Abstract

We have investigated the three-dimensional emission patterns of GaAs/AlGaAs ridge structures with a sub-wavelength-sized top-flat facet by angle-resolved photoluminescence (PL). We found that the integrated PL intensity, and hence the light-extraction efficiency, can be enhanced by about 34% just by covering the ridge surface with a thin SiO2 layer. A double-coupling effect of evanescent waves that occurs at both the semiconductor–SiO2 and SiO2–air interfaces is suggested to be responsible for the improvement, based on a finite-difference time-domain simulation of the electromagnetic field around the ridge top.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007).
  2. I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  3. R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “Light-extraction mechanism in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 248–255 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  5. T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  8. X.-L. Wang, S. Furue, M. Ogura, V. Voliotis, M. Ravaro, A. Enderlin, and R. Grousson, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission extraction efficiency induced by evanescent wave coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091102 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  9. X.-L. Wang and T. Takahashi, “Light source position dependence of evanescent wave coupling effect in narrow GaAs/AlGaAs ridge structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4R), 040205 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  10. G.-D. Hao and X.-L. Wang, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency by evanescent wave coupling effect in ridge-shaped AlGaInP/GaInP quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 091107 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. X.-L. Wang and V. Voliotis, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semiconductor quantum wires,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 121301 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  13. S. R. Kisting, P. W. Bohn, E. Andideh, I. Adesida, B. T. Cunningham, G. E. Stillman, and T. D. Harris, “High precision temperature- and energy-dependent refractive index of GaAs determined from excitation of optical waveguide eigenmodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1328–1330 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  14. E. Hecht, Optics (Pearson Higher Education, 2002).

2012 (2)

X.-L. Wang and T. Takahashi, “Light source position dependence of evanescent wave coupling effect in narrow GaAs/AlGaAs ridge structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4R), 040205 (2012).
[Crossref]

G.-D. Hao and X.-L. Wang, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency by evanescent wave coupling effect in ridge-shaped AlGaInP/GaInP quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 091107 (2012).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

X.-L. Wang, S. Furue, M. Ogura, V. Voliotis, M. Ravaro, A. Enderlin, and R. Grousson, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission extraction efficiency induced by evanescent wave coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091102 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

X.-L. Wang and V. Voliotis, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semiconductor quantum wires,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 121301 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “Light-extraction mechanism in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 248–255 (2002).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

S. R. Kisting, P. W. Bohn, E. Andideh, I. Adesida, B. T. Cunningham, G. E. Stillman, and T. D. Harris, “High precision temperature- and energy-dependent refractive index of GaAs determined from excitation of optical waveguide eigenmodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1328–1330 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, and R. Bhat, “Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(2), 754–767 (1986).
[Crossref]

Adesida, I.

S. R. Kisting, P. W. Bohn, E. Andideh, I. Adesida, B. T. Cunningham, G. E. Stillman, and T. D. Harris, “High precision temperature- and energy-dependent refractive index of GaAs determined from excitation of optical waveguide eigenmodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1328–1330 (1990).
[Crossref]

Andideh, E.

S. R. Kisting, P. W. Bohn, E. Andideh, I. Adesida, B. T. Cunningham, G. E. Stillman, and T. D. Harris, “High precision temperature- and energy-dependent refractive index of GaAs determined from excitation of optical waveguide eigenmodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1328–1330 (1990).
[Crossref]

Aspnes, D. E.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, and R. Bhat, “Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(2), 754–767 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, and R. Bhat, “Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(2), 754–767 (1986).
[Crossref]

Bohn, P. W.

S. R. Kisting, P. W. Bohn, E. Andideh, I. Adesida, B. T. Cunningham, G. E. Stillman, and T. D. Harris, “High precision temperature- and energy-dependent refractive index of GaAs determined from excitation of optical waveguide eigenmodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1328–1330 (1990).
[Crossref]

Borghs, G.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “Light-extraction mechanism in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 248–255 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Caneau, C.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[Crossref]

Chu, J. T.

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cunningham, B. T.

S. R. Kisting, P. W. Bohn, E. Andideh, I. Adesida, B. T. Cunningham, G. E. Stillman, and T. D. Harris, “High precision temperature- and energy-dependent refractive index of GaAs determined from excitation of optical waveguide eigenmodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1328–1330 (1990).
[Crossref]

DenBaars, S. P.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Döhler, G. H.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “Light-extraction mechanism in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 248–255 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Dutta, B.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “Light-extraction mechanism in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 248–255 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Enderlin, A.

X.-L. Wang, S. Furue, M. Ogura, V. Voliotis, M. Ravaro, A. Enderlin, and R. Grousson, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission extraction efficiency induced by evanescent wave coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Fujii, T.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Furue, S.

X.-L. Wang, S. Furue, M. Ogura, V. Voliotis, M. Ravaro, A. Enderlin, and R. Grousson, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission extraction efficiency induced by evanescent wave coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gao, Y.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gmitter, T. J.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[Crossref]

Grousson, R.

X.-L. Wang, S. Furue, M. Ogura, V. Voliotis, M. Ravaro, A. Enderlin, and R. Grousson, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission extraction efficiency induced by evanescent wave coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hao, G.-D.

G.-D. Hao and X.-L. Wang, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency by evanescent wave coupling effect in ridge-shaped AlGaInP/GaInP quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 091107 (2012).
[Crossref]

Harris, T. D.

S. R. Kisting, P. W. Bohn, E. Andideh, I. Adesida, B. T. Cunningham, G. E. Stillman, and T. D. Harris, “High precision temperature- and energy-dependent refractive index of GaAs determined from excitation of optical waveguide eigenmodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1328–1330 (1990).
[Crossref]

Heremans, P.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “Light-extraction mechanism in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 248–255 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hsieh, M. H.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hsu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hu, E. L.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Huang, H.-W.

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jou, M. J.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kao, C. C.

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kelso, S. M.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, and R. Bhat, “Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(2), 754–767 (1986).
[Crossref]

Kiesel, P.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kisting, S. R.

S. R. Kisting, P. W. Bohn, E. Andideh, I. Adesida, B. T. Cunningham, G. E. Stillman, and T. D. Harris, “High precision temperature- and energy-dependent refractive index of GaAs determined from excitation of optical waveguide eigenmodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1328–1330 (1990).
[Crossref]

Knobloch, A.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “Light-extraction mechanism in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 248–255 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kuijk, M.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Kuo, H. C.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. J.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lee, Y. J.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[Crossref]

Logan, R. A.

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, and R. Bhat, “Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(2), 754–767 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. C.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meinlschmidt, S.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, S.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ogura, M.

X.-L. Wang, S. Furue, M. Ogura, V. Voliotis, M. Ravaro, A. Enderlin, and R. Grousson, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission extraction efficiency induced by evanescent wave coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ravaro, M.

X.-L. Wang, S. Furue, M. Ogura, V. Voliotis, M. Ravaro, A. Enderlin, and R. Grousson, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission extraction efficiency induced by evanescent wave coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091102 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rooman, C.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “Light-extraction mechanism in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 248–255 (2002).
[Crossref]

Scherer, A.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schnitzer, I.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[Crossref]

Schoberth, S.

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Sharma, R.

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

Stillman, G. E.

S. R. Kisting, P. W. Bohn, E. Andideh, I. Adesida, B. T. Cunningham, G. E. Stillman, and T. D. Harris, “High precision temperature- and energy-dependent refractive index of GaAs determined from excitation of optical waveguide eigenmodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1328–1330 (1990).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, T.

X.-L. Wang and T. Takahashi, “Light source position dependence of evanescent wave coupling effect in narrow GaAs/AlGaAs ridge structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4R), 040205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Voliotis, V.

X.-L. Wang, S. Furue, M. Ogura, V. Voliotis, M. Ravaro, A. Enderlin, and R. Grousson, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission extraction efficiency induced by evanescent wave coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091102 (2009).
[Crossref]

X.-L. Wang and V. Voliotis, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semiconductor quantum wires,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 121301 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. C.

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[Crossref]

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.-L.

X.-L. Wang and T. Takahashi, “Light source position dependence of evanescent wave coupling effect in narrow GaAs/AlGaAs ridge structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4R), 040205 (2012).
[Crossref]

G.-D. Hao and X.-L. Wang, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency by evanescent wave coupling effect in ridge-shaped AlGaInP/GaInP quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 091107 (2012).
[Crossref]

X.-L. Wang, S. Furue, M. Ogura, V. Voliotis, M. Ravaro, A. Enderlin, and R. Grousson, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission extraction efficiency induced by evanescent wave coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091102 (2009).
[Crossref]

X.-L. Wang and V. Voliotis, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semiconductor quantum wires,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 121301 (2006).
[Crossref]

Windisch, R.

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “Light-extraction mechanism in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 248–255 (2002).
[Crossref]

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yablonovitch, E.

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[Crossref]

Yu, C. C.

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

I. Schnitzer, E. Yablonovitch, C. Caneau, T. J. Gmitter, and A. Scherer, “30% external quantum efficiency from surface textured, thin-film light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63(16), 2174–2176 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Fujii, Y. Gao, R. Sharma, E. L. Hu, S. P. DenBaars, and S. Nakamura, “Increase in the extraction efficiency of GaN-based light-emitting diodes via surface roughening,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 855–857 (2004).
[Crossref]

X.-L. Wang, S. Furue, M. Ogura, V. Voliotis, M. Ravaro, A. Enderlin, and R. Grousson, “Ultrahigh spontaneous emission extraction efficiency induced by evanescent wave coupling,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(9), 091102 (2009).
[Crossref]

G.-D. Hao and X.-L. Wang, “Enhancement of light extraction efficiency by evanescent wave coupling effect in ridge-shaped AlGaInP/GaInP quantum well,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(9), 091107 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. R. Kisting, P. W. Bohn, E. Andideh, I. Adesida, B. T. Cunningham, G. E. Stillman, and T. D. Harris, “High precision temperature- and energy-dependent refractive index of GaAs determined from excitation of optical waveguide eigenmodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(13), 1328–1330 (1990).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Windisch, C. Rooman, B. Dutta, A. Knobloch, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “Light-extraction mechanism in high-efficiency surface-textured light-emitting diodes,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8(2), 248–255 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

H.-W. Huang, C. C. Kao, J. T. Chu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, and C. C. Yu, “Improvement of InGaN-GaN light-emitting diode performance with a nano-roughened p-GaN surface,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 17(5), 983–985 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. (1)

R. Windisch, B. Dutta, M. Kuijk, A. Knobloch, S. Meinlschmidt, S. Schoberth, P. Kiesel, G. Borghs, G. H. Döhler, and P. Heremans, “40% efficient thin-film surface-textured light-emitting diodes by optimization of natural lithography,” IEEE Trans. Electron. Dev. 47(7), 1492–1498 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

X.-L. Wang and V. Voliotis, “Epitaxial growth and optical properties of semiconductor quantum wires,” J. Appl. Phys. 99(12), 121301 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. E. Aspnes, S. M. Kelso, R. A. Logan, and R. Bhat, “Optical properties of AlxGa1-xAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(2), 754–767 (1986).
[Crossref]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

X.-L. Wang and T. Takahashi, “Light source position dependence of evanescent wave coupling effect in narrow GaAs/AlGaAs ridge structure,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 51(4R), 040205 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mater. Sci. Eng. B (1)

Y. J. Lee, T. C. Lu, H. C. Kuo, S. C. Wang, T. C. Hsu, M. H. Hsieh, M. J. Jou, and B. J. Lee, “Nano-roughening n-side surface of AlGaInP-based LEDs for increasing extraction efficiency,” Mater. Sci. Eng. B 138(2), 157–160 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (2)

E. F. Schubert, Light-Emitting Diodes (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007).

E. Hecht, Optics (Pearson Higher Education, 2002).

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic drawing of the experimental setup for the measurement of 3D emission patterns. (b) Schematic illustration of the rotation angles θ and φ with respect to the ridge axis.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Comparison of the 15-K PL spectra of samples with and without the thin SiO2 layer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) 3D plot of the measured emission pattern of the sample with the SiO2 layer. (b) 3D plot of the measured emission pattern of the sample without the SiO2 layer. The Cartesian coordinate (X, Y, Z) for the 3D plot was converted from the measured PL intensity I and the rotation angles θ and φ by using the following equations: X = I sin θ cos φ , Y = I sin θ sin φ , Z = I cos θ . (c) Polar plot of the 2D emission patterns of the two samples measured in two planes parallel with (φ = 0°, indicated by // in the figure) or perpendicular to (φ = 90°, indicated by ⊥ in the figure) the ridge axis direction. The theoretical Lambertian pattern for a flat-surface sample was also shown in the figure as a reference.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 FDTD simulation image showing the distribution of the magnitude of the Poynting vector temporally integrated over one cycle inside (a) the ridge sample with the SiO2 layer and (b) the ridge sample without the SiO2 layer.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Simulated image of the electric field intensity in the as-grown ridge sample. (b) Simulated image of the magnitude of Poynting vector temporally integrated over one cycle in the as-grown ridge sample. (c) Simulated image of the electric field intensity in the ridge sample covered with the thin SiO2 layer. (d) Simulated image of the magnitude of Poynting vector temporally integrated over one cycle in the ridge sample covered with the thin SiO2 layer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Theoretically calculated light-extraction efficiency of the ridge and the flat-surface sample covered with a SiO2 layer as a function of the thickness of the SiO2 layer. The “×” symbols indicate the experimentally measured light-extraction efficiencies.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Summary of total PL intensity, excitation laser intensity, and light-extraction efficiency of the 3 samples

Equations (4)

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I total = 0° 90° I ave ( θ )sinθdθ.
I ave ( θ )=( φ=0° φ=90° I( θ,φ ))/m,
η ext ridge ( d ) = ( I ( d ) / I ( 0 ) ) × η ext ridge ( 0 ) ,
η ext flat ( d ) = ( 1 R ) × 2 . 24 % ,

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