Abstract

We report on the theory and the implementation of a novel approach for the detection and localization of a reflective event along a fiber link. By launching a continuous-wave signal into both fiber ends and by analyzing the transmitted and reflected/backscattered optical powers, it is possible to localize an optical event and to quantify the induced insertion and return losses simultaneously. The novel idea of utilizing bi-directional measurement allows the localization of both reflective and non-reflective events. Theoretical and experimental studies show that for a 10 km-long single mode fiber, the localization accuracy can be in the range of 5.0 m.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall PTR, 1997), chap. 11.
  2. K. Yüksel, M. Wuilpart, and P. Mégret, “Analysis and suppression of nonlinear frequency modulation in an OFDR,” Opt. Express 17, 5845 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J. W. Berthold, “Historical review of microbend fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1193–1199 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  4. E. Udd and W. B. Spillman, Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers & Scientists, 2nd Edition (Wiley, 2011), chap. 6.
  5. V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a Loss-Inducing Perturbation With Variable Accuracy Along a Test Fiber Using Transmission-Reflection Analysis,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  6. V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, and P. L. Swart, “Transmission/reflection analysis for distributed optical fiber loss sensor interrogation,” Electron. Lett. 38(3), 117–118 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  7. A. Girard, FTTx PON technology and testing (EXFO Electro-Optical Engineering Inc., 2005), chap. 3.
  8. A. D. Kersey and A. Dandridge, “Applications of fiber-optic sensors,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 13, 137–143 (1990).
  9. L. Thevenaz, Advanced Fiber Optics: Concepts and Technology (CRC, 2011), chap. 8.
  10. W. Lee, S. I. Myong, J. C. Lee, and S. Lee, “Identification method of non-reflective faults based on index distribution of optical fibers,” Opt. Express 22(1), 325–337 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. G. Lietaert, JDSU White Paper, “Fiber Water Peak Characterization” (JDSU, 2009). http://www.jdsu.com/ProductLiterature/fiber-water-peak-characterization_fwpc_wp_fop_tm_ae.pdf .

2014 (1)

2009 (1)

2004 (1)

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a Loss-Inducing Perturbation With Variable Accuracy Along a Test Fiber Using Transmission-Reflection Analysis,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, and P. L. Swart, “Transmission/reflection analysis for distributed optical fiber loss sensor interrogation,” Electron. Lett. 38(3), 117–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

J. W. Berthold, “Historical review of microbend fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1193–1199 (1995).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

A. D. Kersey and A. Dandridge, “Applications of fiber-optic sensors,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 13, 137–143 (1990).

Berthold, J. W.

J. W. Berthold, “Historical review of microbend fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1193–1199 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chtcherbakov, A. A.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a Loss-Inducing Perturbation With Variable Accuracy Along a Test Fiber Using Transmission-Reflection Analysis,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

Dandridge, A.

A. D. Kersey and A. Dandridge, “Applications of fiber-optic sensors,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 13, 137–143 (1990).

Kersey, A. D.

A. D. Kersey and A. Dandridge, “Applications of fiber-optic sensors,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 13, 137–143 (1990).

Lee, J. C.

Lee, S.

Lee, W.

Mégret, P.

Mendieta, F. J.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a Loss-Inducing Perturbation With Variable Accuracy Along a Test Fiber Using Transmission-Reflection Analysis,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

Miridonov, S. V.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a Loss-Inducing Perturbation With Variable Accuracy Along a Test Fiber Using Transmission-Reflection Analysis,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, and P. L. Swart, “Transmission/reflection analysis for distributed optical fiber loss sensor interrogation,” Electron. Lett. 38(3), 117–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

Myong, S. I.

Shlyagin, M. G.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a Loss-Inducing Perturbation With Variable Accuracy Along a Test Fiber Using Transmission-Reflection Analysis,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, and P. L. Swart, “Transmission/reflection analysis for distributed optical fiber loss sensor interrogation,” Electron. Lett. 38(3), 117–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

Spirin, V. V.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a Loss-Inducing Perturbation With Variable Accuracy Along a Test Fiber Using Transmission-Reflection Analysis,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, and P. L. Swart, “Transmission/reflection analysis for distributed optical fiber loss sensor interrogation,” Electron. Lett. 38(3), 117–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

Swart, P. L.

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a Loss-Inducing Perturbation With Variable Accuracy Along a Test Fiber Using Transmission-Reflection Analysis,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, and P. L. Swart, “Transmission/reflection analysis for distributed optical fiber loss sensor interrogation,” Electron. Lett. 38(3), 117–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

Wuilpart, M.

Yüksel, K.

Electron. Lett. (1)

V. V. Spirin, M. G. Shlyagin, S. V. Miridonov, and P. L. Swart, “Transmission/reflection analysis for distributed optical fiber loss sensor interrogation,” Electron. Lett. 38(3), 117–118 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. (1)

V. V. Spirin, F. J. Mendieta, S. V. Miridonov, M. G. Shlyagin, A. A. Chtcherbakov, and P. L. Swart, “Localization of a Loss-Inducing Perturbation With Variable Accuracy Along a Test Fiber Using Transmission-Reflection Analysis,” IEEE. Photonic Tech. L. 16(2), 569–571 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

J. W. Berthold, “Historical review of microbend fiber-optic sensors,” J. Lightwave Technol. 13(7), 1193–1199 (1995).
[Crossref]

Manuf. Technol. (1)

A. D. Kersey and A. Dandridge, “Applications of fiber-optic sensors,” IEEE Trans. Compon., Hybrids, Manuf. Technol. 13, 137–143 (1990).

Opt. Express (2)

Other (5)

L. Thevenaz, Advanced Fiber Optics: Concepts and Technology (CRC, 2011), chap. 8.

D. Derickson, Fiber Optic Test and Measurement (Prentice Hall PTR, 1997), chap. 11.

G. Lietaert, JDSU White Paper, “Fiber Water Peak Characterization” (JDSU, 2009). http://www.jdsu.com/ProductLiterature/fiber-water-peak-characterization_fwpc_wp_fop_tm_ae.pdf .

E. Udd and W. B. Spillman, Fiber Optic Sensors: An Introduction for Engineers & Scientists, 2nd Edition (Wiley, 2011), chap. 6.

A. Girard, FTTx PON technology and testing (EXFO Electro-Optical Engineering Inc., 2005), chap. 3.

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Figures (16)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Definition of transmitted (PT) and backscattered (PB) powers.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Schematic diagram of BD-TRA technique. (a) Forward measurement for getting PT1 and PB1. (b) Backward measurement for getting PT2 and PB2.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Calculated normalized power reflection coefficients (R1 and R2) for different event return loss (RL) and event location (zp) when a reflective event is introduced. For an introduced event with a fixed RL and zp, there is only a single corresponding (R1, R2) point. (a) Forward measurement results (R1 vs zp and RL). (b) Backward measurement results (R2 vs zp and RL).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Theoretical (pink solid line) and experimental results (blue dots) of the normalized power reflection coefficients (R1 and R2) for different event locations (zp) when a FC/PC connector is introduced as an event. (a) R1 vs zp, R1 increases with zp. (b) R2 vs zp, R2 decreases with zp.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Comparison between the experimentally measured RL and zp by OTDR (pink dots) and BD-TRA (blue dots) when a FC/PC connector is introduced as an event, showing a good accuracy and a high repeatability of both RL and zp measurement using the BD-TRA method.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Comparison between the experimentally measured RL and zp by OTDR (pink dot) and BD-TRA (blue dots) when a FC/APC connector is introduced as an event, showing a good accuracy and a high repeatability of both RL and zp measurement using the BD-TRA method.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Comparison between the experimentally measured RL and zp by OTDR (pink dot) and BD-TRA (blue dots) when a fiber bending is introduced as an event, showing a good accuracy and a high repeatability of localization and a large inaccuracy and fluctuation of RL measurement using the BD-TRA method.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Calculated STDs and expected errors of event return loss (RL) for different RL values when an event with a zp of 1.7 km is introduced. When RL is larger than 60 dB, low accuracy and large fluctuation of the measurement can be expected.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Calculated localization STDs and expected localization errors for different RL values when an event with a zp of L/4 is introduced. When the RL is around 33 dB, the localization STD shows a peak.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Calculated normalized power reflection coefficients (R1 and R2) for different RL values when an event is introduced at various locations along the fiber. When RL is getting close to 33 dB, a large localization error can be expected.
Fig. 11
Fig. 11 Calculated localization STDs and expected localization errors for different RL values under two wavelengths (1310 nm and 1383 nm) when an event with a zp of L/4 is introduced. The localization STD peak can be greatly decreased if a 1383 nm-light source is applied.
Fig. 12
Fig. 12 Calculated localization STDs and expected localization errors for different IL values when an event with a zp of L/4 and a RL of 20 dB is introduced, showing a good accuracy and a high repeatability of localization over a wide range of insertion loss.
Fig. 13
Fig. 13 Calculated localization STDs and expected localization errors for different IL values under two wavelengths (1310 nm and 1383 nm) when an event with a zp of L/4 and a RL of 33 dB is introduced. The localization accuracies can be greatly improved if a 1383 nm-light source is applied.
Fig. 14
Fig. 14 Calculated localization STDs and expected localization errors for different L values when an event with a zp of L/4 and a RL of 20 dB is introduced. When L is larger than 30 km, a large localization error can be expected.
Fig. 15
Fig. 15 Calculated normalized power reflection coefficients (R1 and R2) for different fiber lengths (L) when an event with a zp of L/4 is introduced at three different RL values. (a) RL equals to 20 dB, localization inaccuracy increases with L. (b) RL equals to 33 dB, large location errors can be expected despite any L values. (c) RL equals to 60 dB, localization inaccuracy increases with L.
Fig. 16
Fig. 16 Calculated localization STDs and expected localization errors for different L values when an event with a zp of L/4 and a RL of 20 dB is introduced at four different wavelengths. The localization accuracy and repeatability for large L values can be greatly improved if a 1550 nm or 1650 nm-light source is applied. (a) Localization STDs. (b) Expected localization errors.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters related to the calculation model [9]

Tables Icon

Table 2 BD-TRA measurement accuracies

Equations (9)

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P T0 = P 0 10 ( I L cir1 10 ) T(L) 10 ( I L iso 10 ) .
P B0 = P 0 [ 10 ( DIR 10 ) +RAY(L)+ T 2 (L) 10 ( R L iso 10 ) ] 10 ( I L cir2 10 ) .
RAY(Δx)=S α S 2α (1 e 2αΔx ).
P T1 = P T0 10 ( IL 10 ) .
P B1 = P 0 [ 10 ( DIR 10 ) +RAY( z p )+ T 2 ( z p ) 10 ( RL 10 ) +[RAY(L)RAY( z p )] 10 ( IL 5 ) + T 2 (L) 10 ( IL 5 ) 10 ( R L iso 10 ) ] 10 ( I L cir2 10 ) .
P T2 = P T0 10 ( IL 10 ) .
P B2 = P 0 [ 10 ( DIR 10 ) +RAY(L z p )+ T 2 (L z p ) 10 ( RL 10 ) + [RAY(L)RAY(L z p )] 10 ( IL 5 ) + T 2 (L) 10 ( IL 5 ) 10 ( R L iso 10 ) ] 10 ( I L cir2 10 ) .
R 1 = P B1 P B0 = 10 ( DIR 10 ) +RAY( z p )+ T 2 ( z p ) 10 ( RL 10 ) +[RAY(L)RAY( z p )] 10 ( IL 5 ) 10 ( DIR 10 ) +RAY(L)+ T 2 (L) 10 ( R L iso 10 ) + T 2 (L) 10 ( IL 5 ) 10 ( R L iso 10 ) 10 ( DIR 10 ) +RAY(L)+ T 2 (L) 10 ( R L iso 10 ) .
R 2 = P B2 P B0 = 10 ( DIR 10 ) +RAY(L z p )+ T 2 (L z p ) 10 ( RL 10 ) 10 ( DIR 10 ) +RAY(L)+ T 2 (L) 10 ( R L iso 10 ) + [RAY(L)RAY(L z p )] 10 ( IL 5 ) + T 2 (L) 10 ( IL 5 ) 10 ( R L iso 10 ) 10 ( DIR 10 ) +RAY(L)+ T 2 (L) 10 ( R L iso 10 ) .

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