Abstract

Solution-derived HfYGaO films have been treated by ion beam (IB) irradiation and used as liquid crystal (LC) alignment layers. Solution processing was adopted due to its simplicity, high throughput, and facile composition modification. Homogeneous and uniform LC alignment was achieved on the IB-irradiated HfYGaO films, and when these films were adopted in twisted nematic (TN) cells, electro-optical performance comparable to that of TN cells with conventional polyimide layers was achieved, with almost no capacitance–voltage hysteresis. Moreover, LC cells based on IB-irradiated HfYGaO films had a high thermal budget. The proposed IB-irradiated solution-derived HfYGaO films have considerable potential for use in advanced LC applications.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
  2. D. S. Seo and S. Kobayashi, “Effect of high pretilt angle for anchoring strength in nematic liquid crystal on rubbed polyimide surface containing trifluoromethyl moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(10), 1202–1204 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. J. Kim, Z. Zhuang, and J. S. Patel, “Effect of multidirection rubbing on the alignment of nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 513–515 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. Lien, R. A. John, M. Angelopoulos, K. W. Lee, H. Takano, K. Tajima, and A. Takenaka, “UV modification of surface pretilt of alignment layers for multidomain liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3108–3110 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. W.-K. Lee, Y. S. Choi, Y.-G. Kang, J. Sung, D.-S. Seo, and C. Park, “Super-fast switching of twisted nematic liquid crystals on 2D single wall carbon nanotube networks,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3797–3997 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Liu, X. Zheng, S. Gong, L. Liu, Z. Sun, L. Shao, and Y. Wang, “Effect of the functional diamine structure on the properties of a polyimide liquid crystal alignment film,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25348–25356 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  8. P. J. Shannon, W. M. Gibbons, and S. T. Sun, “Patterned optical properties in photopolymerized surface-aligned liquid-crystal films,” Nature 368(6471), 532–533 (1994).
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  9. P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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  17. K. Ichimura, “Photoalignment of liquid-crystal systems,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1847–1874 (2000).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multidomain liquid-crystal displays with side viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  19. H. Kang, Y. S. Choi, D. Kang, and J. C. Lee, “Photoalignment behaviour on polystyrene films containing chalcone moieties,” Liq. Cryst. 42(2), 189–197 (2015).
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  20. F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. B. Kim, J. R. Lim, J. S. Park, H. J. Ahn, M. J. Lee, S. J. Jo, M. Kim, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “The directional peeling effect of nanostructured rigiflex molds on liquid-crystal devices: liquid-crystal alignment and optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(8), 1340–1347 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  22. B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064502 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  23. H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  24. W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  25. Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  26. H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, J.-J. Han, S. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Spontaneous liquid crystal alignment on solution-derived nanocrystalline tin-oxide films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(20), 3960–3964 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  27. J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of the electrically controlled birefringence mode in solution-derived La2O3 film using low temperature,” Soft Matter 13(1), 1–4 (2015).
    [Crossref]
  28. J. W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, S.-B. Jang, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance twisted nematic liquid crystal display with solution-derived YZO surface modification via ion-beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31396–31403 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  29. D. C. Suh, Y. D. Cho, S. W. Kim, D.-H. Ko, Y. Lee, M.-H. Cho, and J. Oh, “Improved thermal stability of Al2O3 /HfO2/Al2O3 high-k gate dielectric stack on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 142112 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  30. P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. S. Jeong, Y.-G. Ha, J. Moon, A. Facchetti, and T. J. Marks, “Role of gallium doping in dramatically lowering amorphous-oxide processing temperatures for solution-derived indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(12), 1346–1350 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, “Accurate determination of liquid‐crystal tilt bias angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 48(5), 1783–1791 (1977).
    [Crossref]
  33. D. K. Owens and R. C. Wendt, “Estimation of the surface free energy of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 13(8), 1741–1747 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  34. H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Kim, J.-M. Han, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “No-bias-bend liquid-crystal display with an intermediate angle on blended polyimide via ion-beam irradiation,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), J37 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  35. A. P. Milanov, K. Xu, S. Cwik, H. Parala, T. de los Arcos, H.-W. Becker, D. Rogalla, R. Cross, S. Paul, and A. Devi, “Sc2O3, Er2O3, and Y2O3 thin films by MOCVD from volatile guanidinate class of rare-earth precursors,” Dalton Trans. 41(45), 13936–13947 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. C.-Y. Tsay and T.-T. Huang, “Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 140(1), 365–372 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  37. S. Xue, X. Zhang, R. Huang, H. Zhuang, and C. Xue, “Defect-pit-assisted growth of GaN nanostructures: nanowires, nanorods and nanobelts,” Dalton Trans. 32(32), 4296–4302 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  38. C. Y. Koo, K. Song, Y. Jung, W. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Enhanced performance of solution-processed amorphous LiYInZnO thin-film transistors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(3), 1456–1461 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2015 (3)

M. Liu, X. Zheng, S. Gong, L. Liu, Z. Sun, L. Shao, and Y. Wang, “Effect of the functional diamine structure on the properties of a polyimide liquid crystal alignment film,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25348–25356 (2015).
[Crossref]

H. Kang, Y. S. Choi, D. Kang, and J. C. Lee, “Photoalignment behaviour on polystyrene films containing chalcone moieties,” Liq. Cryst. 42(2), 189–197 (2015).
[Crossref]

J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of the electrically controlled birefringence mode in solution-derived La2O3 film using low temperature,” Soft Matter 13(1), 1–4 (2015).
[Crossref]

2014 (2)

J. W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, S.-B. Jang, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance twisted nematic liquid crystal display with solution-derived YZO surface modification via ion-beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31396–31403 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, J.-J. Han, S. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Spontaneous liquid crystal alignment on solution-derived nanocrystalline tin-oxide films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(20), 3960–3964 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (1)

C.-Y. Tsay and T.-T. Huang, “Improvement of physical properties of IGZO thin films prepared by excimer laser annealing of sol–gel derived precursor films,” Mater. Chem. Phys. 140(1), 365–372 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. P. Milanov, K. Xu, S. Cwik, H. Parala, T. de los Arcos, H.-W. Becker, D. Rogalla, R. Cross, S. Paul, and A. Devi, “Sc2O3, Er2O3, and Y2O3 thin films by MOCVD from volatile guanidinate class of rare-earth precursors,” Dalton Trans. 41(45), 13936–13947 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Y. Koo, K. Song, Y. Jung, W. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Enhanced performance of solution-processed amorphous LiYInZnO thin-film transistors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(3), 1456–1461 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

W.-K. Lee, Y. S. Choi, Y.-G. Kang, J. Sung, D.-S. Seo, and C. Park, “Super-fast switching of twisted nematic liquid crystals on 2D single wall carbon nanotube networks,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3797–3997 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

S. Jeong, Y.-G. Ha, J. Moon, A. Facchetti, and T. J. Marks, “Role of gallium doping in dramatically lowering amorphous-oxide processing temperatures for solution-derived indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(12), 1346–1350 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. C. Suh, Y. D. Cho, S. W. Kim, D.-H. Ko, Y. Lee, M.-H. Cho, and J. Oh, “Improved thermal stability of Al2O3 /HfO2/Al2O3 high-k gate dielectric stack on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 142112 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Kim, J.-M. Han, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “No-bias-bend liquid-crystal display with an intermediate angle on blended polyimide via ion-beam irradiation,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), J37 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (6)

S. Xue, X. Zhang, R. Huang, H. Zhuang, and C. Xue, “Defect-pit-assisted growth of GaN nanostructures: nanowires, nanorods and nanobelts,” Dalton Trans. 32(32), 4296–4302 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Kim, J. R. Lim, J. S. Park, H. J. Ahn, M. J. Lee, S. J. Jo, M. Kim, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “The directional peeling effect of nanostructured rigiflex molds on liquid-crystal devices: liquid-crystal alignment and optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(8), 1340–1347 (2008).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064502 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. Y. Lee, Y. L. Liu, K. Y. Wu, M. Y. Chen, and J. C. Hwang, “Argon plasma beam scanning processes on polyimide films for liquid crystal alignment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 226–230 (2008).

2007 (1)

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (2)

A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(3), 257–263 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K. Y. Wu, C. H. Chen, C. M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P. C. Liu, C. Y. Lee, C. W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C. D. Lee, “Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083518 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates,” Liq. Cryst. 31(6), 859–869 (2004).
[Crossref]

M. Lu, “Liquid crystal orientation induced by Van Der Waals interaction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8156–8160 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (2)

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

K. Ichimura, “Photoalignment of liquid-crystal systems,” Chem. Rev. 100(5), 1847–1874 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. J. Kim, Z. Zhuang, and J. S. Patel, “Effect of multidirection rubbing on the alignment of nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 513–515 (2000).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multidomain liquid-crystal displays with side viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

A. Lien, R. A. John, M. Angelopoulos, K. W. Lee, H. Takano, K. Tajima, and A. Takenaka, “UV modification of surface pretilt of alignment layers for multidomain liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3108–3110 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. S. Seo and S. Kobayashi, “Effect of high pretilt angle for anchoring strength in nematic liquid crystal on rubbed polyimide surface containing trifluoromethyl moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(10), 1202–1204 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

P. J. Shannon, W. M. Gibbons, and S. T. Sun, “Patterned optical properties in photopolymerized surface-aligned liquid-crystal films,” Nature 368(6471), 532–533 (1994).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, “Accurate determination of liquid‐crystal tilt bias angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 48(5), 1783–1791 (1977).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

J. L. Janning, “Thin film surface orientation for liquid crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 21(4), 173–174 (1972).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

D. K. Owens and R. C. Wendt, “Estimation of the surface free energy of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 13(8), 1741–1747 (1969).
[Crossref]

Ahn, H. J.

J. B. Kim, J. R. Lim, J. S. Park, H. J. Ahn, M. J. Lee, S. J. Jo, M. Kim, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “The directional peeling effect of nanostructured rigiflex molds on liquid-crystal devices: liquid-crystal alignment and optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(8), 1340–1347 (2008).
[Crossref]

Andry, P. S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Angelopoulos, M.

A. Lien, R. A. John, M. Angelopoulos, K. W. Lee, H. Takano, K. Tajima, and A. Takenaka, “UV modification of surface pretilt of alignment layers for multidomain liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3108–3110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Baik, H. K.

J. B. Kim, J. R. Lim, J. S. Park, H. J. Ahn, M. J. Lee, S. J. Jo, M. Kim, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “The directional peeling effect of nanostructured rigiflex molds on liquid-crystal devices: liquid-crystal alignment and optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(8), 1340–1347 (2008).
[Crossref]

Becker, H.-W.

A. P. Milanov, K. Xu, S. Cwik, H. Parala, T. de los Arcos, H.-W. Becker, D. Rogalla, R. Cross, S. Paul, and A. Devi, “Sc2O3, Er2O3, and Y2O3 thin films by MOCVD from volatile guanidinate class of rare-earth precursors,” Dalton Trans. 41(45), 13936–13947 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blake, P.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Booth, T. J.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brimicombe, P. D.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, C.

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J. B. Kim, J. R. Lim, J. S. Park, H. J. Ahn, M. J. Lee, S. J. Jo, M. Kim, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “The directional peeling effect of nanostructured rigiflex molds on liquid-crystal devices: liquid-crystal alignment and optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(8), 1340–1347 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-H.

H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Kim, J.-M. Han, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “No-bias-bend liquid-crystal display with an intermediate angle on blended polyimide via ion-beam irradiation,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), J37 (2009).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064502 (2008).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ko, D.-H.

D. C. Suh, Y. D. Cho, S. W. Kim, D.-H. Ko, Y. Lee, M.-H. Cho, and J. Oh, “Improved thermal stability of Al2O3 /HfO2/Al2O3 high-k gate dielectric stack on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 142112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kobayashi, S.

D. S. Seo and S. Kobayashi, “Effect of high pretilt angle for anchoring strength in nematic liquid crystal on rubbed polyimide surface containing trifluoromethyl moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(10), 1202–1204 (1995).
[Crossref]

Koo, C. Y.

C. Y. Koo, K. Song, Y. Jung, W. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Enhanced performance of solution-processed amorphous LiYInZnO thin-film transistors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(3), 1456–1461 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kou, C. S.

K. Y. Wu, C. H. Chen, C. M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P. C. Liu, C. Y. Lee, C. W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C. D. Lee, “Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083518 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kravchuk, R.

A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(3), 257–263 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates,” Liq. Cryst. 31(6), 859–869 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S. K.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[Crossref]

Kwok, H. S.

J. Y. L. Ho, V. G. Chigrinov, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles generated by photoalignment of a mixed polyimide alignment layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(24), 243506 (2007).
[Crossref]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lacey, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lacey, J. A.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lang, N. D.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates,” Liq. Cryst. 31(6), 859–869 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. D.

K. Y. Wu, C. H. Chen, C. M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P. C. Liu, C. Y. Lee, C. W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C. D. Lee, “Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083518 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. Y.

C. Y. Lee, Y. L. Liu, K. Y. Wu, M. Y. Chen, and J. C. Hwang, “Argon plasma beam scanning processes on polyimide films for liquid crystal alignment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 226–230 (2008).

K. Y. Wu, C. H. Chen, C. M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P. C. Liu, C. Y. Lee, C. W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C. D. Lee, “Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083518 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. C.

H. Kang, Y. S. Choi, D. Kang, and J. C. Lee, “Photoalignment behaviour on polystyrene films containing chalcone moieties,” Liq. Cryst. 42(2), 189–197 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, J. W.

Lee, J.-W.

J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of the electrically controlled birefringence mode in solution-derived La2O3 film using low temperature,” Soft Matter 13(1), 1–4 (2015).
[Crossref]

Lee, K. W.

A. Lien, R. A. John, M. Angelopoulos, K. W. Lee, H. Takano, K. Tajima, and A. Takenaka, “UV modification of surface pretilt of alignment layers for multidomain liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3108–3110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.-M.

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, M. J.

J. B. Kim, J. R. Lim, J. S. Park, H. J. Ahn, M. J. Lee, S. J. Jo, M. Kim, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “The directional peeling effect of nanostructured rigiflex molds on liquid-crystal devices: liquid-crystal alignment and optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(8), 1340–1347 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S. J.

J. B. Kim, J. R. Lim, J. S. Park, H. J. Ahn, M. J. Lee, S. J. Jo, M. Kim, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “The directional peeling effect of nanostructured rigiflex molds on liquid-crystal devices: liquid-crystal alignment and optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(8), 1340–1347 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, S.-K.

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, W.-K.

W.-K. Lee, Y. S. Choi, Y.-G. Kang, J. Sung, D.-S. Seo, and C. Park, “Super-fast switching of twisted nematic liquid crystals on 2D single wall carbon nanotube networks,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3797–3997 (2011).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y.

D. C. Suh, Y. D. Cho, S. W. Kim, D.-H. Ko, Y. Lee, M.-H. Cho, and J. Oh, “Improved thermal stability of Al2O3 /HfO2/Al2O3 high-k gate dielectric stack on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 142112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, Y. W.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lien, A.

A. Lien, R. A. John, M. Angelopoulos, K. W. Lee, H. Takano, K. Tajima, and A. Takenaka, “UV modification of surface pretilt of alignment layers for multidomain liquid crystal displays,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67(21), 3108–3110 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lien, S. A.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lien, S. C.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lim, J. R.

J. B. Kim, J. R. Lim, J. S. Park, H. J. Ahn, M. J. Lee, S. J. Jo, M. Kim, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “The directional peeling effect of nanostructured rigiflex molds on liquid-crystal devices: liquid-crystal alignment and optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(8), 1340–1347 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lim, J.-H.

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, L.

M. Liu, X. Zheng, S. Gong, L. Liu, Z. Sun, L. Shao, and Y. Wang, “Effect of the functional diamine structure on the properties of a polyimide liquid crystal alignment film,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25348–25356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, X. Zheng, S. Gong, L. Liu, Z. Sun, L. Shao, and Y. Wang, “Effect of the functional diamine structure on the properties of a polyimide liquid crystal alignment film,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25348–25356 (2015).
[Crossref]

Liu, P. C.

K. Y. Wu, C. H. Chen, C. M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P. C. Liu, C. Y. Lee, C. W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C. D. Lee, “Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083518 (2005).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y. L.

C. Y. Lee, Y. L. Liu, K. Y. Wu, M. Y. Chen, and J. C. Hwang, “Argon plasma beam scanning processes on polyimide films for liquid crystal alignment,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 47(1), 226–230 (2008).

Logan, J. A.

M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lu, M.

M. Lu, “Liquid crystal orientation induced by Van Der Waals interaction,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43(12), 8156–8160 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luning, J.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Marks, T. J.

S. Jeong, Y.-G. Ha, J. Moon, A. Facchetti, and T. J. Marks, “Role of gallium doping in dramatically lowering amorphous-oxide processing temperatures for solution-derived indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(12), 1346–1350 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Milanov, A. P.

A. P. Milanov, K. Xu, S. Cwik, H. Parala, T. de los Arcos, H.-W. Becker, D. Rogalla, R. Cross, S. Paul, and A. Devi, “Sc2O3, Er2O3, and Y2O3 thin films by MOCVD from volatile guanidinate class of rare-earth precursors,” Dalton Trans. 41(45), 13936–13947 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moon, J.

C. Y. Koo, K. Song, Y. Jung, W. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Enhanced performance of solution-processed amorphous LiYInZnO thin-film transistors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(3), 1456–1461 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Jeong, Y.-G. Ha, J. Moon, A. Facchetti, and T. J. Marks, “Role of gallium doping in dramatically lowering amorphous-oxide processing temperatures for solution-derived indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(12), 1346–1350 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morozov, S. V.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murauski, A.

A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(3), 257–263 (2006).
[Crossref]

Na, H.-J.

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nair, R. R.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakagaki, J.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakagawa, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nakano, H.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nehring, J.

T. J. Scheffer and J. Nehring, “Accurate determination of liquid‐crystal tilt bias angles,” J. Appl. Phys. 48(5), 1783–1791 (1977).
[Crossref]

Novoselov, K. S.

P. Blake, P. D. Brimicombe, R. R. Nair, T. J. Booth, D. Jiang, F. Schedin, L. A. Ponomarenko, S. V. Morozov, H. F. Gleeson, E. W. Hill, A. K. Geim, and K. S. Novoselov, “Graphene-based liquid crystal device,” Nano Lett. 8(6), 1704–1708 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Odahara, S.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, B.-Y.

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Kim, J.-M. Han, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “No-bias-bend liquid-crystal display with an intermediate angle on blended polyimide via ion-beam irradiation,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), J37 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064502 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oh, J.

D. C. Suh, Y. D. Cho, S. W. Kim, D.-H. Ko, Y. Lee, M.-H. Cho, and J. Oh, “Improved thermal stability of Al2O3 /HfO2/Al2O3 high-k gate dielectric stack on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 142112 (2010).
[Crossref]

Owens, D. K.

D. K. Owens and R. C. Wendt, “Estimation of the surface free energy of polymers,” J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 13(8), 1741–1747 (1969).
[Crossref]

Parala, H.

A. P. Milanov, K. Xu, S. Cwik, H. Parala, T. de los Arcos, H.-W. Becker, D. Rogalla, R. Cross, S. Paul, and A. Devi, “Sc2O3, Er2O3, and Y2O3 thin films by MOCVD from volatile guanidinate class of rare-earth precursors,” Dalton Trans. 41(45), 13936–13947 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, C.

W.-K. Lee, Y. S. Choi, Y.-G. Kang, J. Sung, D.-S. Seo, and C. Park, “Super-fast switching of twisted nematic liquid crystals on 2D single wall carbon nanotube networks,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3797–3997 (2011).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-G.

J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of the electrically controlled birefringence mode in solution-derived La2O3 film using low temperature,” Soft Matter 13(1), 1–4 (2015).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, J.-J. Han, S. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Spontaneous liquid crystal alignment on solution-derived nanocrystalline tin-oxide films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(20), 3960–3964 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, S.-B. Jang, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance twisted nematic liquid crystal display with solution-derived YZO surface modification via ion-beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31396–31403 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Kim, J.-M. Han, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “No-bias-bend liquid-crystal display with an intermediate angle on blended polyimide via ion-beam irradiation,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), J37 (2009).
[Crossref]

W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, J. S.

J. B. Kim, J. R. Lim, J. S. Park, H. J. Ahn, M. J. Lee, S. J. Jo, M. Kim, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “The directional peeling effect of nanostructured rigiflex molds on liquid-crystal devices: liquid-crystal alignment and optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(8), 1340–1347 (2008).
[Crossref]

Park, T.-K.

Patel, J. S.

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O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates,” Liq. Cryst. 31(6), 859–869 (2004).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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A. P. Milanov, K. Xu, S. Cwik, H. Parala, T. de los Arcos, H.-W. Becker, D. Rogalla, R. Cross, S. Paul, and A. Devi, “Sc2O3, Er2O3, and Y2O3 thin films by MOCVD from volatile guanidinate class of rare-earth precursors,” Dalton Trans. 41(45), 13936–13947 (2012).
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M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
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J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
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M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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M. Schadt, H. Seiberle, and A. Schuster, “Optical patterning of multidomain liquid-crystal displays with side viewing angles,” Nature 381(6579), 212–215 (1996).
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D. S. Seo and S. Kobayashi, “Effect of high pretilt angle for anchoring strength in nematic liquid crystal on rubbed polyimide surface containing trifluoromethyl moieties,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66(10), 1202–1204 (1995).
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J.-W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance of the electrically controlled birefringence mode in solution-derived La2O3 film using low temperature,” Soft Matter 13(1), 1–4 (2015).
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H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, J.-J. Han, S. Y. Kim, J.-H. Kim, D.-H. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Spontaneous liquid crystal alignment on solution-derived nanocrystalline tin-oxide films,” J. Mater. Chem. C 2(20), 3960–3964 (2014).
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J. W. Lee, H.-G. Park, H.-C. Jeong, S.-B. Jang, T.-K. Park, and D.-S. Seo, “High performance twisted nematic liquid crystal display with solution-derived YZO surface modification via ion-beam irradiation,” Opt. Express 22(25), 31396–31403 (2014).
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Y.-G. Kang, H.-J. Kim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, and D.-S. Seo, “Tin dioxide inorganic nanolevel films with different liquid crystal molecular orientations for application in liquid crystal displays (LCDs),” J. Mater. Chem. 22(31), 15969–15975 (2012).
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W.-K. Lee, Y. S. Choi, Y.-G. Kang, J. Sung, D.-S. Seo, and C. Park, “Super-fast switching of twisted nematic liquid crystals on 2D single wall carbon nanotube networks,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3797–3997 (2011).
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W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
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H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Oh, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Kim, J.-M. Han, J.-Y. Hwang, and D.-S. Seo, “No-bias-bend liquid-crystal display with an intermediate angle on blended polyimide via ion-beam irradiation,” Electrochem. Solid-State Lett. 12(4), J37 (2009).
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H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
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B.-Y. Oh, K.-M. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, Y.-H. Kim, J.-W. Han, J.-M. Han, S.-K. Lee, and D.-S. Seo, “Surface reformation and electro-optical characteristics of liquid crystal alignment layers using ion beam irradiation,” J. Appl. Phys. 104(6), 064502 (2008).
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P. J. Shannon, W. M. Gibbons, and S. T. Sun, “Patterned optical properties in photopolymerized surface-aligned liquid-crystal films,” Nature 368(6471), 532–533 (1994).
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Shao, L.

M. Liu, X. Zheng, S. Gong, L. Liu, Z. Sun, L. Shao, and Y. Wang, “Effect of the functional diamine structure on the properties of a polyimide liquid crystal alignment film,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25348–25356 (2015).
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Sheng, P.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
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Shiota, Y.

P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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Song, K.

C. Y. Koo, K. Song, Y. Jung, W. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Enhanced performance of solution-processed amorphous LiYInZnO thin-film transistors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(3), 1456–1461 (2012).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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Speidell, J. L.

J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
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J. Stohr, M. G. Samant, J. Luning, A. C. Callegari, P. Chaudhari, J. P. Doyle, J. A. Lacey, S. A. Lien, S. Purushothaman, and J. L. Speidell, “Liquid crystal alignment on carbonaceous surfaces with orientational order,” Science 292(5525), 2299–2302 (2001).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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P. J. Shannon, W. M. Gibbons, and S. T. Sun, “Patterned optical properties in photopolymerized surface-aligned liquid-crystal films,” Nature 368(6471), 532–533 (1994).
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Sun, Z.

M. Liu, X. Zheng, S. Gong, L. Liu, Z. Sun, L. Shao, and Y. Wang, “Effect of the functional diamine structure on the properties of a polyimide liquid crystal alignment film,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25348–25356 (2015).
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Sung, J.

W.-K. Lee, Y. S. Choi, Y.-G. Kang, J. Sung, D.-S. Seo, and C. Park, “Super-fast switching of twisted nematic liquid crystals on 2D single wall carbon nanotube networks,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3797–3997 (2011).
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M. F. Toney, T. P. Russell, J. A. Logan, H. Kikuchi, J. M. Sands, and S. K. Kumar, “Near-surface alignment of polymers in rubbed films,” Nature 374(6524), 709–711 (1995).
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F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
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M. Liu, X. Zheng, S. Gong, L. Liu, Z. Sun, L. Shao, and Y. Wang, “Effect of the functional diamine structure on the properties of a polyimide liquid crystal alignment film,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25348–25356 (2015).
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K. Y. Wu, C. H. Chen, C. M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P. C. Liu, C. Y. Lee, C. W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C. D. Lee, “Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083518 (2005).
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Xie, F. C.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
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A. P. Milanov, K. Xu, S. Cwik, H. Parala, T. de los Arcos, H.-W. Becker, D. Rogalla, R. Cross, S. Paul, and A. Devi, “Sc2O3, Er2O3, and Y2O3 thin films by MOCVD from volatile guanidinate class of rare-earth precursors,” Dalton Trans. 41(45), 13936–13947 (2012).
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S. Xue, X. Zhang, R. Huang, H. Zhuang, and C. Xue, “Defect-pit-assisted growth of GaN nanostructures: nanowires, nanorods and nanobelts,” Dalton Trans. 32(32), 4296–4302 (2008).
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S. Xue, X. Zhang, R. Huang, H. Zhuang, and C. Xue, “Defect-pit-assisted growth of GaN nanostructures: nanowires, nanorods and nanobelts,” Dalton Trans. 32(32), 4296–4302 (2008).
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P. Chaudhari, J. Lacey, J. Doyle, E. Galligan, S. C. Lien, A. Callegari, G. Hougham, N. D. Lang, P. S. Andry, R. John, K. H. Yang, M. Lu, C. Cai, J. Speidell, S. Purushothaman, J. Ritsko, M. Samant, J. Stöhr, Y. Nakagawa, Y. Katoh, Y. Saitoh, K. Sakai, H. Satoh, S. Odahara, H. Nakano, J. Nakagaki, and Y. Shiota, “Atomic-beam alignment of inorganic materials for liquid-crystal displays,” Nature 411(6833), 56–59 (2001).
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Yang, W.

C. Y. Koo, K. Song, Y. Jung, W. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Enhanced performance of solution-processed amorphous LiYInZnO thin-film transistors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(3), 1456–1461 (2012).
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Yaroshchuk, O.

A. Khakhlou, A. Murauski, O. Yaroshchuk, E. Telesh, and R. Kravchuk, “Second wind of the oblique deposition method of liquid-crystal alignment: Ion-beam sputtering technique,” J. Soc. Inf. Disp. 14(3), 257–263 (2006).
[Crossref]

O. Yaroshchuk, R. Kravchuk, A. Dobrovolskyy, L. Qiu, and O. D. Lavrentovich, “Planar and tilted uniform alignment of liquid crystals by plasma-treated substrates,” Liq. Cryst. 31(6), 859–869 (2004).
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Yeh, C. M.

K. Y. Wu, C. H. Chen, C. M. Yeh, J. Hwang, P. C. Liu, C. Y. Lee, C. W. Chen, H. K. Wei, C. S. Kou, and C. D. Lee, “Liquid-crystal alignment on a-C:H films by nitrogen plasma beam scanning,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(8), 083518 (2005).
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Yeung, F. S.

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
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Zhang, X.

S. Xue, X. Zhang, R. Huang, H. Zhuang, and C. Xue, “Defect-pit-assisted growth of GaN nanostructures: nanowires, nanorods and nanobelts,” Dalton Trans. 32(32), 4296–4302 (2008).
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Zheng, X.

M. Liu, X. Zheng, S. Gong, L. Liu, Z. Sun, L. Shao, and Y. Wang, “Effect of the functional diamine structure on the properties of a polyimide liquid crystal alignment film,” RSC Adv. 5(32), 25348–25356 (2015).
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Zhuang, H.

S. Xue, X. Zhang, R. Huang, H. Zhuang, and C. Xue, “Defect-pit-assisted growth of GaN nanostructures: nanowires, nanorods and nanobelts,” Dalton Trans. 32(32), 4296–4302 (2008).
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Zhuang, Z.

Y. J. Kim, Z. Zhuang, and J. S. Patel, “Effect of multidirection rubbing on the alignment of nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(4), 513–515 (2000).
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ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces (1)

C. Y. Koo, K. Song, Y. Jung, W. Yang, S.-H. Kim, S. Jeong, and J. Moon, “Enhanced performance of solution-processed amorphous LiYInZnO thin-film transistors,” ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 4(3), 1456–1461 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (2)

W.-K. Lee, Y. S. Choi, Y.-G. Kang, J. Sung, D.-S. Seo, and C. Park, “Super-fast switching of twisted nematic liquid crystals on 2D single wall carbon nanotube networks,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(20), 3797–3997 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. B. Kim, J. R. Lim, J. S. Park, H. J. Ahn, M. J. Lee, S. J. Jo, M. Kim, D. Kang, S. J. Lee, Y. S. Kim, and H. K. Baik, “The directional peeling effect of nanostructured rigiflex molds on liquid-crystal devices: liquid-crystal alignment and optical properties,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 18(8), 1340–1347 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

S. Jeong, Y.-G. Ha, J. Moon, A. Facchetti, and T. J. Marks, “Role of gallium doping in dramatically lowering amorphous-oxide processing temperatures for solution-derived indium zinc oxide thin-film transistors,” Adv. Mater. 22(12), 1346–1350 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

D. C. Suh, Y. D. Cho, S. W. Kim, D.-H. Ko, Y. Lee, M.-H. Cho, and J. Oh, “Improved thermal stability of Al2O3 /HfO2/Al2O3 high-k gate dielectric stack on GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(14), 142112 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. S. Yeung, J. Y. Ho, Y. W. Li, F. C. Xie, O. K. Tsui, P. Sheng, and H. S. Kwok, “Variable liquid crystal pretilt angles by nanostructured surfaces,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(5), 051910 (2006).
[Crossref]

H.-G. Park, Y.-H. Kim, B.-Y. Oh, W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Kim, D.-S. Seo, and J.-Y. Hwang, “Vertically aligned liquid crystals on a γ-Al2O3 alignment film using ion-beam irradiation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93(23), 233507 (2008).
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W.-K. Lee, B.-Y. Oh, J.-H. Lim, H.-G. Park, B.-Y. Kim, H.-J. Na, and D.-S. Seo, “Vertical alignment of liquid crystals on a fully oxidized HfO2 surface by ion bombardment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(22), 223507 (2009).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Photographs of LC cells based on IB-irradiated HfYGaO films prepared using various IB incident energies; A and P represent the analyzer and polarizer axes, respectively.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a–d) Transmittance versus incident angle of LC molecules on IB-irradiated HfYGaO films prepared using various IB incident energies, and (e) measured pretilt angles.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Contact angles of deionized water and diiodomethane on IB-irradiated HfYGaO films as a function of IB incident energy, and (b) calculated surface energies of the IB-irradiated HfYGaO surfaces.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 XPS (a) Hf4f, (b) Y3d, (c) Ga2p and (d) O1s core-level spectra of solution-derived HfYGaO films before and after IB irradiation at incident IB energy of 1800 eV and IB current density of 1.2 mA/cm2. The insets are photomicrographs of LC cells with HfYGaO films before and after IB irradiation.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a-d) C–V characteristics of LC cells based on IB-irradiated HfYGaO films prepared using various IB incident energies and those based on (e) IB-irradiated HfO2 films and (f) rubbed PI layers.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) V–T and (b) response time characteristics of TN cells based on IB-irradiated HfYGaO films. The results are compared with those for the rubbed PI and IB-irradiated PI TN cells.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Photomicrographs of LC cells based on IB-irradiated HfYGaO films prepared using various IB incident energies; each cell was annealed using a different annealing temperature to examine thermal stability.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Contact angles and calculated surface energies of IB-irradiated HfYGaO films prepared using various IB incident energies

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Table 2 The variation of intensities, peak shifts, and atomic percentage areas of each chemical bonding state deconvoluted from the Hf4f, Y3d, Ga2p, and O1s core-level spectra of the solution-derived HfYGaO films before and after IB irradiation.

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Table 3 Parameters for the EO characteristics of TN cells with rubbed PI, IB-irradiated PI and IB-irradiated HfYGaO films.

Equations (1)

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0.5 γ l ( 1+cosΘ )= ( γ s d γ l d ) 0.5 + ( γ s p γ l p ) 0.5 .

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