Abstract

We demonstrate an all polarization-maintaining (PM) fiber-based optical frequency comb and provide the detailed environmental stability analysis results. The frequency comb has been built by commercial available PM fiber completely, and its static uncertainty in optical domain is 350 Hz in 1 s when referenced to a low noise oven controlled crystal oscillator. The acoustic resonant frequencies of the system have been measured. It is proved that acoustic-vibration induced phase noise could be eliminated by low pass vibration-isolation structure. Further, the existence of the optimum working temperature is illustrated. At this temperature (289.6 K), the out-loop integrated phase noise of fr and the temperature-drift induced instability of fCEO reach the lowest level 31.6 μrad and 0 kHz/(mW∙K) respectively. Finally, the system is proved to be stable under different humidity (18% ~80%) by a 240-day-long record of the fCEO.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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2014 (4)

A. Khodabakhsh, C. Abd Alrahman, and A. Foltynowicz, “Noise-immune cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 39(17), 5034–5037 (2014).
[PubMed]

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

L. C. Sinclair, I. Coddington, W. C. Swann, G. B. Rieker, A. Hati, K. Iwakuni, and N. R. Newbury, “Operation of an optically coherent frequency comb outside the metrology lab,” Opt. Express 22(6), 6996–7006 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

2011 (2)

2010 (3)

2009 (2)

2007 (1)

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 219–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multi frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

N. Schuhler, Y. Salvadé, S. Lévêque, R. Dändliker, and R. Holzwarth, “Frequency-comb-referenced two-wavelength source for absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3101–3103 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, “Quasi-phase-matched adhered ridge waveguide in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191123 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

1999 (1)

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultra-short pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Abd Alrahman, C.

Alic, N.

Amezcua-Correa, R.

Araki, T.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multi frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Baumann, E.

Benabid, F.

Bernhardt, B.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chang, G.

Chen, H. W.

Choi, M.

Chun, B. J.

Coddington, I.

Corwin, K. L.

Couny, F.

Dändliker, R.

Diddams, S. A.

Dudley, J. M.

Dunlop, A. E.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultra-short pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Feder, K.

Foltynowicz, A.

Fox, R.

Giorgetta, F. R.

Guelachvili, G.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Han, S.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Hänsch, T. W.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. W. Hänsch, “Nobel Lecture: Passion for precision,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 78(4), 1297–1309 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hati, A.

Holzwarth, R.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

N. Schuhler, Y. Salvadé, S. Lévêque, R. Dändliker, and R. Holzwarth, “Frequency-comb-referenced two-wavelength source for absolute distance measurement,” Opt. Lett. 31(21), 3101–3103 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hyun, S.

Iwakuni, K.

Jacquet, P.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jacquey, M.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jang, H.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Jang, Y.-S.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Jørgensen, C.

Jørgensen, C. G.

Jung, K.

Kabetani, Y.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multi frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kang, K.-I.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kärtner, F. X.

Kato, Y.

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, “Quasi-phase-matched adhered ridge waveguide in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191123 (2006).
[Crossref]

Keller, U.

S. Pekarek, T. Südmeyer, S. Lecomte, S. Kundermann, J. M. Dudley, and U. Keller, “Self-referenceable frequency comb from a gigahertz diode-pumped solid-state laser,” Opt. Express 19(17), 16491–16497 (2011).
[PubMed]

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultra-short pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Khodabakhsh, A.

Kieu, K.

Kim, C.

Kim, J.

Kim, S.

Kim, S. W.

Kim, S.-W.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Kim, Y. J.

Kim, Y.-J.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Knabe, K.

Knight, J. C.

Kobayashi, Y.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kundermann, S.

Kuo, B. P.

Kurimura, S.

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, “Quasi-phase-matched adhered ridge waveguide in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191123 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lecomte, S.

Lee, J.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lee, K.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lee, S.-H.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lévêque, S.

Li, C.-H.

Li, Y.

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Light, P. S.

Lim, C.-W.

J. Lee, K. Lee, Y.-S. Jang, H. Jang, S. Han, S.-H. Lee, K.-I. Kang, C.-W. Lim, Y.-J. Kim, and S.-W. Kim, “Testing of a femtosecond pulse laser in outer space,” Sci. Rep. 4, 5134 (2014).
[PubMed]

Lim, J.

Maruyama, M.

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, “Quasi-phase-matched adhered ridge waveguide in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191123 (2006).
[Crossref]

McFerran, J. J.

J. J. McFerran, W. C. Swann, B. R. Washburn, and N. R. Newbury, “Suppression of pump-induced frequency noise in fiber-laser frequency combs leading to sub-radian fceo phase excursions,” Appl. Phys. B 86(2), 219–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

Myslivets, E.

Nakajima, H.

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, “Quasi-phase-matched adhered ridge waveguide in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191123 (2006).
[Crossref]

Neely, W.

Newbury, N.

Newbury, N. R.

Ni, K.

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nicholson, J.

Nicholson, J. W.

Ozawa, A.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Paschotta, R.

R. Paschotta, “Noise of mode-locked lasers (Part II): timing jitter and other fluctuations,” Appl. Phys. B 79(2), 163–173 (2004).
[Crossref]

Pekarek, S.

Phillips, D. F.

Picqué, N.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Radic, S.

Rieker, G. B.

Salvadé, Y.

Saneyoshi, E.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multi frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schuhler, N.

Shen, L.

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sinclair, L. C.

Steinmeyer, G.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultra-short pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Stenger, J.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultra-short pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Südmeyer, T.

Sutter, D. H.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultra-short pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Swann, W. C.

Telle, H. R.

H. R. Telle, G. Steinmeyer, A. E. Dunlop, J. Stenger, D. H. Sutter, and U. Keller, “Carrier-envelope offset phase control: A novel concept for absolute optical frequency measurement and ultra-short pulse generation,” Appl. Phys. B 69(4), 327–332 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tillman, K. A.

Udem, T.

B. Bernhardt, A. Ozawa, P. Jacquet, M. Jacquey, Y. Kobayashi, T. Udem, R. Holzwarth, G. Guelachvili, T. W. Hänsch, and N. Picqué, “Cavity-enhanced dual-comb spectroscopy,” Nat. Photonics 4(1), 55–57 (2010).
[Crossref]

Usui, Y.

S. Kurimura, Y. Kato, M. Maruyama, Y. Usui, and H. Nakajima, “Quasi-phase-matched adhered ridge waveguide in LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(19), 191123 (2006).
[Crossref]

Walsworth, R. L.

Wang, Y.

Washburn, B.

Washburn, B. R.

Westbrook, P.

Wu, G.

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Yan, M. F.

Yasui, T.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multi frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yokoyama, S.

T. Yasui, Y. Kabetani, E. Saneyoshi, S. Yokoyama, and T. Araki, “Terahertz frequency comb by multi frequency-heterodyning photoconductive detection for high-accuracy, high-resolution terahertz spectroscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(24), 241104 (2006).
[Crossref]

Zeng, X.

G. Wu, Q. Zhou, L. Shen, K. Ni, X. Zeng, and Y. Li, “Experimental optimization of the repetition rate difference in dual-comb ranging system,” Appl. Phys. Express 7(10), 106602 (2014).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Q.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Comb design. (a) Comb structure: red line stands for PM fiber, and black line for electrical signal path. ISO: isolator, WDM: wavelength-division multiplexer, PD: photo detector, EDF: erbium doped fiber. The three insets are the spectrum of the super continuum generated by HNLF (I), the optical spectrum (II) and the autocorrelation trace (III) of the comb. The temperatures of the SESAM and the oscillator are controlled together with a single temperature controller. The blue dot besides the SESAM is the temperature detection point. (b) The spectrum (I) and the autocorrelation trace (II) of the mode-locked pulse. (c) The rf power spectrum of the free running fCEO in loop.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Deviation of counted phase-locked fr (σr) and fCEO (σCEO) for a total lasting time of 10,000 second. (a-I) Counted fr. (a-II): Relaxation process of the fr when the optical delay line moves. (b) Counted fCEO.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Acoustic impulse response test. (a) Waveform (I) and spectrogram (II) of the acoustic impulses. (b) Phase spectral density and IPN of fr for the static (red and orange) and vibrated states (blue and violet). (Sφr(fφ) stands for phase spectral density, when the density is small, Sφr(fφ) [dBrad2/Hz] ≈(Lr(f) + 3) [dBc/Hz]. Lr(f) is the single sideband spectrum. The Lr(f) is measured by R&S FSUP 26 Signal Source Analyzer.) (c) Phase spectral density and IPN of fCEO for the static (red and orange) and vibrated states (blue and violet). The phase deviation is measured by HF2LI Lock-in Amplifier - Zurich Instruments, and then converted to phase spectral density by Fourier transform.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Vibration characteristic analysis. (a) Resonant frequencies measurement. The degradation (increment) of the IPN under particular vibration amplitude at particular frequency is represented by the color of each point in the image. (b) Phase spectral density of the fr under the vibration of acoustic impulse. The offset frequency is shown as the vertical axis and in linear scale.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Influence of the SESAM temperature on the comb stability. (a) IPN of fr (blank curve) and attenuation of SESAM (blue curve) versus temperature. (b) Tuning sensitivity of the fCEO (red curve) and attenuation of SESAM (blue) versus temperature. (c) Phase noise comparison of fr under different temperatures.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 240-day-long performance of the detected fCEO signal under different Humidity.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Test platform of acoustic resonant-frequencies. (a) Mechanical design of the platform. PZT: a fast piezoelectric ceramic transducer (with a max displacement of 4.6 μm ± 10%, and a max drive voltage of 150 V). CS: copper spike. All parts are connected directly by hard contact. (b) Waveform (I) and spectrogram (II) of the acoustic impulses.

Equations (5)

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P( t )= k=1 240 A×sin( 2π×5k×t ),
α( t )=4 π 2 A k=1 240 ( 5k ) 2 sin( 2π×5k×t ).
| α peak ( t ) |=4 π 2 A k=1 240 ( 5k ) 2 .
A 4.2 150 ×37.5× 1 2 × 1 240 =0.0031 μm
| α peak | =4 π 2 ×3.1×1 0 9 ×115.921×1 0 6 = 1.45 g

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