Abstract

Carrier dynamics in high-Al-content AlGaN epilayers with different dislocation densities from 5 × 108 cm−2 to 5 × 109 cm−2 is studied by comparing the photoluminescence decay with the decay of carrier density. The carrier density decay was investigated using the light-induced transient grating technique. This comparison shows that the luminescence at the nonequilibrium carrier densities expected in operating light-emitting diodes depends on the recombination of free carriers and the localized exciton-like electron-hole pairs and localization-delocalization processes. In addition, a fraction of the nonequilibrium carriers is captured by the deep capture centers with extremely long lifetimes. These carriers have an insignificant contribution to the band-to-band radiative recombination. This capture is an important factor in decreasing the emission efficiency.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  2. C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(3–4), 786–789 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  3. C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Role of alloy fluctuations in photoluminescence dynamics of AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261905 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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  8. A. Bell, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1252 (2000).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. T. Onuma, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
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  12. K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Exciton hopping and nonradiative decay in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 172102 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  17. T. Saxena, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Low threshold for optical damage in AlGaN epilayers and heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203103 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells,” Phys. B 453, 40–42 (2014).

2014 (2)

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(3–4), 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells,” Phys. B 453, 40–42 (2014).

2013 (1)

T. Saxena, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Low threshold for optical damage in AlGaN epilayers and heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203103 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (2)

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

A. Pinos, V. Liuolia, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Localization potentials in AlGaN epitaxial films studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113516 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Exciton localization in AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062103 (2006).
[Crossref]

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Role of alloy fluctuations in photoluminescence dynamics of AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261905 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Exciton hopping and nonradiative decay in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 172102 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

T. Onuma, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Bell, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, A. Žukauskas, M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, J. Zhang, G. Simin, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Double-scaled potential profile in a group-III nitride alloy revealed by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3722 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1252 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osiński, “‘Blue’ temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[Crossref]

Asif Khan, M.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Role of alloy fluctuations in photoluminescence dynamics of AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bell, A.

A. Bell, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bilenko, Y.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cargill, G. S.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(3–4), 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Collins, C. J.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dierolf, V.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Dobrinsky, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Eliseev, P. G.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osiński, “‘Blue’ temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fareed, R. S. Q.

K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Exciton hopping and nonradiative decay in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 172102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Garrett, G.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Garrett, G. A.

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(3–4), 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Gaska, R.

G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells,” Phys. B 453, 40–42 (2014).

T. Saxena, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Low threshold for optical damage in AlGaN epilayers and heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203103 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pinos, V. Liuolia, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Localization potentials in AlGaN epitaxial films studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113516 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Exciton hopping and nonradiative decay in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 172102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, A. Žukauskas, M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, J. Zhang, G. Simin, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Double-scaled potential profile in a group-III nitride alloy revealed by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Grandusky, J. R.

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(3–4), 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jiang, H. X.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Exciton localization in AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062103 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Jurkevicius, J.

G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells,” Phys. B 453, 40–42 (2014).

Kazlauskas, K.

K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Exciton hopping and nonradiative decay in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 172102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, A. Žukauskas, M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, J. Zhang, G. Simin, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Double-scaled potential profile in a group-III nitride alloy revealed by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kennedy, R.

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Khan, M. A.

K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, A. Žukauskas, M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, J. Zhang, G. Simin, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Double-scaled potential profile in a group-III nitride alloy revealed by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. S.

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kuokstis, E.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Role of alloy fluctuations in photoluminescence dynamics of AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kuokštis, E.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, J.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osiński, “‘Blue’ temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Exciton localization in AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062103 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lin, J. Y.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Exciton localization in AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062103 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Liu, K.

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liuolia, V.

A. Pinos, V. Liuolia, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Localization potentials in AlGaN epitaxial films studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113516 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lunev, A.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mair, R. A.

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1252 (2000).
[Crossref]

Marcinkevicius, S.

A. Pinos, V. Liuolia, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Localization potentials in AlGaN epitaxial films studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113516 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mickevicius, J.

G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells,” Phys. B 453, 40–42 (2014).

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Exciton hopping and nonradiative decay in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 172102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Moe, C.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moe, C. G.

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(3–4), 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nakarmi, M. L.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Exciton localization in AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nepal, N.

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Exciton localization in AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062103 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nikiforov, A. Y.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Onuma, T.

T. Onuma, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[Crossref]

Osinski, M.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osiński, “‘Blue’ temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[Crossref]

Perlin, P.

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osiński, “‘Blue’ temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[Crossref]

Pinos, A.

A. Pinos, V. Liuolia, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Localization potentials in AlGaN epitaxial films studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113516 (2011).
[Crossref]

Rodak, L. E.

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(3–4), 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rotella, P.

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(3–4), 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sampath, A. V.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sarney, W. L.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Saxena, T.

T. Saxena, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Low threshold for optical damage in AlGaN epilayers and heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203103 (2013).
[Crossref]

Schowalter, L. J.

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(3–4), 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shatalov, M.

G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells,” Phys. B 453, 40–42 (2014).

T. Saxena, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Low threshold for optical damage in AlGaN epilayers and heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203103 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Role of alloy fluctuations in photoluminescence dynamics of AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shen, H.

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shur, M.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shur, M. S.

G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells,” Phys. B 453, 40–42 (2014).

T. Saxena, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Low threshold for optical damage in AlGaN epilayers and heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203103 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Pinos, V. Liuolia, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Localization potentials in AlGaN epitaxial films studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113516 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Exciton hopping and nonradiative decay in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 172102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, A. Žukauskas, M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, J. Zhang, G. Simin, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Double-scaled potential profile in a group-III nitride alloy revealed by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Simin, G.

K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, A. Žukauskas, M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, J. Zhang, G. Simin, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Double-scaled potential profile in a group-III nitride alloy revealed by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sun, W.

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sun, W. H.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Role of alloy fluctuations in photoluminescence dynamics of AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261905 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tamulaitis, G.

G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells,” Phys. B 453, 40–42 (2014).

T. Saxena, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Low threshold for optical damage in AlGaN epilayers and heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203103 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Exciton hopping and nonradiative decay in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 172102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, A. Žukauskas, M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, J. Zhang, G. Simin, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Double-scaled potential profile in a group-III nitride alloy revealed by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Wraback, M.

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(3–4), 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yang, J.

G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells,” Phys. B 453, 40–42 (2014).

T. Saxena, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Low threshold for optical damage in AlGaN epilayers and heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203103 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. Pinos, V. Liuolia, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Localization potentials in AlGaN epitaxial films studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113516 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yang, J. W.

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Role of alloy fluctuations in photoluminescence dynamics of AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261905 (2006).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, A. Žukauskas, M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, J. Zhang, G. Simin, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Double-scaled potential profile in a group-III nitride alloy revealed by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, A. Žukauskas, M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, J. Zhang, G. Simin, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Double-scaled potential profile in a group-III nitride alloy revealed by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. P.

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Exciton hopping and nonradiative decay in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 172102 (2005).
[Crossref]

Žukauskas, A.

K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Exciton hopping and nonradiative decay in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 172102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, A. Žukauskas, M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, J. Zhang, G. Simin, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Double-scaled potential profile in a group-III nitride alloy revealed by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3722 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

M. Shatalov, W. Sun, A. Lunev, X. Hu, A. Dobrinsky, Y. Bilenko, J. Yang, M. Shur, R. Gaska, C. Moe, G. Garrett, and M. Wraback, “AlGaN Deep-Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diodes with External Quantum Efficiency above 10%,” Appl. Phys. Express 5(8), 082101 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

N. Nepal, J. Li, M. L. Nakarmi, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Exciton localization in AlGaN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(6), 062103 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. J. Collins, A. V. Sampath, G. A. Garrett, W. L. Sarney, H. Shen, M. Wraback, A. Y. Nikiforov, G. S. Cargill, and V. Dierolf, “Enhanced room-temperature luminescence efficiency through carrier localization in AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(3), 031916 (2005).
[Crossref]

E. Kuokstis, W. H. Sun, M. Shatalov, J. W. Yang, and M. Asif Khan, “Role of alloy fluctuations in photoluminescence dynamics of AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(26), 261905 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, E. Kuokštis, K. Liu, M. S. Shur, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Well-width-dependent carrier lifetime in AlGaN/AlGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(13), 131907 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, A. Žukauskas, G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, M. S. Shur, R. S. Q. Fareed, J. P. Zhang, and R. Gaska, “Exciton hopping and nonradiative decay in AlGaN epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(17), 172102 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kazlauskas, G. Tamulaitis, A. Žukauskas, M. A. Khan, J. W. Yang, J. Zhang, G. Simin, M. S. Shur, and R. Gaska, “Double-scaled potential profile in a group-III nitride alloy revealed by Monte Carlo simulation of exciton hopping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3722 (2003).
[Crossref]

P. G. Eliseev, P. Perlin, J. Lee, and M. Osiński, “‘Blue’ temperature-induced shift and band-tail emission in InGaN-based light sources,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(5), 569 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. S. Kim, R. A. Mair, J. Li, J. Y. Lin, and H. X. Jiang, “Time-resolved photoluminescence studies of AlxGa1-xN alloys,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(10), 1252 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Mickevičius, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Internal quantum efficiency in AlGaN with strong carrier localization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(21), 211902 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

T. Onuma, “Radiative and nonradiative processes in strain-free AlxGa1-xN films studied by time-resolved photoluminescence and positron annihilation techniques,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(5), 2495 (2004).
[Crossref]

T. Saxena, G. Tamulaitis, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Low threshold for optical damage in AlGaN epilayers and heterostructures,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(20), 203103 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Shatalov, J. Yang, W. Sun, R. Kennedy, R. Gaska, K. Liu, M. Shur, and G. Tamulaitis, “Efficiency of light emission in high aluminum content AlGaN quantum wells,” J. Appl. Phys. 105(7), 073103 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. Pinos, V. Liuolia, S. Marcinkevičius, J. Yang, R. Gaska, and M. S. Shur, “Localization potentials in AlGaN epitaxial films studied by scanning near-field optical spectroscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(11), 113516 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Bell, “Exciton freeze-out and thermally activated relaxation at local potential fluctuations in thick AlxGa1-xN layers,” J. Appl. Phys. 95(9), 4670 (2004).
[Crossref]

Phys. B (1)

G. Tamulaitis, J. Mickevičius, J. Jurkevičius, M. S. Shur, M. Shatalov, J. Yang, and R. Gaska, “Photoluminescence efficiency in AlGaN quantum wells,” Phys. B 453, 40–42 (2014).

Phys. Status Solidi (1)

C. G. Moe, G. A. Garrett, J. R. Grandusky, J. Chen, L. E. Rodak, P. Rotella, M. Wraback, and L. J. Schowalter, “Correlation between optical and electrical performance of mid-ultraviolet light-emitting diodes on AlN substrates,” Phys. Status Solidi 11(3–4), 786–789 (2014).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press 2006).

A. Miller, “Transient grating studies of carrier diffusion and mobility in semiconductors,” in Nonlinear Optics in Semiconductors. II. Semiconductors and Semimetals, E. Garmire and A. Kost, ed. (Academic 1999).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Decay of PL intensity after short pulse excitation (dashed lines) and the carrier density obtained from LITG experiments (solid lines) at similar initial carrier densities (indicated).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Time evolution of photoluminescence spectra in two samples with high (HDD) and low (LDD) dislocation densities after excitation at initial carrier density of 3 × 1019 cm−3.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Evolution of TRPL peak position as a function of delay from the excitation pulse at initial carrier density of 3 × 1019 cm−3.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Recombination rates, described by first (black line), second (red), and third (blue) terms in Eq. (5), and (b) comparison of the PL intensity decay (black curve) and the decay of free electron density (red) calculated by solving Eqs. (2)-(4) and using Eq. (5).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Photoluminescence efficiency (a) and fast decay lifetime (b) as functions of the density of carriers generated by 30 ps long pulse excitation in HDD and LDD samples at 300 K.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Photoluminescence decay kinetics at different density of carriers generated by 30 ps long pulse excitation in HDD and LDD samples at 300 K (dashed lines). Straight lines indicate the approximations used to extract the lifetimes presented in Fig. 5.

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Δn(x)=ΔN(x) n eh = e 2 2 n 0 ω 2 ε 0 ΔN(x)[ 1 m e + 1 m h ]
dΔn dt = Δn τ ne B( n 0 +Δn)p γ down ( n 0 +Δn)p+ γ up n ex
dp dt = p τ np B( n 0 +Δn)p γ down ( n 0 +Δn)p+ γ up n ex
d n ex dt = γ down ( n 0 +Δn)p n ex τ rad n ex τ nrad γ up n ex
I L n ex τ rad +B( n 0 +Δn)p n ex τ rad +B n 0 Δn+BΔ n 2

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