Abstract

In this paper, in contrast with previously reported approaches, we suggest exploiting a microcavity effect using nanoparticles to improve the optical efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes (OLED). The method to input the nanoparticles inside the OLED device is simple and cost effective by virtue of employing a solution process using a spin coating fabrication method. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles were used to improve the reflection by its high refractive index. In tandem with optimized heights of the organic layers, the increased light reflectance at the anode side, which includes the TiO2 nanoparticle layer, improved the optical efficiency of the OLED device via the microcavity effect. In order to prove that the enhancement of the optical efficiency was due to an enhanced microcavity effect caused by TiO2 nanoparticles, a microcavity simulation was conducted. The electrical characteristics were not affected by the nanoparticles and a clear pixel image was maintained. The results in this paper show that a nanoparticle based microcavity effect can be exploited to enhance the optical efficiency of OLEDs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2014 (3)

D.-Y. Kim, C. S. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Phosphorescent transparent organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced outcoupling efficiency: Reduction of surface plasmon losses,” Org. Electron. 15(6), 1222–1228 (2014).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Yang, S.-M. Lee, W. J. Jang, and K. C. Choi, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with ZnS/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 multilayer electrode as a transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2468–2475 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

J. B. Shin, S. M. Lee, M. Kim, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonically enhanced optical characteristics from europium organometallic complex,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(23), 2342–2345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, C. S. Choi, W. H. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Extracting optical modes of organic light-emitting diodes using quasi-periodic WO3 nanoislands,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5424–5431 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, and S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: A nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Kim and K. Choi, “Improvement in outcoupling efficiency and image blur of organic light-emitting diodes by using imprinted microlens arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(7), 377–381 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Hong and J. Lee, “Review paper: Recent developments in light extraction technologies of organic light emitting diodes,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 7(2), 77–91 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (3)

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

D. Liu, M. Fina, L. Ren, and S. S. Mao, “Enhanced luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with metal nanoparticle electron injection layer,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 353–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-F. Hsu, W.-B. Wang, C.-P. Liu, Z.-C. Wong, J.-J. Shyue, and C.-C. Chiang, “Small polymeric nano-dot enhanced pure-white organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 291–295 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, “Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films,” Adv. Mater. 19(9), 1196–1200 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiN[sub x]/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

L. H. Smith, J. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).
[Crossref]

P. Hobson, J. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

G. Ghosh, “Dispersion-equation coefficients for the refractive index and birefringence of calcite and quartz crystals,” Opt. Commun. 163(1-3), 95–102 (1999).
[Crossref]

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. J. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11(15), 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Carter, J. C. Scott, and P. J. Brock, “Enhanced luminance in polymer composite light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1145 (1997).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

1951 (1)

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[Crossref]

Aichholz, M.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[Crossref]

Altun, A. O.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Araoka, F.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Baldo, M.

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[Crossref]

Barnes, W. L.

L. H. Smith, J. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Hobson, J. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bastiaansen, J. A. M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, “Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films,” Adv. Mater. 19(9), 1196–1200 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bliznyuk, V.

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. J. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11(15), 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. D. C.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[Crossref]

Brock, P. J.

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. J. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11(15), 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Carter, J. C. Scott, and P. J. Brock, “Enhanced luminance in polymer composite light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Carter, S.

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. J. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11(15), 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

S. Carter, J. C. Scott, and P. J. Brock, “Enhanced luminance in polymer composite light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.-W.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cheng, L.

Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chiang, C.-C.

J.-H. Jou, M.-F. Hsu, W.-B. Wang, C.-P. Liu, Z.-C. Wong, J.-J. Shyue, and C.-C. Chiang, “Small polymeric nano-dot enhanced pure-white organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 291–295 (2008).
[Crossref]

Cho, H.

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, and S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: A nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Cho, S.-H.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiN[sub x]/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, C. S.

D.-Y. Kim, C. S. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Phosphorescent transparent organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced outcoupling efficiency: Reduction of surface plasmon losses,” Org. Electron. 15(6), 1222–1228 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, C. S. Choi, W. H. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Extracting optical modes of organic light-emitting diodes using quasi-periodic WO3 nanoislands,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5424–5431 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, and S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: A nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Choi, D.-G.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Choi, K.

J. Kim and K. Choi, “Improvement in outcoupling efficiency and image blur of organic light-emitting diodes by using imprinted microlens arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(7), 377–381 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, K. C.

D.-Y. Kim, C. S. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Phosphorescent transparent organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced outcoupling efficiency: Reduction of surface plasmon losses,” Org. Electron. 15(6), 1222–1228 (2014).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Yang, S.-M. Lee, W. J. Jang, and K. C. Choi, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with ZnS/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 multilayer electrode as a transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2468–2475 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. B. Shin, S. M. Lee, M. Kim, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonically enhanced optical characteristics from europium organometallic complex,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(23), 2342–2345 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, and S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: A nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, C. S. Choi, W. H. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Extracting optical modes of organic light-emitting diodes using quasi-periodic WO3 nanoislands,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5424–5431 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

de Kok, M. M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, “Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films,” Adv. Mater. 19(9), 1196–1200 (2007).
[Crossref]

Deng, Y.-H.

Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
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Do, Y. R.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiN[sub x]/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
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D. Liu, M. Fina, L. Ren, and S. S. Mao, “Enhanced luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with metal nanoparticle electron injection layer,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 353–356 (2009).
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Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
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S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
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S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).
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C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
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R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
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B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
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H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
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B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
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G. Ghosh, “Dispersion-equation coefficients for the refractive index and birefringence of calcite and quartz crystals,” Opt. Commun. 163(1-3), 95–102 (1999).
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Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, J. H.

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
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Hauss, J.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
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Hobson, P.

P. Hobson, J. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 378–386 (2002).
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Hofmann, S.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
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R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
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Hong, K.

K. Hong and J. Lee, “Review paper: Recent developments in light extraction technologies of organic light emitting diodes,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 7(2), 77–91 (2011).
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J.-H. Jou, M.-F. Hsu, W.-B. Wang, C.-P. Liu, Z.-C. Wong, J.-J. Shyue, and C.-C. Chiang, “Small polymeric nano-dot enhanced pure-white organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 291–295 (2008).
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Hyun Kim, Y.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
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S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
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W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
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Jain, V. K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jang, W. J.

D. Y. Yang, S.-M. Lee, W. J. Jang, and K. C. Choi, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with ZnS/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 multilayer electrode as a transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2468–2475 (2014).
[Crossref]

Janssen, R. A. J.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, “Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films,” Adv. Mater. 19(9), 1196–1200 (2007).
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Jeon, D. Y.

J. B. Shin, S. M. Lee, M. Kim, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonically enhanced optical characteristics from europium organometallic complex,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(23), 2342–2345 (2013).
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Jeon, S.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
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S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jeong, S. M.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
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J.-H. Jou, M.-F. Hsu, W.-B. Wang, C.-P. Liu, Z.-C. Wong, J.-J. Shyue, and C.-C. Chiang, “Small polymeric nano-dot enhanced pure-white organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 291–295 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kang, J.-W.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
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Kemerink, M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, “Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films,” Adv. Mater. 19(9), 1196–1200 (2007).
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Kiggen, N. M. M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, “Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films,” Adv. Mater. 19(9), 1196–1200 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.

J. B. Shin, S. M. Lee, M. Kim, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonically enhanced optical characteristics from europium organometallic complex,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(23), 2342–2345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. H.

D.-Y. Kim, C. S. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Phosphorescent transparent organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced outcoupling efficiency: Reduction of surface plasmon losses,” Org. Electron. 15(6), 1222–1228 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. Y.

Kim, D.-H.

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kim, D.-Y.

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

D.-Y. Kim, C. S. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Phosphorescent transparent organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced outcoupling efficiency: Reduction of surface plasmon losses,” Org. Electron. 15(6), 1222–1228 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, and S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: A nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
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Kim, H.

Kim, J.

J. Kim and K. Choi, “Improvement in outcoupling efficiency and image blur of organic light-emitting diodes by using imprinted microlens arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(7), 377–381 (2011).
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Kim, J. Y.

D.-Y. Kim, C. S. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Phosphorescent transparent organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced outcoupling efficiency: Reduction of surface plasmon losses,” Org. Electron. 15(6), 1222–1228 (2014).
[Crossref]

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Kim, C. S. Choi, W. H. Kim, D. Y. Kim, H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Extracting optical modes of organic light-emitting diodes using quasi-periodic WO3 nanoislands,” Opt. Express 21(5), 5424–5431 (2013).
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S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, K.-D.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, M.

J. B. Shin, S. M. Lee, M. Kim, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonically enhanced optical characteristics from europium organometallic complex,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(23), 2342–2345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, S.-H.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, W. H.

Kim, Y.-C.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiN[sub x]/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kita, H.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

Koh, T.-W.

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, and S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: A nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koo, W. H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Langeveld, B. M. W.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, “Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films,” Adv. Mater. 19(9), 1196–1200 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

K. Hong and J. Lee, “Review paper: Recent developments in light extraction technologies of organic light emitting diodes,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 7(2), 77–91 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. M.

J. B. Shin, S. M. Lee, M. Kim, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonically enhanced optical characteristics from europium organometallic complex,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(23), 2342–2345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-M.

D. Y. Yang, S.-M. Lee, W. J. Jang, and K. C. Choi, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with ZnS/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 multilayer electrode as a transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2468–2475 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, and S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: A nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-T.

Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-H.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiN[sub x]/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.-J.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiN[sub x]/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lemmer, U.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leo, K.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y.-Q.

Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lim, M. S.

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, and S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: A nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Liu, C.-P.

J.-H. Jou, M.-F. Hsu, W.-B. Wang, C.-P. Liu, Z.-C. Wong, J.-J. Shyue, and C.-C. Chiang, “Small polymeric nano-dot enhanced pure-white organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 291–295 (2008).
[Crossref]

Liu, D.

D. Liu, M. Fina, L. Ren, and S. S. Mao, “Enhanced luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with metal nanoparticle electron injection layer,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 353–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Z.

Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lüssem, B.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mao, S. S.

D. Liu, M. Fina, L. Ren, and S. S. Mao, “Enhanced luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with metal nanoparticle electron injection layer,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 353–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Meerheim, R.

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mehta, D. S.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Möller, S.

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).
[Crossref]

Müller-Meskamp, L.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nardes, A. M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, “Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films,” Adv. Mater. 19(9), 1196–1200 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nieto-Vesperinas, M.

Nishimura, S.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ou, Q.-D.

Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-D.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ren, L.

D. Liu, M. Fina, L. Ren, and S. S. Mao, “Enhanced luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with metal nanoparticle electron injection layer,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 353–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Riedel, B.

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[Crossref]

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V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. J. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11(15), 1257–1261 (1999).
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Sage, I.

P. Hobson, J. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[Crossref]

Samuel, I. D. W.

L. H. Smith, J. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
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Sánchez-Gil, J.

Sato, F.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

Saxena, K.

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Scherf, U.

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. J. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11(15), 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

Scott, J. C.

S. Carter, J. C. Scott, and P. J. Brock, “Enhanced luminance in polymer composite light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shim, J.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shin, J. B.

J. B. Shin, S. M. Lee, M. Kim, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonically enhanced optical characteristics from europium organometallic complex,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(23), 2342–2345 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shyue, J.-J.

J.-H. Jou, M.-F. Hsu, W.-B. Wang, C.-P. Liu, Z.-C. Wong, J.-J. Shyue, and C.-C. Chiang, “Small polymeric nano-dot enhanced pure-white organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 291–295 (2008).
[Crossref]

Smith, L. H.

L. H. Smith, J. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[Crossref]

Song, Y.-W.

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiN[sub x]/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sun, Y.

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

Suzuri, Y.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

Takezoe, H.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tang, J.-X.

Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

Toyooka, T.

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsuzuki, T.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

van Breemen, A. J. J. M.

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, “Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films,” Adv. Mater. 19(9), 1196–1200 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wang, W.-B.

J.-H. Jou, M.-F. Hsu, W.-B. Wang, C.-P. Liu, Z.-C. Wong, J.-J. Shyue, and C.-C. Chiang, “Small polymeric nano-dot enhanced pure-white organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 291–295 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wasey, J.

P. Hobson, J. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wasey, J. E.

L. H. Smith, J. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wong, Z.-C.

J.-H. Jou, M.-F. Hsu, W.-B. Wang, C.-P. Liu, Z.-C. Wong, J.-J. Shyue, and C.-C. Chiang, “Small polymeric nano-dot enhanced pure-white organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 291–295 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wu, C.-C.

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, D. Y.

D. Y. Yang, S.-M. Lee, W. J. Jang, and K. C. Choi, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with ZnS/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 multilayer electrode as a transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2468–2475 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yoo, S.

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, and S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: A nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Youn, J. R.

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, D.-D.

Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.-J.

Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

L. H. Smith, J. E. Wasey, I. D. W. Samuel, and W. L. Barnes, “Light out-coupling efficiencies of organic light-emitting diode structures and the effect of photoluminescence quantum yield,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 15(11), 1839–1844 (2005).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (3)

S. R. Forrest, D. D. C. Bradley, and M. E. Thompson, “Measuring the efficiency of organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 15(13), 1043–1048 (2003).
[Crossref]

V. Bliznyuk, B. Ruhstaller, P. J. Brock, U. Scherf, and S. Carter, “Self-assembled nanocomposite polymer light-emitting diodes with improved efficiency and luminance,” Adv. Mater. 11(15), 1257–1261 (1999).
[Crossref]

A. M. Nardes, M. Kemerink, R. A. J. Janssen, J. A. M. Bastiaansen, N. M. M. Kiggen, B. M. W. Langeveld, A. J. J. M. van Breemen, and M. M. de Kok, “Microscopic understanding of the anisotropic conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films,” Adv. Mater. 19(9), 1196–1200 (2007).
[Crossref]

Adv. Opt. Mater. (1)

C. S. Choi, D.-Y. Kim, S.-M. Lee, M. S. Lim, K. C. Choi, H. Cho, T.-W. Koh, and S. Yoo, “Blur-free outcoupling enhancement in transparent organic light emitting diodes: A nanostructure extracting surface plasmon modes,” Adv. Opt. Mater. 1(10), 687–691 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Jeon, J.-W. Kang, H.-D. Park, J.-J. Kim, J. R. Youn, J. Shim, J. Jeong, D.-G. Choi, K.-D. Kim, A. O. Altun, S.-H. Kim, and Y.-H. Lee, “Ultraviolet nanoimprinted polymer nanostructure for organic light emitting diode application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(22), 223307 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y.-C. Kim, S.-H. Cho, Y.-W. Song, Y.-J. Lee, Y.-H. Lee, and Y. R. Do, “Planarized SiN[sub x]/spin-on-glass photonic crystal organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 173502 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Meerheim, M. Furno, S. Hofmann, B. Lüssem, and K. Leo, “Quantification of energy loss mechanisms in organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(25), 253305 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Carter, J. C. Scott, and P. J. Brock, “Enhanced luminance in polymer composite light emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(9), 1145 (1997).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

D. Liu, M. Fina, L. Ren, and S. S. Mao, “Enhanced luminance of organic light-emitting diodes with metal nanoparticle electron injection layer,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 96(2), 353–356 (2009).
[Crossref]

Electron. Mater. Lett. (1)

K. Hong and J. Lee, “Review paper: Recent developments in light extraction technologies of organic light emitting diodes,” Electron. Mater. Lett. 7(2), 77–91 (2011).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

J. B. Shin, S. M. Lee, M. Kim, D. Kim, D. Y. Jeon, and K. C. Choi, “Plasmonically enhanced optical characteristics from europium organometallic complex,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 25(23), 2342–2345 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

P. Hobson, J. Wasey, I. Sage, and W. L. Barnes, “The role of surface plasmons in organic light-emitting diodes,” IEEE. J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 378–386 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

C. Adachi, M. Baldo, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Nearly 100% internal phosphorescence efficiency in an organic light-emitting device,” J. Appl. Phys. 90(10), 5048 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Möller and S. R. Forrest, “Improved light out-coupling in organic light emitting diodes employing ordered microlens arrays,” J. Appl. Phys. 91(5), 3324 (2002).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Chang, J. Lee, S. Hofmann, Y. Hyun Kim, L. Müller-Meskamp, B. Lüssem, C.-C. Wu, K. Leo, and M. C. Gather, “Nano-particle based scattering layers for optical efficiency enhancement of organic light-emitting diodes and organic solar cells,” J. Appl. Phys. 113(20), 204502 (2013).
[Crossref]

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J. Kim and K. Choi, “Improvement in outcoupling efficiency and image blur of organic light-emitting diodes by using imprinted microlens arrays,” J. Disp. Technol. 7(7), 377–381 (2011).
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J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices (1)

Y. Gu, D.-D. Zhang, Q.-D. Ou, Y.-H. Deng, J.-J. Zhu, L. Cheng, Z. Liu, S.-T. Lee, Y.-Q. Li, and J.-X. Tang, “Light extraction enhancement in organic light-emitting diodes based on localized surface plasmon and light scattering double-effect,” J. Mater. Chem. C Mater. Opt. Electron. Devices 1(28), 4319 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Nat. Photonics (2)

W. H. Koo, S. M. Jeong, F. Araoka, K. Ishikawa, S. Nishimura, T. Toyooka, and H. Takezoe, “Light extraction from organic light-emitting diodes enhanced by spontaneously formed buckles,” Nat. Photonics 4(4), 222–226 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Sun and S. R. Forrest, “Enhanced light out-coupling of organic light-emitting devices using embedded low-index grids,” Nat. Photonics 2(8), 483–487 (2008).
[Crossref]

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Opt. Mater. (1)

K. Saxena, V. K. Jain, and D. S. Mehta, “A review on the light extraction techniques in organic electroluminescent devices,” Opt. Mater. 32(1), 221–233 (2009).
[Crossref]

Org. Electron. (5)

D.-H. Kim, J. Y. Kim, D.-Y. Kim, J. H. Han, and K. C. Choi, “Solution-based nanostructure to reduce waveguide and surface plasmon losses in organic light-emitting diodes,” Org. Electron. 15(11), 3183–3190 (2014).
[Crossref]

D.-Y. Kim, C. S. Choi, J. Y. Kim, D. H. Kim, and K. C. Choi, “Phosphorescent transparent organic light-emitting diodes with enhanced outcoupling efficiency: Reduction of surface plasmon losses,” Org. Electron. 15(6), 1222–1228 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Y. Yang, S.-M. Lee, W. J. Jang, and K. C. Choi, “Flexible organic light-emitting diodes with ZnS/Ag/ZnO/Ag/WO3 multilayer electrode as a transparent anode,” Org. Electron. 15(10), 2468–2475 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Riedel, J. Hauss, M. Aichholz, A. Gall, U. Lemmer, and M. Gerken, “Polymer light emitting diodes containing nanoparticle clusters for improved efficiency,” Org. Electron. 11(7), 1172–1175 (2010).
[Crossref]

J.-H. Jou, M.-F. Hsu, W.-B. Wang, C.-P. Liu, Z.-C. Wong, J.-J. Shyue, and C.-C. Chiang, “Small polymeric nano-dot enhanced pure-white organic light-emitting diode,” Org. Electron. 9(3), 291–295 (2008).
[Crossref]

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S. E. A. Bahaa, Fundamentals of Photonics, 2nd Edition (Wiley, 2007).

M. Born, Principles of Optics: Electromagnitic Theory of Propagation, Interference and Diffraction of Light (Cambridge University, 2002).

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The refractive indexes of PEDOT:PSS and PEDOT:PSS with 0.5wt% Zonyl were measured by a spectroscopic ellipsometer (M2000D).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images: (a) cross-section view of the spin-coated TiO2 nanoparticles on indium tin oxide (ITO) anode, (b) surface view of the spin-coated TiO2 nanoparticles on ITO, (c) (left) surface view of the spin coated TiO2 nanoparticles covered by poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), (right) surface view of the spin-coated TiO2 nanoparticles under the PEDOT:PSS layer, (d) cross-section view of the OLED device with the TiO2 nanoparticles inside the device.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The OLED device structures used in this study: (a) device A is a reference device that has Alq3:C545T as an emission layer, (b) device B contains a PEDOT:PSS layer on an ITO anode, (c) device C has spin-coated TiO2 nanoparticles between an ITO anode and PEDOT:PSS layer.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The performance of the OLED devices: (a) current efficiency and EQE versus luminance, (b) power efficiency versus luminance, (c) current density versus voltage, (d) pixel images at 1.25mA/cm2.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Schematic illustration of microcavity effect in an OLED device incorporating spin-coated TiO2 nanoparticles.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 EL spectra with different density of TiO2 nanoparticles: (a) experimental data, (b) simulation data
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Data from different total height of the TiO2 nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS layer (70 nm, 90 nm, 110 nm, 130 nm): (a) simulation data of the EL enhancement ratio, (b) experimental data of the EL enhancement ratio, (c) cross-section view of TiO2 nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS total layer from SEM image.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Simulation results of the two-beam interference factor ( f TI (λ) ), Fabry-Perot interference factor ( f FP (λ) ) and active layer photo luminance intensity ( I 0 (λ) ). f FP (λ) was simulated at four different total height (70 nm, 90 nm, 110 nm, 130 nm) of the TiO2 nanoparticle layer and PEDOT:PSS layer.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 (a) The normal direction transmittance (red circle), scattering transmittance (blue triangle), and reflectance (blue open triangle) of the layer composed of TiO2 nanoparticles and PEDOT:PSS having 90 nm thickness designed for the microcavity effect in the OLED with an Alq3:C545T emission layer. (b) Simulated reflectance data of the composed layer of the TiO2 nanoparticles covered by PEDOT:PSS having 90 nm for the microcavity effect in the OLED with an Alq3:C545T emission layer. The two different incident materials are NPB (black square) and air (red circle).
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Normalized luminous intensity of devices A, B, and C according to the viewing angle. The dashed line indicates lambertian light source.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 (a) Changes of the color coordinates according to the viewing angle, (b) changes of the color coordinates depicted on the color space.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Current density versus voltage graph of devices A, B, and C. Device C was divided into three groups by TiO2 nanoparticle density.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

G cav (λ)= f FP (λ)× f TI (λ;d)
f FP (λ)= I 0 T (1R) 2 +4R (sin ϕ 2 ) 2
f TI (λ;d)= I 0 [1+ (| r Al | e κ k 0 2d ) 2 +2| r Al | e κ k 0 2d cosϕ]

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