Abstract

We investigate the polarization properties of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields numerically and analytically. We focus on lower-order harmonics (LOHs). Our simulations show that the ellipticity of below-threshold LOHs depends strongly on the orientation angle and differs significantly for different harmonic orders. Our analysis reveals that this LOH ellipticity is closely associated with resonance effects and the axis symmetry of the molecule. These results shed light on the complex generation mechanism of below-threshold harmonics from aligned molecules.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  4. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3418 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. Miyazaki and H. Takada, “High-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3007 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. M. Kakehata, H. Takada, H. Yumoto, and K. Miyazaki, “Anomalous ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R861 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 742 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. J. C. Liu, M. C. Kohler, C. H. Keitel, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Coherent x-ray generation from below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063817 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  14. H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  18. I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. Y. V. Vanne and A. Saenz, “Alignment-dependent ionization of molecular hydrogen in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 011403 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  21. M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  22. Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and B. Hu, “Intensity dependence of intramolecular interference from a full quantum analysis of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033405 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  23. X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  26. S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  28. V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  31. K. Burnett, V. C. Reed, J. Cooper, and P. L. Knight, “Calculation of the background emitted during high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 3347 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. G. Castigliaa, P. P. Corsoa, R. Danielea, E. Fiordilinoa, and F. Moralesb, “Polarization of high harmonic generated spectra in H2+ ion,” J. Mod. Optic. 60, 1452 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  33. X. Chu and S. I. Chu, “Complex-scaling generalized pseudospectral method for quasienergy resonance states in two-center systems: Application to the Floquet study of charge resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of molecular ions in intense low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013414 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  34. V. Kapoor and D. Bauer, “Floquet analysis of real-time wave functions without solving the Floquet equation,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 023407 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  35. X. Chu, “Molecular-orientation-dependent ac Stark effect and its impact on multiphoton processes,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043408 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  36. B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Ghr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322, 1232 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  37. A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, and C. D. Lin, “Uncovering multiple orbitals influence in high harmonic generation from aligned N2,” J. Phys. B 42, 211001 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  38. Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Yu. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “High harmonic spectroscopy of multichannel dynamics in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. Y. J. Chen and B. Hu, “Role of ionization in orientation dependence of molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 031402 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  40. O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  41. W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys. 4, 545 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  42. A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (1)

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (1)

W. H. Xiong, J. W. Geng, J. Y. Tang, L. Y. Peng, and Q. H. Gong, “Mechanisms of below-threshold harmonic generation in atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 233001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Castigliaa, P. P. Corsoa, R. Danielea, E. Fiordilinoa, and F. Moralesb, “Polarization of high harmonic generated spectra in H2+ ion,” J. Mod. Optic. 60, 1452 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

V. Kapoor and D. Bauer, “Floquet analysis of real-time wave functions without solving the Floquet equation,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 023407 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
[Crossref]

V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Liu, M. C. Kohler, C. H. Keitel, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Coherent x-ray generation from below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063817 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (8)

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. V. Vanne and A. Saenz, “Alignment-dependent ionization of molecular hydrogen in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 011403 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
[Crossref]

S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Yu. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “High harmonic spectroscopy of multichannel dynamics in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (7)

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, and C. D. Lin, “Uncovering multiple orbitals influence in high harmonic generation from aligned N2,” J. Phys. B 42, 211001 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and B. Hu, “Intensity dependence of intramolecular interference from a full quantum analysis of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033405 (2009).
[Crossref]

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

X. Chu, “Molecular-orientation-dependent ac Stark effect and its impact on multiphoton processes,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043408 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Ghr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322, 1232 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys. 4, 545 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen and B. Hu, “Role of ionization in orientation dependence of molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 031402 (2008).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (Londun) 432, 867 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (2)

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

X. Chu and S. I. Chu, “Complex-scaling generalized pseudospectral method for quasienergy resonance states in two-center systems: Application to the Floquet study of charge resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of molecular ions in intense low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013414 (2000).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, H. Yumoto, and K. Miyazaki, “Anomalous ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R861 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 742 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3418 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Miyazaki and H. Takada, “High-order harmonic generation in the tunneling regime,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 3007 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

K. Burnett, V. C. Reed, J. Cooper, and P. L. Knight, “Calculation of the background emitted during high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 3347 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315 (1991).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412 (1982).
[Crossref]

Agostini, P.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352 (2010).
[Crossref]

Balcou, Ph.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bauer, D.

V. Kapoor and D. Bauer, “Floquet analysis of real-time wave functions without solving the Floquet equation,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 023407 (2012).
[Crossref]

Blanchet, V.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boguslavskiy, A. E.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Botheron, P.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boutu, W.

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys. 4, 545 (2008).
[Crossref]

Brabec, T.

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 742 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Breger, P.

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys. 4, 545 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bruner, B. D.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bucksbaum, P. H.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Ghr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322, 1232 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burgy, F.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, K.

K. Burnett, V. C. Reed, J. Cooper, and P. L. Knight, “Calculation of the background emitted during high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 3347 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Burnett, N.

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 742 (1996).
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Burnett, N. H.

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3418 (1995).
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W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys. 4, 545 (2008).
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A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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Carre, B.

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys. 4, 545 (2008).
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Castigliaa, G.

G. Castigliaa, P. P. Corsoa, R. Danielea, E. Fiordilinoa, and F. Moralesb, “Polarization of high harmonic generated spectra in H2+ ion,” J. Mod. Optic. 60, 1452 (2013).
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Castillejo, M.

R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
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Catoire, F.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352 (2010).
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Chen, Y. J.

Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and B. Hu, “Intensity dependence of intramolecular interference from a full quantum analysis of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033405 (2009).
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Y. J. Chen and B. Hu, “Role of ionization in orientation dependence of molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 031402 (2008).
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S. K. Son, D. A. Telnov, and S. I. Chu, “Probing the origin of elliptical high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 043829 (2010).
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X. Chu and S. I. Chu, “Complex-scaling generalized pseudospectral method for quasienergy resonance states in two-center systems: Application to the Floquet study of charge resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of molecular ions in intense low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013414 (2000).
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X. Chu, “Molecular-orientation-dependent ac Stark effect and its impact on multiphoton processes,” Phys. Rev. A 78, 043408 (2008).
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X. Chu and S. I. Chu, “Complex-scaling generalized pseudospectral method for quasienergy resonance states in two-center systems: Application to the Floquet study of charge resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization of molecular ions in intense low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 63, 013414 (2000).
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Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Yu. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “High harmonic spectroscopy of multichannel dynamics in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
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Cooper, J.

K. Burnett, V. C. Reed, J. Cooper, and P. L. Knight, “Calculation of the background emitted during high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 3347 (1992).
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Corkum, P.

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972 (2009).
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Corkum, P. B.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (Londun) 432, 867 (2004).
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I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
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N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3418 (1995).
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M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
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P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 1994 (1993).
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Corsoa, P. P.

G. Castigliaa, P. P. Corsoa, R. Danielea, E. Fiordilinoa, and F. Moralesb, “Polarization of high harmonic generated spectra in H2+ ion,” J. Mod. Optic. 60, 1452 (2013).
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Dagan, M.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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Danielea, R.

G. Castigliaa, P. P. Corsoa, R. Danielea, E. Fiordilinoa, and F. Moralesb, “Polarization of high harmonic generated spectra in H2+ ion,” J. Mod. Optic. 60, 1452 (2013).
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Descamps, D.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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DiMauro, L. F.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352 (2010).
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Diner, A.

H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
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I. V. Litvinyuk, K. F. Lee, P. W. Dooley, D. M. Rayner, D. M. Villeneuve, and P. B. Corkum, “Alignment-dependent strong field ionization of molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 233003 (2003).
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Dudovich, N.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Yu. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “High harmonic spectroscopy of multichannel dynamics in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
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H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972 (2009).
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S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802 (2010).
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A. Etches, C. B. Madsen, and L. B. Madsen, “Inducing elliptically polarized high-order harmonics from aligned molecules with linearly polarized femtosecond pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 013409 (2010).
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A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Yu. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “High harmonic spectroscopy of multichannel dynamics in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
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Fabris, D.

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
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B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Ghr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322, 1232 (2008).
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A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412 (1982).
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A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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Fiordilinoa, E.

G. Castigliaa, P. P. Corsoa, R. Danielea, E. Fiordilinoa, and F. Moralesb, “Polarization of high harmonic generated spectra in H2+ ion,” J. Mod. Optic. 60, 1452 (2013).
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Fleck, J. A.

M. D. Feit, J. A. Fleck, and A. Steiger, “Solution of the Schrödinger equation by a spectral method,” J. Comput. Phys. 47, 412 (1982).
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Frasinski, L. J.

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys. 4, 545 (2008).
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J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
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D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
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Gaudin, J.

A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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W. H. Xiong, J. W. Geng, J. Y. Tang, L. Y. Peng, and Q. H. Gong, “Mechanisms of below-threshold harmonic generation in atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 233001 (2014).
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A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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Ghr, M.

B. K. McFarland, J. P. Farrell, P. H. Bucksbaum, and M. Ghr, “High harmonic generation from multiple orbitals in N2,” Science 322, 1232 (2008).
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W. H. Xiong, J. W. Geng, J. Y. Tang, L. Y. Peng, and Q. H. Gong, “Mechanisms of below-threshold harmonic generation in atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 233001 (2014).
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V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
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V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
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Haessler, S.

W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys. 4, 545 (2008).
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Hatsagortsyan, K. Z.

J. C. Liu, M. C. Kohler, C. H. Keitel, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Coherent x-ray generation from below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063817 (2011).
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Hay, N.

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
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M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
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R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
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Henkel, J.

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
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Higuet, J.

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Yu. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “High harmonic spectroscopy of multichannel dynamics in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
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Hostetter, J.

D. C. Yost, T. R. Schibli, J. Ye, J. L. Tate, J. Hostetter, M. B. Gaarde, and K. J. Schafer, “Vacuum-ultraviolet frequency combs from below-threshold harmonics,” Nat. Phys. 5, 815 (2009).
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Hostetter, J. A.

J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
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Hu, B.

Y. J. Chen, J. Liu, and B. Hu, “Intensity dependence of intramolecular interference from a full quantum analysis of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 79, 033405 (2009).
[Crossref]

Y. J. Chen and B. Hu, “Role of ionization in orientation dependence of molecular high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 77, 031402 (2008).
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Itatani, J.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (Londun) 432, 867 (2004).
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Ivanov, M.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
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Ivanov, M. Y.

M. Y. Ivanov, T. Brabec, and N. Burnett, “Coulomb corrections and polarization effects in high-intensity high-harmonic emission,” Phys. Rev. A 54, 742 (1996).
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Ivanov, M. Yu.

Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Yu. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “High harmonic spectroscopy of multichannel dynamics in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972 (2009).
[Crossref]

O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
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M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
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Kakehata, M.

M. Kakehata, H. Takada, H. Yumoto, and K. Miyazaki, “Anomalous ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R861 (1997).
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Kan, C.

N. H. Burnett, C. Kan, and P. B. Corkum, “Ellipticity and polarization effects in harmonic generation in ionizing neon,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R3418 (1995).
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V. Kapoor and D. Bauer, “Floquet analysis of real-time wave functions without solving the Floquet equation,” Phys. Rev. A 85, 023407 (2012).
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Kapteyn, H. C.

X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
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Keitel, C. H.

J. C. Liu, M. C. Kohler, C. H. Keitel, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Coherent x-ray generation from below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063817 (2011).
[Crossref]

Kieffer, J. C.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pepin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature (Londun) 432, 867 (2004).
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Knight, P. L.

J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Burnett, V. C. Reed, J. Cooper, and P. L. Knight, “Calculation of the background emitted during high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 3347 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kohler, M. C.

J. C. Liu, M. C. Kohler, C. H. Keitel, and K. Z. Hatsagortsyan, “Coherent x-ray generation from below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84, 063817 (2011).
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Krausz, F.

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81, 163 (2009).
[Crossref]

Krushelnick, K.

E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352 (2010).
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Kulander, K. C.

A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315 (1991).
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L’Huillier, A.

M. Lewenstein, Ph. Balcou, M. Yu. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 2117 (1994).
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A. L’Huillier, K. J. Schafer, and K. C. Kulander, “Theoretical aspects of intense field harmonic generation,” J. Phys. B 24, 3315 (1991).
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A. T. Le, R. R. Lucchese, and C. D. Lin, “Uncovering multiple orbitals influence in high harmonic generation from aligned N2,” J. Phys. B 42, 211001 (2009).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972 (2009).
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S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802 (2010).
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H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
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Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Yu. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “High harmonic spectroscopy of multichannel dynamics in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
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P. A. J. Sherratt, S. Ramakrishna, and T. Seideman, “Signatures of the molecular potential in the ellipticity of high-order harmonics from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 83, 053425 (2011).
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S. Ramakrishna, P. A. J. Sherratt, A. D. Dutoi, and T. Seideman, “Origin and implication of ellipticity in high-order harmonic generation from aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 81, 021802 (2010).
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E. P. Power, A. M. March, F. Catoire, E. Sistrunk, K. Krushelnick, P. Agostini, and L. F. DiMauro, “XFROG phase measurement of threshold harmonics in a Keldysh-scaled system,” Nat. Photonics 4, 352 (2010).
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Y. Mairesse, J. Higuet, N. Dudovich, D. Shafir, B. Fabre, E. Mével, E. Constant, S. Patchkovskii, Z. Walters, M. Yu. Ivanov, and O. Smirnova, “High harmonic spectroscopy of multichannel dynamics in strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 213601 (2010).
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O. Smirnova, Y. Mairesse, S. Patchkovskii, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “High harmonic interferometry of multi-electron dynamics in molecules,” Nature (London) 460, 972 (2009).
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O. Smirnova, S. Patchkovskii, Y. Mairesse, N. Dudovich, D. Villeneuve, P. Corkum, and M. Yu. Ivanov, “Attosecond circular dichroism spectroscopy of polyatomic molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 063601 (2009).
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A. Ferré, A. E. Boguslavskiy, M. Dagan, V. Blanchet, B. D. Bruner, F. Burgy, A. Camper, D. Descamps, B. Fabre, N. Fedorov, J. Gaudin, G. Geoffroy, J. Mikosch, S. Patchkovskii, S. Petit, T. Ruchon, H. Soifer, D. Staedter, I. Wilkinson, A. Stolow, N. Dudovich, and Y. Mairesse, “Multi-channel electronic and vibrational dynamics in polyatomic resonant high-order harmonic generation,” Nat. Commun. 6, 5952 (2015).
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H. Soifer, P. Botheron, D. Shafir, A. Diner, O. Raz, B. D. Bruner, Y. Mairesse, B. Pons, and N. Dudovich, “Nearthreshold high-order harmonic spectroscopy with aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 105, 143904 (2010).
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V. V. Strelkov, A. A. Gonoskov, I. A. Gonoskov, and M. Yu. Ryabikin, “Origin for ellipticity of high-order harmonics generated in atomic gases and the sublaser-cycle evolution of harmonic polarization,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 107, 043902 (2011).
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W. Boutu, S. Haessler, H. Merdji, P. Breger, G. Waters, M. Stankiewicz, L. J. Frasinski, R. Taieb, J. Caillat, A. Maquet, P. Monchicourt, B. Carre, and P. Salieres, “Coherent control of attosecond emission from aligned molecules,” Nat. Phys. 4, 545 (2008).
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M. Kakehata, H. Takada, H. Yumoto, and K. Miyazaki, “Anomalous ellipticity dependence of high-order harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 55, R861 (1997).
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W. H. Xiong, J. W. Geng, J. Y. Tang, L. Y. Peng, and Q. H. Gong, “Mechanisms of below-threshold harmonic generation in atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 233001 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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J. A. Hostetter, J. L. Tate, K. J. Schafer, and M. B. Gaarde, “Semiclassical approaches to below-threshold harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 023401 (2010).
[Crossref]

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J. Henkel, T. Witting, D. Fabris, M. Lein, P. L. Knight, J. W. G. Tisch, and J. P. Marangos, “Prediction of attosecond light pulses in the VUV range in a high-order-harmonic-generation regime,” Phys. Rev. A 87, 043818 (2013).
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Y. V. Vanne and A. Saenz, “Alignment-dependent ionization of molecular hydrogen in intense laser fields,” Phys. Rev. A 82, 011403 (2010).
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M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Role of the intramolecular phase in high-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 183903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Lein, N. Hay, R. Velotta, J. P. Marangos, and P. L. Knight, “Interference effects in high-order harmonic generation with molecules,” Phys. Rev. A 66, 023805 (2002).
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R. Velotta, N. Hay, M. B. Mason, M. Castillejo, and J. P. Marangos, “High-order harmonic generation in aligned molecules,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 183901 (2001).
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X. Zhou, R. Lock, N. Wagner, W. Li, H. C. Kapteyn, and M. M. Murnane, “Elliptically polarized high-order harmonic emission from molecules in linearly polarized laser fields,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 073902 (2009).
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Nature (London) (1)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The ellipticity of below-threshold harmonics from 2D and 3D H 2 + at λ = 400 nm [(a) and (c)] and λ = 760 nm [(b) and (d)] for different angles θ, obtained using Eq. (1).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The ellipticity of harmonic 5 (a), harmonic 7 (b), harmonic 9 (c) and harmonic 15 (d) from 2D H 2 + as a function of the laser wavelength at different angles θ.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The temporal evolution of the population of the first two excited states for the laser wavelength in resonant cases, compared with other wavelengthes: (a) five-photon resonance between the 1g and 1u states for λ = 560 nm; (b) seven-photon resonance between the 1g and 2u states for λ = 610 nm; (c) seven-photon resonance between the 1g and 1u states for λ = 780 nm; (d) nine-photon resonance between the 1g and 2u states for λ = 760 nm. The corresponding orientation angles θ are as shown.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Parallel (a) and perpendicular (b) spectra, the ellipticity (c) and the phase difference δ 1 (d) of below-threshold harmonics from 2D H 2 + with λ = 760 nm at θ = 200. Here, the black-square curves indicate the results of full simulations of Eq. (1), the red-circle curves indicate that obtained using Eq. (3) where the transition from the first excited state to the ground state is excluded. The blue-triangle curves indicate that obtained using Eq. (4) where besides the first excited state, the transition from the second excited state to the ground state is also excluded.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Same as Fig. 4 but θ = 800.

Equations (8)

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F ( ) ( ω ) = ψ ( t ) | e ( ) V | ψ ( t ) e i ω t d t .
F ( ) 0 ( ω ) = 0 | e ( ) V | ψ ( t ) a 0 * ( t ) e i ω t d t ,
F ( ) 01 ( ω ) = 0 | e ( ) V | ψ 1 ( t ) a 0 * ( t ) e i ω t d t ,
F ( ) 012 ( ω ) = 0 | e ( ) V | ψ 2 ( t ) a 0 * ( t ) e i ω t d t ,
ε = 1 + r 2 1 + 2 r 2 cos 2 δ + r 4 1 + r 2 + 1 + 2 r 2 cos 2 δ + r 4 ,
F ( ) ( ω , θ ) 1 | e · r | 0 [ a 1 ( ω ) 0 | e ( ) · r | 1 ] + 2 | e · r | 0 [ a 2 ( ω ) 0 | e ( ) · r | 2 ] ,
F ( ω , θ ) ~ a 1 ( ω ) | d 1 | 2 cos 2 θ + a 2 ( ω ) | d 2 | 2 sin 2 θ , F ( ω , θ ) ~ [ a 2 ( ω ) | d 2 | 2 a 1 ( ω ) | d 1 | 2 ] sin θ cos θ .
d 1 = a 1 ( ω ) | d 1 | 2 cos 2 θ , d 2 = a 2 ( ω ) | d 2 | 2 sin 2 θ , d 1 = a 1 ( ω ) | d 1 | 2 sin 2 θ , d 2 = a 2 ( ω ) | d 2 | 2 sin 2 θ .

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