Abstract

Higher triplet energy and balanced charge mobility is two key factors for high-efficiency host materials of phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (PhOLED), which are integrated in a carbazole-diphenylene-fluorene hybrid FDPCz2 (9,9'-(4',4”-(9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(biphenyl-4',4-diyl))bis(9H-carbazole)) on the basis of indirect linkage strategy. Owing to rationally spatial allocation of conjugation blocking and extension for diphenylene linkages, FDPCz2 achieves both high triplet energy of 2.97 eV and favorable charge mobility by order of 6.3 × 10−6 cm2 V−1 s−1. Compared to conventional hosts and a short-conjugated analogue FPCz2 (9,9'-(4,4'-(9H-fluorene-9,9-diyl)bis(4,1-phenylene)) bis(9H-carbazole)), FDPCz2 dramatically elevated device efficiencies with peak values of 40.6 cd A−1 and 20.2% for blue PhOLEDs.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

C. Han, L. Zhu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Deng, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Suppressing triplet state extension for highly efficient ambipolar phosphine oxide host materials in blue PHOLEDs,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(20), 2670–2672 (2014).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, S. Yue, Y. Wu, P. Yan, Q. Wu, D. Qu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white organic light-emitting diodes with a simply double light-emitting structure,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1815–1823 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (2)

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, G. Xie, J. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. Deng, S. Liu, and P. Yan, “Convergent Modulation of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Phosphine-Oxide Hosts through the Management of Molecular Structure and Functional-Group Linkages for Low-Voltage-Driven Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 19(1), 141–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (7)

D. Yu, F. Zhao, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Deng, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Ternary Ambipolar Phosphine Oxide Hosts Based on Indirect Linkage for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence: Towards High Triplet Energy, Low Driving Voltage and Stable Efficiencies,” Adv. Mater. 24(4), 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pabst, D. Sundholm, and A. Köhn, “Ab Initio Studies of Triplet-State Properties for Organic Semiconductor Molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(29), 15203–15217 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. S. Yook and J. Y. Lee, “Organic Materials for Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3169–3190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Jeon and J. Y. Lee, “Phosphine oxide derivatives for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(10), 4233–4243 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Yang, S. Zhuang, X. Qiao, G. Mu, L. Wang, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a multiple quantum well structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24411–24417 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, J. Li, G. Xie, R. Chen, Y. Zhao, and W. Huang, “Controllably Tuning Excited-State Energy in Ternary Hosts for Ultralow-Voltage-Driven Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(40), 10104–10108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Insulated donor-π-acceptor systems based on fluorene-phosphine oxide hybrids for non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(49), 6157–6159 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (6)

Z.-F. An, R.-F. Chen, J. Yin, G.-H. Xie, H.-F. Shi, T. Tsuboi, and W. Huang, “Conjugated Asymmetric Donor-Substituted 1,3,5-Triazines: New Host Materials for Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Chemistry 17(39), 10871–10878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Lü, Z. Ma, B. Meng, D. Sui, B. Zhang, Z. Xie, X. Jing, F. Wang, J. Ding, and L. Wang, “Phosphonate functionalized oxadiazole derivative as an efficient electron transporting material for solution-processed blue electrophosphorescent devices,” Opt. Express 19(S6), A1241–A1249 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tao, C. Yang, and J. Qin, “Organic host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2943–2970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Y. Zhao, H. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Deng, D. Ma, Q. Li, and P. Yan, “A Simple Phosphine-Oxide Host with a Multi-Insulating Structure: High Triplet Energy Level for Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 17(21), 5800–5803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A Single Phosphine Oxide Host for High-Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Extremely Low Operating Voltages and Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

S. Gong, Y. Chen, C. Yang, C. Zhong, J. Qin, and D. Ma, “De Novo Design of Silicon-Bridged Molecule Towards A Bipolar Host: All-Phosphor White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Exhibiting High Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 22(47), 5370–5373 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-H. Chou and C.-H. Cheng, “A Highly Efficient Universal Bipolar Host for Blue, Green, and Red Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 22(22), 2468–2471 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

J. He, H. Liu, Y. Dai, X. Ou, J. Wang, S. Tao, X. Zhang, P. Wang, and D. Ma, “Nonconjugated Carbazoles: A Series of Novel Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescent OLEDs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6761–6767 (2009).
[Crossref]

2003 (3)

R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. C. Kwong, J. J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. E. Thompson, “[mCP] Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2422–2424 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “[UGH1-2]Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “[CDBP]Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “[CBP] Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent device,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

A. D. Becke, “Density-functional thermochemistry. III. The role of exact exchange,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(7), 5648–5652 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

C. Lee, W. Yang, and R. G. Parr, “Development of the Colle-Salvetti correlation-energy formula into a functional of the electron density,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(2), 785–789 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

P. N. Murgatroyd, “Theory of space-charge-limited current enhanced by Frenkel effect,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 3(2), 151–156 (1970).
[Crossref]

An, Z.-F.

Z.-F. An, R.-F. Chen, J. Yin, G.-H. Xie, H.-F. Shi, T. Tsuboi, and W. Huang, “Conjugated Asymmetric Donor-Substituted 1,3,5-Triazines: New Host Materials for Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Chemistry 17(39), 10871–10878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “[CBP] Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent device,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Becke, A. D.

A. D. Becke, “Density-functional thermochemistry. III. The role of exact exchange,” J. Chem. Phys. 98(7), 5648–5652 (1993).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. D. C.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Brown, A. R.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Brown, J. J.

R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. C. Kwong, J. J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. E. Thompson, “[mCP] Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2422–2424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Burns, P. L.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Burroughes, J. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “[CBP] Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

X. Yang, S. Zhuang, X. Qiao, G. Mu, L. Wang, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a multiple quantum well structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24411–24417 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. Han, Y. Zhao, H. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Deng, D. Ma, Q. Li, and P. Yan, “A Simple Phosphine-Oxide Host with a Multi-Insulating Structure: High Triplet Energy Level for Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 17(21), 5800–5803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.

H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, J. Li, G. Xie, R. Chen, Y. Zhao, and W. Huang, “Controllably Tuning Excited-State Energy in Ternary Hosts for Ultralow-Voltage-Driven Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(40), 10104–10108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, R.-F.

Z.-F. An, R.-F. Chen, J. Yin, G.-H. Xie, H.-F. Shi, T. Tsuboi, and W. Huang, “Conjugated Asymmetric Donor-Substituted 1,3,5-Triazines: New Host Materials for Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Chemistry 17(39), 10871–10878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

S. Gong, Y. Chen, C. Yang, C. Zhong, J. Qin, and D. Ma, “De Novo Design of Silicon-Bridged Molecule Towards A Bipolar Host: All-Phosphor White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Exhibiting High Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 22(47), 5370–5373 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Z.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, C.-H.

H.-H. Chou and C.-H. Cheng, “A Highly Efficient Universal Bipolar Host for Blue, Green, and Red Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 22(22), 2468–2471 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chou, H.-H.

H.-H. Chou and C.-H. Cheng, “A Highly Efficient Universal Bipolar Host for Blue, Green, and Red Phosphorescent OLEDs,” Adv. Mater. 22(22), 2468–2471 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D’Andrade, B. W.

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “[UGH1-2]Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Dai, Y.

J. He, H. Liu, Y. Dai, X. Ou, J. Wang, S. Tao, X. Zhang, P. Wang, and D. Ma, “Nonconjugated Carbazoles: A Series of Novel Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescent OLEDs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6761–6767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Deng, Z.

C. Han, L. Zhu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Deng, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Suppressing triplet state extension for highly efficient ambipolar phosphine oxide host materials in blue PHOLEDs,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(20), 2670–2672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, G. Xie, J. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. Deng, S. Liu, and P. Yan, “Convergent Modulation of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Phosphine-Oxide Hosts through the Management of Molecular Structure and Functional-Group Linkages for Low-Voltage-Driven Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 19(1), 141–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Deng, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Ternary Ambipolar Phosphine Oxide Hosts Based on Indirect Linkage for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence: Towards High Triplet Energy, Low Driving Voltage and Stable Efficiencies,” Adv. Mater. 24(4), 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Y. Zhao, H. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Deng, D. Ma, Q. Li, and P. Yan, “A Simple Phosphine-Oxide Host with a Multi-Insulating Structure: High Triplet Energy Level for Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 17(21), 5800–5803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ding, D.

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. Ding, Y. Wei, H. Xu, J. Jia, Y. Zhao, K. Pan, and W. Huang, “Selectively Investigating Molecular Configuration Effect on Blue Electrophosphorescent Host Performance through a Series of Hydrocarbon Oligomers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(35), 20559–20570 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ding, J.

Forrest, S. R.

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “[UGH1-2]Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. C. Kwong, J. J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. E. Thompson, “[mCP] Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2422–2424 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “[CBP] Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent device,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Garon, S.

R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. C. Kwong, J. J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. E. Thompson, “[mCP] Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2422–2424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Gong, Q.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, S.

S. Gong, Y. Chen, C. Yang, C. Zhong, J. Qin, and D. Ma, “De Novo Design of Silicon-Bridged Molecule Towards A Bipolar Host: All-Phosphor White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Exhibiting High Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 22(47), 5370–5373 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, C.

C. Han, L. Zhu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Deng, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Suppressing triplet state extension for highly efficient ambipolar phosphine oxide host materials in blue PHOLEDs,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(20), 2670–2672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, G. Xie, J. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. Deng, S. Liu, and P. Yan, “Convergent Modulation of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Phosphine-Oxide Hosts through the Management of Molecular Structure and Functional-Group Linkages for Low-Voltage-Driven Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 19(1), 141–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Deng, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Ternary Ambipolar Phosphine Oxide Hosts Based on Indirect Linkage for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence: Towards High Triplet Energy, Low Driving Voltage and Stable Efficiencies,” Adv. Mater. 24(4), 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, J. Li, G. Xie, R. Chen, Y. Zhao, and W. Huang, “Controllably Tuning Excited-State Energy in Ternary Hosts for Ultralow-Voltage-Driven Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(40), 10104–10108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Insulated donor-π-acceptor systems based on fluorene-phosphine oxide hybrids for non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(49), 6157–6159 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Y. Zhao, H. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Deng, D. Ma, Q. Li, and P. Yan, “A Simple Phosphine-Oxide Host with a Multi-Insulating Structure: High Triplet Energy Level for Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 17(21), 5800–5803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A Single Phosphine Oxide Host for High-Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Extremely Low Operating Voltages and Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

He, J.

J. He, H. Liu, Y. Dai, X. Ou, J. Wang, S. Tao, X. Zhang, P. Wang, and D. Ma, “Nonconjugated Carbazoles: A Series of Novel Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescent OLEDs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6761–6767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Holmes, A. B.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Holmes, R. J.

R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. C. Kwong, J. J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. E. Thompson, “[mCP] Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2422–2424 (2003).
[Crossref]

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “[UGH1-2]Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Huang, W.

H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. Ding, Y. Wei, H. Xu, J. Jia, Y. Zhao, K. Pan, and W. Huang, “Selectively Investigating Molecular Configuration Effect on Blue Electrophosphorescent Host Performance through a Series of Hydrocarbon Oligomers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(35), 20559–20570 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, J. Li, G. Xie, R. Chen, Y. Zhao, and W. Huang, “Controllably Tuning Excited-State Energy in Ternary Hosts for Ultralow-Voltage-Driven Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(40), 10104–10108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A Single Phosphine Oxide Host for High-Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Extremely Low Operating Voltages and Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z.-F. An, R.-F. Chen, J. Yin, G.-H. Xie, H.-F. Shi, T. Tsuboi, and W. Huang, “Conjugated Asymmetric Donor-Substituted 1,3,5-Triazines: New Host Materials for Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Chemistry 17(39), 10871–10878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Iijima, T.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “[CDBP]Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

Jeon, S. O.

S. O. Jeon and J. Y. Lee, “Phosphine oxide derivatives for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(10), 4233–4243 (2012).
[Crossref]

Jia, J.

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. Ding, Y. Wei, H. Xu, J. Jia, Y. Zhao, K. Pan, and W. Huang, “Selectively Investigating Molecular Configuration Effect on Blue Electrophosphorescent Host Performance through a Series of Hydrocarbon Oligomers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(35), 20559–20570 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jing, X.

Kido, J.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kita, H.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “[CDBP]Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

Köhn, A.

M. Pabst, D. Sundholm, and A. Köhn, “Ab Initio Studies of Triplet-State Properties for Organic Semiconductor Molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(29), 15203–15217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Kong, S.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwong, R. C.

R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. C. Kwong, J. J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. E. Thompson, “[mCP] Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2422–2424 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lai, W.

H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lamansky, S.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “[CBP] Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lee, C.

C. Lee, W. Yang, and R. G. Parr, “Development of the Colle-Salvetti correlation-energy formula into a functional of the electron density,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(2), 785–789 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, J. Y.

K. S. Yook and J. Y. Lee, “Organic Materials for Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3169–3190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. O. Jeon and J. Y. Lee, “Phosphine oxide derivatives for organic light emitting diodes,” J. Mater. Chem. 22(10), 4233–4243 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

C. Han, L. Zhu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Deng, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Suppressing triplet state extension for highly efficient ambipolar phosphine oxide host materials in blue PHOLEDs,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(20), 2670–2672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, G. Xie, J. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. Deng, S. Liu, and P. Yan, “Convergent Modulation of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Phosphine-Oxide Hosts through the Management of Molecular Structure and Functional-Group Linkages for Low-Voltage-Driven Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 19(1), 141–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, J. Li, G. Xie, R. Chen, Y. Zhao, and W. Huang, “Controllably Tuning Excited-State Energy in Ternary Hosts for Ultralow-Voltage-Driven Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(40), 10104–10108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Deng, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Ternary Ambipolar Phosphine Oxide Hosts Based on Indirect Linkage for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence: Towards High Triplet Energy, Low Driving Voltage and Stable Efficiencies,” Adv. Mater. 24(4), 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Insulated donor-π-acceptor systems based on fluorene-phosphine oxide hybrids for non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(49), 6157–6159 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “[UGH1-2]Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

C. Han, Y. Zhao, H. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Deng, D. Ma, Q. Li, and P. Yan, “A Simple Phosphine-Oxide Host with a Multi-Insulating Structure: High Triplet Energy Level for Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 17(21), 5800–5803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, H.

J. He, H. Liu, Y. Dai, X. Ou, J. Wang, S. Tao, X. Zhang, P. Wang, and D. Ma, “Nonconjugated Carbazoles: A Series of Novel Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescent OLEDs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6761–6767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, S.

Z. Zhang, S. Yue, Y. Wu, P. Yan, Q. Wu, D. Qu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white organic light-emitting diodes with a simply double light-emitting structure,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1815–1823 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, G. Xie, J. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. Deng, S. Liu, and P. Yan, “Convergent Modulation of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Phosphine-Oxide Hosts through the Management of Molecular Structure and Functional-Group Linkages for Low-Voltage-Driven Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 19(1), 141–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A Single Phosphine Oxide Host for High-Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Extremely Low Operating Voltages and Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, X.

H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lü, J.

Luo, J.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ma, D.

C. Han, L. Zhu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Deng, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Suppressing triplet state extension for highly efficient ambipolar phosphine oxide host materials in blue PHOLEDs,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(20), 2670–2672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Deng, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Ternary Ambipolar Phosphine Oxide Hosts Based on Indirect Linkage for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence: Towards High Triplet Energy, Low Driving Voltage and Stable Efficiencies,” Adv. Mater. 24(4), 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Insulated donor-π-acceptor systems based on fluorene-phosphine oxide hybrids for non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(49), 6157–6159 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Yang, S. Zhuang, X. Qiao, G. Mu, L. Wang, J. Chen, and D. Ma, “High efficiency blue phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with a multiple quantum well structure for reduced efficiency roll-off,” Opt. Express 20(22), 24411–24417 (2012).
[PubMed]

C. Han, Y. Zhao, H. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Deng, D. Ma, Q. Li, and P. Yan, “A Simple Phosphine-Oxide Host with a Multi-Insulating Structure: High Triplet Energy Level for Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 17(21), 5800–5803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gong, Y. Chen, C. Yang, C. Zhong, J. Qin, and D. Ma, “De Novo Design of Silicon-Bridged Molecule Towards A Bipolar Host: All-Phosphor White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Exhibiting High Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 22(47), 5370–5373 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. He, H. Liu, Y. Dai, X. Ou, J. Wang, S. Tao, X. Zhang, P. Wang, and D. Ma, “Nonconjugated Carbazoles: A Series of Novel Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescent OLEDs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6761–6767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z.

Mackay, K.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Marks, R. N.

J. H. Burroughes, D. D. C. Bradley, A. R. Brown, R. N. Marks, K. Mackay, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burns, and A. B. Holmes, “Light-emitting diodes based on conjugated polymers,” Nature 347(6293), 539–541 (1990).
[Crossref]

Meng, B.

Mu, G.

Murgatroyd, P. N.

P. N. Murgatroyd, “Theory of space-charge-limited current enhanced by Frenkel effect,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 3(2), 151–156 (1970).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. F.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent device,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Ou, X.

J. He, H. Liu, Y. Dai, X. Ou, J. Wang, S. Tao, X. Zhang, P. Wang, and D. Ma, “Nonconjugated Carbazoles: A Series of Novel Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescent OLEDs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6761–6767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Pabst, M.

M. Pabst, D. Sundholm, and A. Köhn, “Ab Initio Studies of Triplet-State Properties for Organic Semiconductor Molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. C 116(29), 15203–15217 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pan, K.

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. Ding, Y. Wei, H. Xu, J. Jia, Y. Zhao, K. Pan, and W. Huang, “Selectively Investigating Molecular Configuration Effect on Blue Electrophosphorescent Host Performance through a Series of Hydrocarbon Oligomers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(35), 20559–20570 (2014).
[Crossref]

Parr, R. G.

C. Lee, W. Yang, and R. G. Parr, “Development of the Colle-Salvetti correlation-energy formula into a functional of the electron density,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(2), 785–789 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, X.

Qin, J.

Y. Tao, C. Yang, and J. Qin, “Organic host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2943–2970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gong, Y. Chen, C. Yang, C. Zhong, J. Qin, and D. Ma, “De Novo Design of Silicon-Bridged Molecule Towards A Bipolar Host: All-Phosphor White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Exhibiting High Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 22(47), 5370–5373 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, B.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qu, D.

Ren, X.

R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “[UGH1-2]Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sato, F.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “[CDBP]Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

Shi, H.-F.

Z.-F. An, R.-F. Chen, J. Yin, G.-H. Xie, H.-F. Shi, T. Tsuboi, and W. Huang, “Conjugated Asymmetric Donor-Substituted 1,3,5-Triazines: New Host Materials for Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Chemistry 17(39), 10871–10878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shoustikov, A.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent device,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Sibley, S.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent device,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
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Su, Q.

H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
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Sun, Q.

H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
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S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “[CDBP]Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
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J. He, H. Liu, Y. Dai, X. Ou, J. Wang, S. Tao, X. Zhang, P. Wang, and D. Ma, “Nonconjugated Carbazoles: A Series of Novel Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescent OLEDs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6761–6767 (2009).
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Tao, Y.

Y. Tao, C. Yang, and J. Qin, “Organic host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2943–2970 (2011).
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Thompson, M. E.

R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. C. Kwong, J. J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. E. Thompson, “[mCP] Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2422–2424 (2003).
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R. J. Holmes, B. W. D’Andrade, S. R. Forrest, X. Ren, J. Li, and M. E. Thompson, “[UGH1-2]Efficient, deep-blue organic electrophosphorescence by guest charge trapping,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(18), 3818–3820 (2003).
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M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “[CBP] Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(1), 4–6 (1999).
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M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent device,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
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Tokito, S.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “[CDBP]Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tsuboi, T.

Z.-F. An, R.-F. Chen, J. Yin, G.-H. Xie, H.-F. Shi, T. Tsuboi, and W. Huang, “Conjugated Asymmetric Donor-Substituted 1,3,5-Triazines: New Host Materials for Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Chemistry 17(39), 10871–10878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsuzuki, T.

S. Tokito, T. Iijima, Y. Suzuri, H. Kita, T. Tsuzuki, and F. Sato, “[CDBP]Confinement of triplet energy on phosphorescent molecules for highly-efficient organic blue-light-emitting devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(3), 569–571 (2003).
[Crossref]

Tung, Y.-J.

R. J. Holmes, S. R. Forrest, Y.-J. Tung, R. C. Kwong, J. J. Brown, S. Garon, and M. E. Thompson, “[mCP] Blue organic electrophosphorescence using exothermic host-guest energy transfer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(15), 2422–2424 (2003).
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VanSlyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. VanSlyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51(12), 913–915 (1987).
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Wang, F.

Wang, J.

C. Han, L. Zhu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Deng, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Suppressing triplet state extension for highly efficient ambipolar phosphine oxide host materials in blue PHOLEDs,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(20), 2670–2672 (2014).
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J. He, H. Liu, Y. Dai, X. Ou, J. Wang, S. Tao, X. Zhang, P. Wang, and D. Ma, “Nonconjugated Carbazoles: A Series of Novel Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescent OLEDs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6761–6767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wang, L.

Wang, P.

J. He, H. Liu, Y. Dai, X. Ou, J. Wang, S. Tao, X. Zhang, P. Wang, and D. Ma, “Nonconjugated Carbazoles: A Series of Novel Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescent OLEDs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6761–6767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wei, Y.

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. Ding, Y. Wei, H. Xu, J. Jia, Y. Zhao, K. Pan, and W. Huang, “Selectively Investigating Molecular Configuration Effect on Blue Electrophosphorescent Host Performance through a Series of Hydrocarbon Oligomers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(35), 20559–20570 (2014).
[Crossref]

Wu, Q.

Wu, Y.

Xiao, L.

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, G.

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, G. Xie, J. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. Deng, S. Liu, and P. Yan, “Convergent Modulation of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Phosphine-Oxide Hosts through the Management of Molecular Structure and Functional-Group Linkages for Low-Voltage-Driven Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 19(1), 141–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, J. Li, G. Xie, R. Chen, Y. Zhao, and W. Huang, “Controllably Tuning Excited-State Energy in Ternary Hosts for Ultralow-Voltage-Driven Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(40), 10104–10108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A Single Phosphine Oxide Host for High-Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Extremely Low Operating Voltages and Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, G.-H.

Z.-F. An, R.-F. Chen, J. Yin, G.-H. Xie, H.-F. Shi, T. Tsuboi, and W. Huang, “Conjugated Asymmetric Donor-Substituted 1,3,5-Triazines: New Host Materials for Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Chemistry 17(39), 10871–10878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, L.

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A Single Phosphine Oxide Host for High-Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Extremely Low Operating Voltages and Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, Z.

Xu, H.

C. Han, L. Zhu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Deng, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Suppressing triplet state extension for highly efficient ambipolar phosphine oxide host materials in blue PHOLEDs,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(20), 2670–2672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Xu, R. Chen, Q. Sun, W. Lai, Q. Su, W. Huang, and X. Liu, “Recent progress in metal-organic complexes for optoelectronic applications,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 43(10), 3259–3302 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. Ding, Y. Wei, H. Xu, J. Jia, Y. Zhao, K. Pan, and W. Huang, “Selectively Investigating Molecular Configuration Effect on Blue Electrophosphorescent Host Performance through a Series of Hydrocarbon Oligomers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(35), 20559–20570 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, G. Xie, J. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. Deng, S. Liu, and P. Yan, “Convergent Modulation of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Phosphine-Oxide Hosts through the Management of Molecular Structure and Functional-Group Linkages for Low-Voltage-Driven Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 19(1), 141–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Deng, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Ternary Ambipolar Phosphine Oxide Hosts Based on Indirect Linkage for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence: Towards High Triplet Energy, Low Driving Voltage and Stable Efficiencies,” Adv. Mater. 24(4), 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, J. Li, G. Xie, R. Chen, Y. Zhao, and W. Huang, “Controllably Tuning Excited-State Energy in Ternary Hosts for Ultralow-Voltage-Driven Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(40), 10104–10108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Insulated donor-π-acceptor systems based on fluorene-phosphine oxide hybrids for non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(49), 6157–6159 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Y. Zhao, H. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Deng, D. Ma, Q. Li, and P. Yan, “A Simple Phosphine-Oxide Host with a Multi-Insulating Structure: High Triplet Energy Level for Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 17(21), 5800–5803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A Single Phosphine Oxide Host for High-Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Extremely Low Operating Voltages and Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, P.

Z. Zhang, S. Yue, Y. Wu, P. Yan, Q. Wu, D. Qu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white organic light-emitting diodes with a simply double light-emitting structure,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1815–1823 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, L. Zhu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Deng, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Suppressing triplet state extension for highly efficient ambipolar phosphine oxide host materials in blue PHOLEDs,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(20), 2670–2672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, G. Xie, J. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. Deng, S. Liu, and P. Yan, “Convergent Modulation of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Phosphine-Oxide Hosts through the Management of Molecular Structure and Functional-Group Linkages for Low-Voltage-Driven Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 19(1), 141–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Deng, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Ternary Ambipolar Phosphine Oxide Hosts Based on Indirect Linkage for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence: Towards High Triplet Energy, Low Driving Voltage and Stable Efficiencies,” Adv. Mater. 24(4), 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Insulated donor-π-acceptor systems based on fluorene-phosphine oxide hybrids for non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(49), 6157–6159 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Y. Zhao, H. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Deng, D. Ma, Q. Li, and P. Yan, “A Simple Phosphine-Oxide Host with a Multi-Insulating Structure: High Triplet Energy Level for Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 17(21), 5800–5803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C.

Y. Tao, C. Yang, and J. Qin, “Organic host materials for phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Chem. Soc. Rev. 40(5), 2943–2970 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Gong, Y. Chen, C. Yang, C. Zhong, J. Qin, and D. Ma, “De Novo Design of Silicon-Bridged Molecule Towards A Bipolar Host: All-Phosphor White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Exhibiting High Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 22(47), 5370–5373 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, W.

C. Lee, W. Yang, and R. G. Parr, “Development of the Colle-Salvetti correlation-energy formula into a functional of the electron density,” Phys. Rev. B Condens. Matter 37(2), 785–789 (1988).
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Yang, X.

Yin, J.

Z.-F. An, R.-F. Chen, J. Yin, G.-H. Xie, H.-F. Shi, T. Tsuboi, and W. Huang, “Conjugated Asymmetric Donor-Substituted 1,3,5-Triazines: New Host Materials for Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Chemistry 17(39), 10871–10878 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yook, K. S.

K. S. Yook and J. Y. Lee, “Organic Materials for Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3169–3190 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

You, Y.

M. A. Baldo, D. F. O’Brien, Y. You, A. Shoustikov, S. Sibley, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Highly efficient phosphorescent emission from organic electroluminescent device,” Nature 395(6698), 151–154 (1998).
[Crossref]

Yu, D.

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Deng, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Ternary Ambipolar Phosphine Oxide Hosts Based on Indirect Linkage for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence: Towards High Triplet Energy, Low Driving Voltage and Stable Efficiencies,” Adv. Mater. 24(4), 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Insulated donor-π-acceptor systems based on fluorene-phosphine oxide hybrids for non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(49), 6157–6159 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yue, S.

Zhang, B.

Zhang, X.

J. He, H. Liu, Y. Dai, X. Ou, J. Wang, S. Tao, X. Zhang, P. Wang, and D. Ma, “Nonconjugated Carbazoles: A Series of Novel Host Materials for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescent OLEDs,” J. Phys. Chem. C 113(16), 6761–6767 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

Z. Zhang, S. Yue, Y. Wu, P. Yan, Q. Wu, D. Qu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white organic light-emitting diodes with a simply double light-emitting structure,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1815–1823 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, L. Zhu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Deng, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Suppressing triplet state extension for highly efficient ambipolar phosphine oxide host materials in blue PHOLEDs,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(20), 2670–2672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. Ding, Y. Wei, H. Xu, J. Jia, Y. Zhao, K. Pan, and W. Huang, “Selectively Investigating Molecular Configuration Effect on Blue Electrophosphorescent Host Performance through a Series of Hydrocarbon Oligomers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(35), 20559–20570 (2014).
[Crossref]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. Ding, Y. Wei, H. Xu, J. Jia, Y. Zhao, K. Pan, and W. Huang, “Selectively Investigating Molecular Configuration Effect on Blue Electrophosphorescent Host Performance through a Series of Hydrocarbon Oligomers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(35), 20559–20570 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, G. Xie, J. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. Deng, S. Liu, and P. Yan, “Convergent Modulation of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Phosphine-Oxide Hosts through the Management of Molecular Structure and Functional-Group Linkages for Low-Voltage-Driven Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 19(1), 141–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Deng, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Ternary Ambipolar Phosphine Oxide Hosts Based on Indirect Linkage for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence: Towards High Triplet Energy, Low Driving Voltage and Stable Efficiencies,” Adv. Mater. 24(4), 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, J. Li, G. Xie, R. Chen, Y. Zhao, and W. Huang, “Controllably Tuning Excited-State Energy in Ternary Hosts for Ultralow-Voltage-Driven Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(40), 10104–10108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Insulated donor-π-acceptor systems based on fluorene-phosphine oxide hybrids for non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(49), 6157–6159 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A Single Phosphine Oxide Host for High-Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Extremely Low Operating Voltages and Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, F.

C. Han, L. Zhu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Deng, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Suppressing triplet state extension for highly efficient ambipolar phosphine oxide host materials in blue PHOLEDs,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(20), 2670–2672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, Z. Zhang, Z. Deng, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Ternary Ambipolar Phosphine Oxide Hosts Based on Indirect Linkage for Highly Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence: Towards High Triplet Energy, Low Driving Voltage and Stable Efficiencies,” Adv. Mater. 24(4), 509–514 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Yu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, C. Han, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Insulated donor-π-acceptor systems based on fluorene-phosphine oxide hybrids for non-doped deep-blue electroluminescent devices,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 48(49), 6157–6159 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhao, Y.

Z. Zhang, S. Yue, Y. Wu, P. Yan, Q. Wu, D. Qu, S. Liu, and Y. Zhao, “Low driving voltage blue, green, yellow, red and white organic light-emitting diodes with a simply double light-emitting structure,” Opt. Express 22(2), 1815–1823 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. Ding, Y. Wei, H. Xu, J. Jia, Y. Zhao, K. Pan, and W. Huang, “Selectively Investigating Molecular Configuration Effect on Blue Electrophosphorescent Host Performance through a Series of Hydrocarbon Oligomers,” J. Phys. Chem. C 118(35), 20559–20570 (2014).
[Crossref]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, G. Xie, J. Li, Y. Zhao, Z. Deng, S. Liu, and P. Yan, “Convergent Modulation of Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Phosphine-Oxide Hosts through the Management of Molecular Structure and Functional-Group Linkages for Low-Voltage-Driven Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 19(1), 141–154 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Z. Zhang, H. Xu, J. Li, G. Xie, R. Chen, Y. Zhao, and W. Huang, “Controllably Tuning Excited-State Energy in Ternary Hosts for Ultralow-Voltage-Driven Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 51(40), 10104–10108 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, Y. Zhao, H. Xu, J. Chen, Z. Deng, D. Ma, Q. Li, and P. Yan, “A Simple Phosphine-Oxide Host with a Multi-Insulating Structure: High Triplet Energy Level for Efficient Blue Electrophosphorescence,” Chemistry 17(21), 5800–5803 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Han, G. Xie, H. Xu, Z. Zhang, L. Xie, Y. Zhao, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “A Single Phosphine Oxide Host for High-Efficiency White Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with Extremely Low Operating Voltages and Reduced Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 23(21), 2491–2496 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheng, C.

Z. Zhang, Z. Zhang, R. Chen, J. Jia, C. Han, C. Zheng, H. Xu, D. Yu, Y. Zhao, P. Yan, S. Liu, and W. Huang, “Modulating the Optoelectronic Properties of Large, Conjugated, High-Energy Gap, Quaternary Phosphine Oxide Hosts: Impact of the Triplet-Excited-State Location,” Chemistry 19(29), 9549–9561 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhong, C.

S. Gong, Y. Chen, C. Yang, C. Zhong, J. Qin, and D. Ma, “De Novo Design of Silicon-Bridged Molecule Towards A Bipolar Host: All-Phosphor White Organic Light-Emitting Devices Exhibiting High Efficiency and Low Efficiency Roll-Off,” Adv. Mater. 22(47), 5370–5373 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, L.

C. Han, L. Zhu, F. Zhao, Z. Zhang, J. Wang, Z. Deng, H. Xu, J. Li, D. Ma, and P. Yan, “Suppressing triplet state extension for highly efficient ambipolar phosphine oxide host materials in blue PHOLEDs,” Chem. Commun. (Camb.) 50(20), 2670–2672 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhuang, S.

Adv. Mater. (6)

L. Xiao, Z. Chen, B. Qu, J. Luo, S. Kong, Q. Gong, and J. Kido, “Recent progresses on materials for electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” Adv. Mater. 23(8), 926–952 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. S. Yook and J. Y. Lee, “Organic Materials for Deep Blue Phosphorescent Organic Light-Emitting Diodes,” Adv. Mater. 24(24), 3169–3190 (2012).
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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Linkage engineering of dicarbazolyl host materials with the focus on triplet energy and electroactivity.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Synthetic procedure of FPCz2 and FDPCz2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Energy levels and contours of frontier molecular orbitals of CBP, mCP, FPCz2 and FDPCz2 and the spin density distribution (SDD) of their T1 states by DFT simulation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Absorption, fluorescence (FL) and phosphorescence (PH, inset) spectra of mCP, FPCz2 and FDPCz2 in dichloromethane (10−6 mol L−1). Absorption and FL spectra were measured at room temperature. PH spectra were recorded at 77 K after a delay of 300 μs.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Cyclic voltammogram of mCP, FPCz2 and FDPCz2 in tetrahydrofuran and dichloromethane for reduction and oxidation, respectively, at room temperature with tetrabutylammonium hexafluorophosphate as electrolyte and a scan rate of 100 mV s−1; (b) I−V characteristic curves of single-carrier-transporting devices based on FPCz2 and FDPCz2.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Energy level diagram of blue PhOLEDs and the chemical structures of the employed materials; (b) J-V-L curves and EL spectra (inset) of devices (A), (B) and (C); c) Efficiencies vs. luminance characteristics of devices (A), (B) and (C).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Physical properties of mCP, FPCz2 and FDPCz2.

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Table 2 EL performance of FIrpic-based PhOLEDs A, B and C.

Equations (2)

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J SCLC = 9 8 ε ε 0 μ 0 exp( 0.89β V d ) V 2 d 3
η H =γ x ϕ OC η ET η PL

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