Abstract

Inter-symbol interference (ISI) is one of the key problems that seriously limit transmission data rate in high-speed VLC systems. To eliminate ISI and further improve the system performance, series of equalization schemes have been widely investigated. As an adaptive algorithm commonly used in wireless communication, RLS is also suitable for visible light communication due to its quick convergence and better performance. In this paper, for the first time we experimentally demonstrate a high-speed RGB-LED based WDM VLC system employing carrier-less amplitude and phase (CAP) modulation and recursive least square (RLS) based adaptive equalization. An aggregate data rate of 4.5Gb/s is successfully achieved over 1.5-m indoor free space transmission with the bit error rate (BER) below the 7% forward error correction (FEC) limit of 3.8x10−3. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest data rate ever achieved in RGB-LED based VLC systems.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  2. Y. Wang, Y. Wang, N. Chi, J. Yu, and H. Shang, “Demonstration of 575-Mb/s downlink and 225-Mb/s uplink bi-directional SCM-WDM visible light communication using RGB LED and phosphor-based LED,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1203–1208 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  4. F. Wu, C. Lin, C. Wei, C. Chen, Z. Chen, and K. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM Visible Light Communication of a Single RGB LED Employing Carrier-Less Amplitude and Phase Modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1G.4.
    [Crossref]
  5. G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. Y. Wang, X. Huang, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of visible light communication employing 512-QAM N-SC-FDE and DD-LMS,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15328–15334 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. G. Cossu, A. Wajahat, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “5.6Gbit/s downlink and 1.5Gbit/s uplink optical wireless transmission at indoor distances (≥1.5m),” 2014 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), We.3.6.4.
  8. Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. D. Bandara, P. Niroopan, and Y. Chung, “Improved indoor visible light communication with PAM and RLS decision feedback equalizer,” J. Inst. Electron. Telecommun. Eng. 59(6), 672–678 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Bandara and Y. Chung, “Reduced training sequence using RLS adaptive algorithm with decision feedback equalizer in indoor visible light wireless communication channel,” IEEE International Conference on ICT Convergence (ICTC, 2012), pp. 149–154.
    [Crossref]
  11. A. Leven, F. Vacondio, L. Schmalen, S. Brink, and W. Idler, “Estimation of soft FEC performance in optical transmission experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1547–1549 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Express 21(5), 6459–6465 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. X. Huang, J. Shi, J. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “750Mbit/s Visible Light Communications employing 64QAM-OFDM Based on Amplitude Equalization Circuit,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu2G.1.
    [Crossref]
  14. Y. Yi, K. Lee, Y. Jang, J. Cha, J. Kim, and K. Lee, “Indoor LED-Based identification systems using adaptive MMSE equalizer for optical multipath dispersion reduction,” in IEEE International Conference on ICT Convergence (ICTC, 2011), pp. 95–100.
    [Crossref]
  15. A. Goldsmith, Wireless Communications (Cambridge University Press, 2005), Chap. 7.
  16. Y. Yi, C. Li, and K. Lee, “Optimum spread code applied in indoor visible light data transmission for optical multipath dispersion reduction,” IETE Tech. Rev. 30(3), 233–239 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2014 (3)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Huang, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of visible light communication employing 512-QAM N-SC-FDE and DD-LMS,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15328–15334 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

K. D. Bandara, P. Niroopan, and Y. Chung, “Improved indoor visible light communication with PAM and RLS decision feedback equalizer,” J. Inst. Electron. Telecommun. Eng. 59(6), 672–678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, Y. Wang, N. Chi, J. Yu, and H. Shang, “Demonstration of 575-Mb/s downlink and 225-Mb/s uplink bi-directional SCM-WDM visible light communication using RGB LED and phosphor-based LED,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1203–1208 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Express 21(5), 6459–6465 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Yi, C. Li, and K. Lee, “Optimum spread code applied in indoor visible light data transmission for optical multipath dispersion reduction,” IETE Tech. Rev. 30(3), 233–239 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

2011 (1)

A. Leven, F. Vacondio, L. Schmalen, S. Brink, and W. Idler, “Estimation of soft FEC performance in optical transmission experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1547–1549 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bandara, K. D.

K. D. Bandara, P. Niroopan, and Y. Chung, “Improved indoor visible light communication with PAM and RLS decision feedback equalizer,” J. Inst. Electron. Telecommun. Eng. 59(6), 672–678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Brink, S.

A. Leven, F. Vacondio, L. Schmalen, S. Brink, and W. Idler, “Estimation of soft FEC performance in optical transmission experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1547–1549 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chi, N.

Choudhury, P.

Chun, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chung, Y.

K. D. Bandara, P. Niroopan, and Y. Chung, “Improved indoor visible light communication with PAM and RLS decision feedback equalizer,” J. Inst. Electron. Telecommun. Eng. 59(6), 672–678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ciaramella, E.

Corsini, R.

Cossu, G.

Dawson, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Faulkner, G.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

Gu, E.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haas, H.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haji, M.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Huang, X.

Idler, W.

A. Leven, F. Vacondio, L. Schmalen, S. Brink, and W. Idler, “Estimation of soft FEC performance in optical transmission experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1547–1549 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jung, D.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kelly, A.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Khalid, A. M.

Lau, A. P. T.

Lee, K.

Y. Yi, C. Li, and K. Lee, “Optimum spread code applied in indoor visible light data transmission for optical multipath dispersion reduction,” IETE Tech. Rev. 30(3), 233–239 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Leven, A.

A. Leven, F. Vacondio, L. Schmalen, S. Brink, and W. Idler, “Estimation of soft FEC performance in optical transmission experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1547–1549 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, C.

Y. Yi, C. Li, and K. Lee, “Optimum spread code applied in indoor visible light data transmission for optical multipath dispersion reduction,” IETE Tech. Rev. 30(3), 233–239 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lu, C.

McKendry, J.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Minh, H. L.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Niroopan, P.

K. D. Bandara, P. Niroopan, and Y. Chung, “Improved indoor visible light communication with PAM and RLS decision feedback equalizer,” J. Inst. Electron. Telecommun. Eng. 59(6), 672–678 (2013).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oh, Y.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rajbhandari, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmalen, L.

A. Leven, F. Vacondio, L. Schmalen, S. Brink, and W. Idler, “Estimation of soft FEC performance in optical transmission experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1547–1549 (2011).
[Crossref]

Shang, H.

Tao, L.

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Express 21(5), 6459–6465 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsonev, D.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vacondio, F.

A. Leven, F. Vacondio, L. Schmalen, S. Brink, and W. Idler, “Estimation of soft FEC performance in optical transmission experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1547–1549 (2011).
[Crossref]

Videv, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wang, Y.

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Wang, X. Huang, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of visible light communication employing 512-QAM N-SC-FDE and DD-LMS,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15328–15334 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, X. Huang, J. Zhang, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “Enhanced performance of visible light communication employing 512-QAM N-SC-FDE and DD-LMS,” Opt. Express 22(13), 15328–15334 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tao, Y. Wang, Y. Gao, A. P. T. Lau, N. Chi, and C. Lu, “Experimental demonstration of 10 Gb/s multi-level carrier-less amplitude and phase modulation for short range optical communication systems,” Opt. Express 21(5), 6459–6465 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Y. Wang, N. Chi, J. Yu, and H. Shang, “Demonstration of 575-Mb/s downlink and 225-Mb/s uplink bi-directional SCM-WDM visible light communication using RGB LED and phosphor-based LED,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1203–1208 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Wang, Y. Wang, N. Chi, J. Yu, and H. Shang, “Demonstration of 575-Mb/s downlink and 225-Mb/s uplink bi-directional SCM-WDM visible light communication using RGB LED and phosphor-based LED,” Opt. Express 21(1), 1203–1208 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Watson, S.

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

Won, E. T.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yi, Y.

Y. Yi, C. Li, and K. Lee, “Optimum spread code applied in indoor visible light data transmission for optical multipath dispersion reduction,” IETE Tech. Rev. 30(3), 233–239 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, J.

Zeng, L.

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

IEEE Commun. Lett. (1)

Y. Wang, L. Tao, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “High speed WDM VLC system based on multi-band CAP64 with weighted pre-equalization and modified CMMA based post-equalization,” IEEE Commun. Lett. 18(10), 1719–1722 (2014).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

D. Tsonev, H. Chun, S. Rajbhandari, J. McKendry, S. Videv, E. Gu, M. Haji, S. Watson, A. Kelly, G. Faulkner, M. Dawson, H. Haas, and D. O’Brien, “A 3-Gb/s single-LED OFDM-based wireless VLC link using a Gallium Nitride μLED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 26(7), 637–640 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Leven, F. Vacondio, L. Schmalen, S. Brink, and W. Idler, “Estimation of soft FEC performance in optical transmission experiments,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 23(20), 1547–1549 (2011).
[Crossref]

IETE Tech. Rev. (1)

Y. Yi, C. Li, and K. Lee, “Optimum spread code applied in indoor visible light data transmission for optical multipath dispersion reduction,” IETE Tech. Rev. 30(3), 233–239 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Inst. Electron. Telecommun. Eng. (1)

K. D. Bandara, P. Niroopan, and Y. Chung, “Improved indoor visible light communication with PAM and RLS decision feedback equalizer,” J. Inst. Electron. Telecommun. Eng. 59(6), 672–678 (2013).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. O’Brien, H. L. Minh, L. Zeng, G. Faulkner, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “Indoor visible light communications: challenges and prospects,” Proc. SPIE 7091, 709106 (2008).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

F. Wu, C. Lin, C. Wei, C. Chen, Z. Chen, and K. Huang, “3.22-Gb/s WDM Visible Light Communication of a Single RGB LED Employing Carrier-Less Amplitude and Phase Modulation,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference 2013, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper OTh1G.4.
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. Wajahat, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “5.6Gbit/s downlink and 1.5Gbit/s uplink optical wireless transmission at indoor distances (≥1.5m),” 2014 European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC, 2014), We.3.6.4.

K. Bandara and Y. Chung, “Reduced training sequence using RLS adaptive algorithm with decision feedback equalizer in indoor visible light wireless communication channel,” IEEE International Conference on ICT Convergence (ICTC, 2012), pp. 149–154.
[Crossref]

X. Huang, J. Shi, J. Li, Y. Wang, Y. Wang, and N. Chi, “750Mbit/s Visible Light Communications employing 64QAM-OFDM Based on Amplitude Equalization Circuit,” in Optical Fiber Communication Conference, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2015), paper Tu2G.1.
[Crossref]

Y. Yi, K. Lee, Y. Jang, J. Cha, J. Kim, and K. Lee, “Indoor LED-Based identification systems using adaptive MMSE equalizer for optical multipath dispersion reduction,” in IEEE International Conference on ICT Convergence (ICTC, 2011), pp. 95–100.
[Crossref]

A. Goldsmith, Wireless Communications (Cambridge University Press, 2005), Chap. 7.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The schematic diagram of RLS based equalizer
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 The error value vs. different iteration number of (a) RLS, (b) M-CMMA
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The experimental setup of the WDM VLC system employing CAP and RLS
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The measured frequency response of the three individual VLC links, (b) the electrical spectra of the red chip, (c) the electrical spectra of the green chip, (d) the electrical spectra of the blue chip
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The BER performance versus the number of taps in the red chip
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured BER versus different bias voltages and input signal Vpp of the red chip.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The BER performance versus transmission distance with (a) RLS equalization, (b) M-CMMA equalization
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The Q factor comparison between RLS, M-CMMA and CMMA equalization

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 The required computation of M-CMMA and RLS in one interation.

Metrics