,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 561–567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wijayantha, K.

N. Duffy, L. Peter, R. Rajapakse, and K. Wijayantha, “A novel charge extraction method for the study of electron transport and interfacial transfer in dye sensitised nanocrystalline solar cells,” Electrochem. Commun. 2(9), 658–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Winnewisser, C.

M. Ramuz, L. Bürgi, C. Winnewisser, and P. Seitz, “High sensitivity organic photodiodes with low dark currents and increased lifetimes,” Org. Elec. 9(3), 369–376 (2008).
[Crossref]

Xia, Y.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, B.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Reduced bimolecular charge recombination loss in thermally annealed bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic devices with large external quantum efficiency and fill factor,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(10), 5196–5202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yang, T.

X. Liu, H. Wang, T. Yang, W. Zhang, and X. Gong, “Solution-processed ultrasensitive polymer photodetectors with high external quantum efficiency and detectivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(7), 3701–3705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Y.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yeol Ryu, D.

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient organic photovoltaics utilizing nanoscale heterojunctions in sequentially deposited polymer/fullerene bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yoon, S.

X. Lin, J. Seok, S. Yoon, T. Kim, B. Kim, and K. Kim, “Morphological investigation of P3HT/PCBM heterojunction and its effects on the performance of bilayer organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 196, 145–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yu, G.

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yuan, Y.

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Reduced bimolecular charge recombination loss in thermally annealed bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic devices with large external quantum efficiency and fill factor,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(10), 5196–5202 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, G.

G. Zhang, R. C. Huber, A. S. Ferreira, S. D. Boyd, C. K. Luscombe, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Crystallinity effects in sequentially processed and blend-cast bulk-heterojunction polymer/fullerene photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(32), 18424–18435 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhang, W.

X. Liu, H. Wang, T. Yang, W. Zhang, and X. Gong, “Solution-processed ultrasensitive polymer photodetectors with high external quantum efficiency and detectivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(7), 3701–3705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

X. Liu, H. Wang, T. Yang, W. Zhang, and X. Gong, “Solution-processed ultrasensitive polymer photodetectors with high external quantum efficiency and detectivity,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(7), 3701–3705 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Energy Mater. (1)

C. Tao, M. Aljada, P. E. Shaw, K. H. Lee, H. Cavaye, M. N. Balfour, R. J. Borthwick, M. James, P. L. Burn, I. R. Gentle, and P. Meredith, “Controlling hierarchy in solution-processed polymer solar cells based on crosslinked P3HT,” Adv. Energy Mater. 3(1), 105–112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

G. Sarasqueta, K. R. Choudhury, J. Subbiah, and F. So, “Organic and inorganic blocking layers for solution-processed colloidal PbSe nanocrystal infrared photodetectors,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(1), 167–171 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

P. W. M. Blom, V. D. Mihailetchi, L. J. A. Koster, and D. E. Markov, “Device physics of polymer:fullerene bulk heterojunction solar cells,” Adv. Mater. 19(12), 1551–1566 (2007).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. W. Tang, “Two‐layer organic photovoltaic cell,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(2), 183–185 (1986).
[Crossref]

K. Kim, J. Liu, and D. L. Carroll, “Thermal diffusion processes in bulk heterojunction formation for poly-3-hexylthiophene/C 60 single heterojunction photovoltaics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(18), 181911 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chem. Commun. (Camb.) (1)

R. Couto, S. Chambon, C. Aymonier, E. Mignard, B. Pavageau, A. Erriguible, and S. Marre, “Microfluidic supercritical antisolvent continuous processing and direct spray-coating of poly(3-hexylthiophene) nanoparticles for OFET devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 51(6), 1008–1011 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Electrochem. Commun. (1)

N. Duffy, L. Peter, R. Rajapakse, and K. Wijayantha, “A novel charge extraction method for the study of electron transport and interfacial transfer in dye sensitised nanocrystalline solar cells,” Electrochem. Commun. 2(9), 658–662 (2000).
[Crossref]

Energy Environ. Sci. (1)

D. H. Kim, J. Mei, A. L. Ayzner, K. Schmidt, G. Giri, A. L. Appleton, M. F. Toney, and Z. Bao, “Sequentially solution-processed, nanostructured polymer photovoltaics using selective solvents,” Energy Environ. Sci. 7(3), 1103 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Chem. B (2)

B. C. O’Regan, K. Bakker, J. Kroeze, H. Smit, P. Sommeling, and J. R. Durrant, “Measuring charge transport from transient photovoltage rise times. A new tool to investigate electron transport in nanoparticle films,” J. Phys. Chem. B 110(34), 17155–17160 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. C. O’Regan, S. Scully, A. C. Mayer, E. Palomares, and J. Durrant, “The effect of Al2O3 barrier layers in TiO2/dye/CuSCN photovoltaic cells explored by recombination and DOS characterization using transient photovoltage measurements,” J. Phys. Chem. B 109(10), 4616–4623 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Phys. Chem. C (4)

B. Yang, Y. Yuan, and J. Huang, “Reduced bimolecular charge recombination loss in thermally annealed bilayer heterojunction photovoltaic devices with large external quantum efficiency and fill factor,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(10), 5196–5202 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Zhang, R. C. Huber, A. S. Ferreira, S. D. Boyd, C. K. Luscombe, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Crystallinity effects in sequentially processed and blend-cast bulk-heterojunction polymer/fullerene photovoltaics,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(32), 18424–18435 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. L. Ayzner, C. J. Tassone, S. H. Tolbert, and B. J. Schwartz, “Reappraising the need for bulk heterojunctions in polymer− fullerene photovoltaics: the role of carrier transport in all-solution-processed P3HT/PCBM bilayer solar cells,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(46), 20050–20060 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. W. Rochester, S. A. Mauger, and A. J. Moulé, “Investigating the morphology of polymer/fullerene layers coated using orthogonal solvents,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(13), 7287–7292 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (2)

S. F. Tedde, J. Kern, T. Sterzl, J. Fürst, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Fully spray coated organic photodiodes,” Nano Lett. 9(3), 980–983 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Chen, A. Nakahara, D. Wei, D. Nordlund, and T. P. Russell, “P3HT/PCBM bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaics: correlating efficiency and morphology,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 561–567 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

G. Li, V. Shrotriya, J. Huang, Y. Yao, T. Moriarty, K. Emery, and Y. Yang, “High-efficiency solution processable polymer photovoltaic cells by self-organization of polymer blends,” Nat. Mater. 4(11), 864–868 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

H. Sirringhaus, P. Brown, R. Friend, M. M. Nielsen, K. Bechgaard, B. Langeveld-Voss, A. Spiering, R. A. Janssen, E. Meijer, P. Herwig, and D. M. de Leeuw, “Two-dimensional charge transport in self-organized, high-mobility conjugated polymers,” Nature 401(6754), 685–688 (1999).
[Crossref]

Org. Elec. (3)

M. Ramuz, L. Bürgi, C. Winnewisser, and P. Seitz, “High sensitivity organic photodiodes with low dark currents and increased lifetimes,” Org. Elec. 9(3), 369–376 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Valouch, C. Hönes, S. W. Kettlitz, N. Christ, H. Do, M. F. Klein, H. Kalt, A. Colsmann, and U. Lemmer, “Solution processed small molecule organic interfacial layers for low dark current polymer photodiodes,” Org. Elec. 13(11), 2727–2732 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y.-S. Kim, T. Kim, B. Kim, D.-K. Lee, H. Kim, B.-K. Ju, and K. Kim, “Transient photovoltage and dark current analysis on enhanced open-circuit voltage of polymer solar cells with hole blocking TiO2 nanoparticle interfacial layer,” Org. Elec. 14(7), 1749–1754 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. (1)

Y. J. Kim, C. E. Park, and D. S. Chung, “Interface engineering of a highly sensitive solution processed organic photodiode,” Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 16(34), 18472–18477 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sci. Rep. (3)

Z. Jin and J. Wang, “PIN architecture for ultrasensitive organic thin film photoconductors,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5331 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Seok, T. J. Shin, S. Park, C. Cho, J. Y. Lee, D. Yeol Ryu, M. H. Kim, and K. Kim, “Efficient organic photovoltaics utilizing nanoscale heterojunctions in sequentially deposited polymer/fullerene bilayer,” Sci. Rep. 5, 8373 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Arca, S. F. Tedde, M. Sramek, J. Rauh, P. Lugli, and O. Hayden, “Interface trap states in organic photodiodes,” Sci. Rep. 3, 1324 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Science (1)

X. Gong, M. Tong, Y. Xia, W. Cai, J. S. Moon, Y. Cao, G. Yu, C.-L. Shieh, B. Nilsson, and A. J. Heeger, “High-detectivity polymer photodetectors with spectral response from 300 nm to 1450 nm,” Science 325(5948), 1665–1667 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells (1)

E. von Hauff, V. Dyakonov, and J. Parisi, “Study of field effect mobility in PCBM films and P3HT:PCBM blends,” Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 87(1-4), 149–156 (2005).
[Crossref]

Solid State Commun. (1)

M. Sundberg, O. Inganäs, S. Stafström, G. Gustafsson, and B. Sjögren, “Optical absorption of poly (3-alkylthiophenes) at low temperatures,” Solid State Commun. 71(6), 435–439 (1989).
[Crossref]

Synth. Met. (1)

X. Lin, J. Seok, S. Yoon, T. Kim, B. Kim, and K. Kim, “Morphological investigation of P3HT/PCBM heterojunction and its effects on the performance of bilayer organic solar cells,” Synth. Met. 196, 145–150 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

A. R. Jha, Infrared Technology (Wiley, 2000), pp. 245–359.

P. Bhattacharya, Semiconductor Optoelectronics Device (Prentice-Hall, 1997), pp. 345–367.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Chemical structures of P3HT and PCBM; (b) energy band diagram of active materials, TiO2 and electrodes; and (c) device structures of OPD utilizing OSD (left) or SqD (right) photo-active layer.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) UV-vis. absorption spectra; (b) Normalized UV-vis. absorption spectra of OSD and SqD films.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Semi-log plots of J-V characteristics of devices utilizing OSD (black line), SqD60 (red line), SqD40 (green line), and SqD20 (blue line) active layers; and (b) the thickness dependence of on/off current ratios for OSD OPD (square) and SqD OPD (circle) at −1V (solid) or −3V (open).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematic representation of active layer morphologies in (a) OSD; (b) SqD20; and (c) SqD40 or SqD60 structures.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Transient photovoltage results of OSD OPD (square) and SqD40 OPD (circle) (a) charge lifetime vs. charge density; and (b) recombination rate vs. charge density.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 EQE spectra for (a) OSD; (b) SqD60; (c) SqD40; (d) SqD20. Each sample was measure at short circuit, −1V and −3 V reverse bias.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 (a) Responsivity; (b) calculated detectivity; and (c) linear dynamic range of OSD OPD (square) and SqD40 OPD (circle).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Film thickness, photocurrent density, dark current density, on/off current ratio and shunt resistance of OPDs.

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Table 2 Responsivity of OPDs to blue, green and red lights.

Equations (2)

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R= J ph / L light
D*=R/ ( 2q J d ) 1/2 =( J ph / L light )/ ( 2q J d ) 1/2

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