Abstract

One-dimensional stress dependence on the fundamental absorption edge of pure germanium (Ge) waveguide has theoretically and experimentally been studied, considering built-in two-dimensional stress-tensile Ge grown on Si. Based on the results, we have designed Ge Franz-Keldysh (FK) electroabsorption (EA) modulators to work at 1550 nm. Application of one-dimensional [110] compressive stress above −350 MPa on a pure Ge [-110] waveguide should allow 1550 nm light transmission, unless otherwise a pure Ge modulator can only operate at 1600 nm or longer due to the built-in two-dimensional tensile stress in Ge. The prediction has experimentally been verified using a SiNx stressor film. This concludes that the presented stress-tuning approach of the pure Ge waveguides should expand the operation wavelength of Ge FK-EA modulators to C band. Since stress tuning can be locally done in the back-end-of-line of complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process, the presented stress-tuning method should enable “field-programable” control of the operation wavelengths of the monolithically integrated Ge modulators in Si photonics platform.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
  2. H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High responsitivity near infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si,” Electron. Lett. 35(17), 17–19 (1999).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  5. J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. J. Liu, X. Sun, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct-gap optical gain of Ge on Si at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1738–1740 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. E. Camacho Aguilea, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped Ge laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 11316–11320 (2012).
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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2014 (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D.-L. Kwong, and K. Wada, “Scaling computation with silicon photonics,” MRS Bull. 39(08), 687–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

2012 (2)

2011 (2)

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (1)

S. Jongthammanurak, J.-F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013501 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

1999 (2)

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High responsitivity near infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si,” Electron. Lett. 35(17), 17–19 (1999).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1955 (1)

G. G. Macfarlane and V. Roberts, “Infrared absorption of germanium near the lattice edge,” Phys. Rev. 97(6), 1714–1716 (1955).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Assanto, G.

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High responsitivity near infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si,” Electron. Lett. 35(17), 17–19 (1999).
[Crossref]

Beals, M.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bernardis, S.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bessette, J. T.

R. E. Camacho Aguilea, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped Ge laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 11316–11320 (2012).

Bijlani, B.

Cai, Y.

R. E. Camacho Aguilea, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped Ge laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 11316–11320 (2012).

Camacho Aguilea, R. E.

R. E. Camacho Aguilea, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped Ge laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 11316–11320 (2012).

Cannon, D. D.

S. Jongthammanurak, J.-F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013501 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chen, K. M.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cheng, J.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Colace, L.

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High responsitivity near infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si,” Electron. Lett. 35(17), 17–19 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, J.

Danielson, D. T.

S. Jongthammanurak, J.-F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ding, L.

Dong, P.

Duan, N.

Feng, D.

Feng, N. N.

Fong, J.

Ishikawa, Y.

R. Kuroyanagi, L. M. Nguyen, T. Tsuchizawa, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamada, and K. Wada, “Local bandgap control of germanium by silicon nitride stressor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18553–18557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013501 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP, 211–213 (2011).
[Crossref]

Itabashi, S.

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP, 211–213 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jongthammanurak, S.

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jongthammanurak, J.-F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

L. C. Kimerling, D.-L. Kwong, and K. Wada, “Scaling computation with silicon photonics,” MRS Bull. 39(08), 687–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. E. Camacho Aguilea, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped Ge laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 11316–11320 (2012).

J. Liu, X. Sun, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct-gap optical gain of Ge on Si at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1738–1740 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jongthammanurak, J.-F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013501 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High responsitivity near infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si,” Electron. Lett. 35(17), 17–19 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Koch, T. L.

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kung, C. C.

Kuroyanagi, R.

R. Kuroyanagi, L. M. Nguyen, T. Tsuchizawa, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamada, and K. Wada, “Local bandgap control of germanium by silicon nitride stressor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18553–18557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP, 211–213 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kwong, D. L.

Kwong, D.-L.

L. C. Kimerling, D.-L. Kwong, and K. Wada, “Scaling computation with silicon photonics,” MRS Bull. 39(08), 687–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. K.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liang, H.

Liao, H.

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013501 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.

Lim, D. R.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liow, T. Y.

Liu, J.

J. Liu, X. Sun, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct-gap optical gain of Ge on Si at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1738–1740 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013501 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

Liu, J.-F.

S. Jongthammanurak, J.-F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lo, G. Q.

Luan, H. C.

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High responsitivity near infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si,” Electron. Lett. 35(17), 17–19 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Luff, B. J.

Luo, Y.

Macfarlane, G. G.

G. G. Macfarlane and V. Roberts, “Infrared absorption of germanium near the lattice edge,” Phys. Rev. 97(6), 1714–1716 (1955).
[Crossref]

Masini, G.

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High responsitivity near infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si,” Electron. Lett. 35(17), 17–19 (1999).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

R. E. Camacho Aguilea, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped Ge laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 11316–11320 (2012).

J. Liu, X. Sun, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct-gap optical gain of Ge on Si at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1738–1740 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jongthammanurak, J.-F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013501 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, L. M.

Pan, D.

Patel, N.

R. E. Camacho Aguilea, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped Ge laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 11316–11320 (2012).

Pomerene, A.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Qian, W.

Qing, F.

Roberts, V.

G. G. Macfarlane and V. Roberts, “Infrared absorption of germanium near the lattice edge,” Phys. Rev. 97(6), 1714–1716 (1955).
[Crossref]

Romagnoli, M.

R. E. Camacho Aguilea, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped Ge laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 11316–11320 (2012).

Sandland, J. G.

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shafiiha, R.

Sun, R.

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sun, X.

Tsuchizawa, T.

R. Kuroyanagi, L. M. Nguyen, T. Tsuchizawa, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamada, and K. Wada, “Local bandgap control of germanium by silicon nitride stressor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18553–18557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP, 211–213 (2011).
[Crossref]

Van de Walle, C. G.

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wada, K.

L. C. Kimerling, D.-L. Kwong, and K. Wada, “Scaling computation with silicon photonics,” MRS Bull. 39(08), 687–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Kuroyanagi, L. M. Nguyen, T. Tsuchizawa, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamada, and K. Wada, “Local bandgap control of germanium by silicon nitride stressor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18553–18557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jongthammanurak, J.-F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013501 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High responsitivity near infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si,” Electron. Lett. 35(17), 17–19 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP, 211–213 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Yamada, K.

Yu, M.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. Jongthammanurak, J.-F. Liu, K. Wada, D. D. Cannon, D. T. Danielson, D. Pan, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Large electro-optic effect in tensile strained Ge-on-Si films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(16), 161115 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. C. Luan, D. R. Lim, K. K. Lee, K. M. Chen, J. G. Sandland, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High quality Ge epilayers on Si with low threading-dislocation densities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(19), 2909–2911 (1999).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (1)

G. Masini, L. Colace, G. Assanto, H. C. Luan, K. Wada, and L. C. Kimerling, “High responsitivity near infrared Ge photodetectors integrated on Si,” Electron. Lett. 35(17), 17–19 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

Y. Ishikawa, K. Wada, J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, H. Liao, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Strain-induced enhancement of near-infrared absorption in Ge epitaxial layers grown on Si substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(1), 013501 (2005).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

L. C. Kimerling, D.-L. Kwong, and K. Wada, “Scaling computation with silicon photonics,” MRS Bull. 39(08), 687–695 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

J. Liu, M. Beals, A. Pomerene, S. Bernardis, R. Sun, J. Cheng, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Waveguide- integrated ultralow-energy GeSi electro-absorption modulators,” Nat. Photonics 2(7), 433–437 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (6)

A. E. Lim, T. Y. Liow, F. Qing, N. Duan, L. Ding, M. Yu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Novel evanescent-coupled germanium electro-absorption modulator featuring monolithic integration with germanium p-i-n photodetector,” Opt. Express 19(6), 5040–5046 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. N. Feng, D. Feng, S. Liao, X. Wang, P. Dong, H. Liang, C. C. Kung, W. Qian, J. Fong, R. Shafiiha, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “30GHz Ge electro-absorption modulator integrated with 3 μm silicon-on-insulator waveguide,” Opt. Express 19(8), 7062–7067 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Feng, S. Liao, H. Liang, J. Fong, B. Bijlani, R. Shafiiha, B. J. Luff, Y. Luo, J. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed GeSi electro-absorption modulator at 1550 nm wavelength on SOI waveguide,” Opt. Express 20(20), 22224–22232 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, X. Sun, D. Pan, X. Wang, L. C. Kimerling, T. L. Koch, and J. Michel, “Tensile-strained, n-type Ge as a gain medium for monolithic laser integration on Si,” Opt. Express 15(18), 11272–11277 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Kuroyanagi, L. M. Nguyen, T. Tsuchizawa, Y. Ishikawa, K. Yamada, and K. Wada, “Local bandgap control of germanium by silicon nitride stressor,” Opt. Express 21(15), 18553–18557 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. Pan, S. Jongthammanurak, K. Wada, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Design of monolithically integrated GeSi electro-absorption modulators and photodetectors on a SOI platform,” Opt. Express 15(2), 623–628 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

J. Liu, X. Sun, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “Direct-gap optical gain of Ge on Si at room temperature,” Opt. Lett. 34(11), 1738–1740 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. E. Camacho Aguilea, Y. Cai, N. Patel, J. T. Bessette, M. Romagnoli, L. C. Kimerling, and J. Michel, “An electrically pumped Ge laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 11316–11320 (2012).

Phys. Rev. (1)

G. G. Macfarlane and V. Roberts, “Infrared absorption of germanium near the lattice edge,” Phys. Rev. 97(6), 1714–1716 (1955).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter (2)

C. G. Van de Walle, “Band lineups and deformation potentials in the model-solid theory,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 39(3), 1871–1883 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Liu, D. D. Cannon, K. Wada, Y. Ishikawa, D. T. Danielson, S. Jongthammanurak, J. Michel, and L. C. Kimerling, “Deformation potential constants of biaxially tensile strained Ge epitaxial films on Si(100),” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 70(15), 155309 (2004).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

R. Kuroyanagi, Y. Ishikawa, T. Tsuchizawa, S. Itabashi, and K. Wada, “Controlling strain in Ge on Si for EA modulators,” Proc. IEEE GFP, 211–213 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Wada, K. Yoshimoto, Y. Horie, J. Cai, P. H. Lim, H. Fukuda, R. Suzuki, and Y. Ishikawa, “Strained Ge for Si-Based integrated photonics,” in Photonics and Electronics with Germanium, L. C. Kimerling and K. Wada, ed. (Wiley, 2015).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The configuration of Ge waveguide.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The relationship between one-dimensional stress and valence band line-up. The valance band top splits into light hole and heavy hole band. The origin of E is at the top of valence bands of bulk Ge with no stress. 0 GPa in this figure shows splitting of valence band tops because of built-in stress in Ge epilayer on a Si wafer, i.e., 0.17% biaxial tensile strain (see text).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Stress and absorption edge of Ge when applying uniaxial stress in [110] direction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 The FOM and ER of Ge FK-EA modulators at 1550 nm. The parameter is stress direction, [110] and [100]. This indicates the stress direction [110] and [100] provide similar FOM and ER but [110] needs a smaller stress to achieve a higher value. Based on this, the present paper employs [110] direction to stress.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Cross sectional scanning electron microscopic image of a Ge waveguide fabricated.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transmission spectra of Ge waveguide with and without SiNx stressors. The noise level (−21dB) is included in this simulation.

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E Γ = K σ + E G .
F O M = α ( V ) α ( 0 ) α ( 0 ) .
E R [ d B ] = 4.303 [ α ( V ) α ( 0 ) ] L .

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