Abstract

New device designs are proposed and theoretical simulations are performed on electro-optical routing switches in which light beams enter and exit the device either from free space or from lensed fibers. The active medium is a ~100 nm layer of phase change material (Ge2Sb2Te5 or GeTe) that is electrically “triggered” to change its phase, giving “self-holding” behavior in each of two phases. Electrical current is supplied to that film by a pair of transparent highly doped conducting Ge prisms on both sides of the layer. For S-polarized light incident at ~80° on the film, a three-layer Fabry-Perot analysis, including dielectric loss, predicts good 1 x 2 and 2 x 2 switch performance at infrared wavelengths of 1.55, 2.1 and 3.0 μm, although the performance at 1.55 μm is degraded by material loss and prism mismatch. Proposals for in-plane and volumetric 1 x 4 and 4 x 4 switches are also presented. An unpolarized 1 x 2 switch projects good performance at mid infrared.

© 2015 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Electro-optical phase-change 2 × 2 switching using three- and four-waveguide directional couplers

Haibo Liang, Richard Soref, Jianwei Mu, Xun Li, and Wei-Ping Huang
Appl. Opt. 54(19) 5897-5902 (2015)

Proposal of a Grating-Based Optical Reflection Switch using Phase Change Materials

Xiaomin Wang, Masashi Kuwahara, Koichi Awazu, Paul Fons, Junji Tominaga, and Yoshimichi Ohki
Opt. Express 17(19) 16947-16956 (2009)

All-optical tuning of EIT-like dielectric metasurfaces by means of chalcogenide phase change materials

E. Petronijevic and C. Sibilia
Opt. Express 24(26) 30411-30420 (2016)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. Navarro, A. Persico, E. Henaff, F. Aussenac, P. Noe, C. Jahan, L. Perniola, V. Sousa, E. Vianello, and B. DeSalvo, “Electrical performances of SiO2-doped GeTe for phase-change memory applications,” IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, Anaheim, CA (14 April 2013).
  4. H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  5. H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W. P. Huang, “Simulation of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).
  6. R. A. Soref, D. L. McDaniel, and B. R. Bennett, “Guided-Wave Intensity Modulators using Amplitude and Phase Perturbations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(3), 437–444 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Soref, “Mid-infrared 2 x 2 electro-optical switching by silicon and germanium three-waveguide and four-waveguide directional couplers using free-carrier injection,” Photon. Res. 2(5), 102–110 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. T. Moriyama, D. Tanaka, P. Jain, and H. Tsuda, “Low crosstalk design of an optical matrix switch using phase-change material,” paper IT4A.4, OSA Integrated Photonics Research Conference, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico (2013).
  10. R. A. Soref, “Liquid-Crystal Fiber-Optic Switch,” Opt. Lett. 4(5), 155–157 (1979).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. R. A. Soref and D. H. McMahon, “Total switching of unpolarized fiber light with a 4-port electro-optic liquid-crystal device,” Opt. Lett. 5(4), 147–149 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium modulation via the free-carrier plasma dispersion effect,” European Optical Society Annual Meeting (EOSAM), session TOM2.SO4, Berlin, Germany (17 Sept 2014).
  13. J. Mu, Z. Han, S. Grillianda, A. Melloni, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Towards ultra-subwavelength optical latches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 043115 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, “Threshold field of phase change memory materials measured using phase change bridge devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 082101 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. F. L. Pedrotti and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics (Prentice Hall, 1987).
  17. A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University Press, 1997).
  18. R. A. Soref, “Electrooptic 4x4 matrix switch for multimode fiber-optic systems,” Appl. Opt. 21(8), 1386–1393 (1982).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. L. Chen, “Silicon photonics 8 x 8 broadband optical switch,” paper PM2C.1 presented at the OSA Photonics in Switching Conference, San Diego, CA (13 July 2014).

2014 (3)

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared 2 x 2 electro-optical switching by silicon and germanium three-waveguide and four-waveguide directional couplers using free-carrier injection,” Photon. Res. 2(5), 102–110 (2014).
[Crossref]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

J. Mu, Z. Han, S. Grillianda, A. Melloni, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Towards ultra-subwavelength optical latches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 043115 (2013).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, “Threshold field of phase change memory materials measured using phase change bridge devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

R. A. Soref, D. L. McDaniel, and B. R. Bennett, “Guided-Wave Intensity Modulators using Amplitude and Phase Perturbations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(3), 437–444 (1988).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

Agarwal, A.

J. Mu, Z. Han, S. Grillianda, A. Melloni, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Towards ultra-subwavelength optical latches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 043115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Annunziata, R.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Arbaoui, E.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Armand, M.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Basov, D. N.

H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bastard, A.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Beneventi, G. B.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bennett, B. R.

R. A. Soref, D. L. McDaniel, and B. R. Bennett, “Guided-Wave Intensity Modulators using Amplitude and Phase Perturbations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(3), 437–444 (1988).
[Crossref]

Bensahel, D.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bhaskaran, H.

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Billon, T.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Blachier, D.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Boulanger, F.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Burr, G. W.

D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, “Threshold field of phase change memory materials measured using phase change bridge devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chae, B. G.

H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Choi, S.

H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Cueto, O.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

De Salvo, B.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Driscoll, T.

H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fantini, A.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fargeix, A.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feldis, H.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gourvest, E.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grillianda, S.

J. Mu, Z. Han, S. Grillianda, A. Melloni, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Towards ultra-subwavelength optical latches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 043115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Han, Z.

J. Mu, Z. Han, S. Grillianda, A. Melloni, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Towards ultra-subwavelength optical latches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 043115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, P.

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, W. P.

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W. P. Huang, “Simulation of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Jahan, C.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Jain, P.

T. Moriyama, D. Tanaka, P. Jain, and H. Tsuda, “Low crosstalk design of an optical matrix switch using phase-change material,” paper IT4A.4, OSA Integrated Photonics Research Conference, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico (2013).

Kim, B. J.

H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. T.

H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kimerling, L. C.

J. Mu, Z. Han, S. Grillianda, A. Melloni, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Towards ultra-subwavelength optical latches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 043115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Krebs, D.

D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, “Threshold field of phase change memory materials measured using phase change bridge devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kremers, S.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, Y. W.

H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lencer, D.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lhostis, S.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W. P. Huang, “Simulation of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Liang, H.

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W. P. Huang, “Simulation of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Loubriat, S.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Maitrejean, S.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Majumdar, A.

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W. P. Huang, “Simulation of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Mazoyer, P.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

McDaniel, D. L.

R. A. Soref, D. L. McDaniel, and B. R. Bennett, “Guided-Wave Intensity Modulators using Amplitude and Phase Perturbations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(3), 437–444 (1988).
[Crossref]

McMahon, D. H.

Melloni, A.

J. Mu, Z. Han, S. Grillianda, A. Melloni, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Towards ultra-subwavelength optical latches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 043115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Mu, Z. Han, S. Grillianda, A. Melloni, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Towards ultra-subwavelength optical latches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 043115 (2013).
[Crossref]

Moriyama, T.

T. Moriyama, D. Tanaka, P. Jain, and H. Tsuda, “Low crosstalk design of an optical matrix switch using phase-change material,” paper IT4A.4, OSA Integrated Photonics Research Conference, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico (2013).

Mu, J.

J. Mu, Z. Han, S. Grillianda, A. Melloni, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Towards ultra-subwavelength optical latches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 043115 (2013).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W. P. Huang, “Simulation of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Nodin, J.-F.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Perniola, L.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Persico, A.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Poupinet, L.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Qazilbash, M. M.

H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Raoux, S.

D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, “Threshold field of phase change memory materials measured using phase change bridge devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Reimbold, G.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rettner, C. T.

D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, “Threshold field of phase change memory materials measured using phase change bridge devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Robertson, J.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roule, A.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Salinga, M.

D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, “Threshold field of phase change memory materials measured using phase change bridge devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

Shportko, K.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Soref, R.

R. Soref, “Mid-infrared 2 x 2 electro-optical switching by silicon and germanium three-waveguide and four-waveguide directional couplers using free-carrier injection,” Photon. Res. 2(5), 102–110 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W. P. Huang, “Simulation of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

Soref, R. A.

Sousa, V.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, D.

T. Moriyama, D. Tanaka, P. Jain, and H. Tsuda, “Low crosstalk design of an optical matrix switch using phase-change material,” paper IT4A.4, OSA Integrated Photonics Research Conference, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico (2013).

Toffoli, A.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tsuda, H.

T. Moriyama, D. Tanaka, P. Jain, and H. Tsuda, “Low crosstalk design of an optical matrix switch using phase-change material,” paper IT4A.4, OSA Integrated Photonics Research Conference, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico (2013).

Woda, M.

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wright, C. D.

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wuttig, M.

D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, “Threshold field of phase change memory materials measured using phase change bridge devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zuliani, P.

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

D. Krebs, S. Raoux, C. T. Rettner, G. W. Burr, M. Salinga, and M. Wuttig, “Threshold field of phase change memory materials measured using phase change bridge devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 95(8), 082101 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Mu, Z. Han, S. Grillianda, A. Melloni, J. Michel, L. C. Kimerling, and A. Agarwal, “Towards ultra-subwavelength optical latches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 103(4), 043115 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Electron Device Lett. (1)

L. Perniola, V. Sousa, A. Fantini, E. Arbaoui, A. Bastard, M. Armand, A. Fargeix, C. Jahan, J.-F. Nodin, A. Persico, D. Blachier, A. Toffoli, S. Loubriat, E. Gourvest, G. B. Beneventi, H. Feldis, S. Maitrejean, S. Lhostis, A. Roule, O. Cueto, G. Reimbold, L. Poupinet, T. Billon, B. De Salvo, D. Bensahel, P. Mazoyer, R. Annunziata, P. Zuliani, and F. Boulanger, “Electrical behavior of phase-change memory cells based on GeTe,” IEEE Electron Device Lett. 31(5), 488–490 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. T. Kim, B. J. Kim, S. Choi, B. G. Chae, Y. W. Lee, T. Driscoll, M. M. Qazilbash, and D. N. Basov, “Electrical oscillations induced by the metal-insulator transition in VO2,” J. Appl. Phys. 107(2), 023702 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

R. A. Soref, D. L. McDaniel, and B. R. Bennett, “Guided-Wave Intensity Modulators using Amplitude and Phase Perturbations,” J. Lightwave Technol. 6(3), 437–444 (1988).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

K. Shportko, S. Kremers, M. Woda, D. Lencer, J. Robertson, and M. Wuttig, “Resonant bonding in crystalline phase-change materials,” Nat. Mater. 7(8), 653–658 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nature (2)

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hosseini, C. D. Wright, and H. Bhaskaran, “An optoelectronic framework enabled by low-dimensional phase-change films,” Nature 511(7508), 206–211 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (2)

Photon. Res. (1)

Other (7)

T. Moriyama, D. Tanaka, P. Jain, and H. Tsuda, “Low crosstalk design of an optical matrix switch using phase-change material,” paper IT4A.4, OSA Integrated Photonics Research Conference, Rio Grande, Puerto Rico (2013).

H. Liang, R. Soref, J. Mu, A. Majumdar, X. Li, and W. P. Huang, “Simulation of silicon-on-insulator channel-waveguide electro-optical modulators and switches using a Ge2Sb2Te5 self-holding layer,” J. Lightwave Technol. (to be published).

G. Navarro, A. Persico, E. Henaff, F. Aussenac, P. Noe, C. Jahan, L. Perniola, V. Sousa, E. Vianello, and B. DeSalvo, “Electrical performances of SiO2-doped GeTe for phase-change memory applications,” IEEE International Reliability Physics Symposium, Anaheim, CA (14 April 2013).

M. Nedeljkovic, R. Soref, and G. Z. Mashanovich, “Germanium modulation via the free-carrier plasma dispersion effect,” European Optical Society Annual Meeting (EOSAM), session TOM2.SO4, Berlin, Germany (17 Sept 2014).

F. L. Pedrotti and L. S. Pedrotti, Introduction to Optics (Prentice Hall, 1987).

A. Yariv, Optical Electronics in Modern Communications (Oxford University Press, 1997).

L. Chen, “Silicon photonics 8 x 8 broadband optical switch,” paper PM2C.1 presented at the OSA Photonics in Switching Conference, San Diego, CA (13 July 2014).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic view of 2 x 2 EO switch for (a) collimated infrared beams, and (b) optical fibers coupled to Grin-lenses. Prisms are transparent semiconductor doped for conductivity. Active layer is phase-change material. GST refers to this PCM or to GeTe.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Details of electrical actuation method for phase-change film.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Illustrating how the two-prism SGS switch may be considered as a Fabry-Perot interferometer for input light incident at an off-normal angle.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reflection, transmission, and absorption as a function of incident angle for (a) Ge-GST-Ge structure at 2100nm and (b) Ge-GST-Ge structure at 3000nm
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 SiGe-GeTe-SiGe reflection, transmission, and absorption as a function of incident angle for (a) amorphous and (b) crystalline states
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transmission for 75 and 80 degree incidence as a function of index mismatch in amorphous state for the (a) SiGe-GeTe-SiGe structure and for the (b) Ge-GST-Ge structure.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Side view in cross-section of a 1 x 4 EO Ge/GST/Ge switch.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Side view in cross-section of a 4 x 4 EO Ge/GST/Ge crossbar switch employing 7 GST layers and 8 Ge prism structures, with nonblocking switching in one plane.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Perspective view of 4 x 4 EO switch comprised of two joined SGS prism sets: 4(1x4) sending its outputs to 4(4x1). The input collimated light beams are S-polarized.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Side view in cross section of a 1 x 2 EO Ge/GST/Ge switch intended to switch an unpolarized light beam entering the device.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Refractive indices of materials

Tables Icon

Table 2 2 x 2 switch performance metrics at 75 and 80 degrees

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r TE = cos θ i n 2 sin 2 θ i cos θ i + n 2 sin 2 θ i
r TM = n 2 cos θ i + n 2 sin 2 θ i n 2 cos θ i + n 2 sin 2 θ i
n= n 2 +i k 2 n 1 +i k 1
R=r r *
I r = A r A r *
A r = ( 1 e iδ ) R 1R e iδ
I t = A t A t *
A t = ( 1R ) 1R e iδ
I a =1( I r + I t )
δ= 4π( n 2 +i k 2 )lcosφ λ

Metrics