Abstract

A common drawback in 3D integral imaging displays is the appearance of pseudoimages beyond the viewing angle. These pseudoimages appear when the light rays coming from each elemental image are not passing through the corresponding microlens, and a set of barriers must be used to avoid this flipping effect. We present a pure optical arrangement based on Köhler illumination to generate these barriers thus avoiding the pseudoimages. The proposed system does not use additional lenses to project the elemental images, so no optical aberrations are introduced. As an added benefit, Köhler illumination provides a higher contrast 3D display.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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2010 (2)

J. Arai, F. Okano, M. Kawakita, M. Okui, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, M. Furuya, and M. Sato, “Integral Three-Dimensional Television Using a 33-Megapixel Imaging System,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(10), 422–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Tolosa, R. Martínez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martínez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Optical implementation of micro-zoom arrays for parallel focusing in integral imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(3), 495–500 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-d multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1067–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

J. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, D. S. Kim, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Image-forming principle of integral photography,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(3), 324–331 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

2006 (3)

2005 (2)

S. H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of partially occluded objects using integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 354–359 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Multifacet structure of observed reconstructed integral images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(4), 597–603 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (1)

2003 (2)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1988 (1)

1968 (1)

C. B. Burckhardt, “Optimum Parameters and Resolution Limitation of Integral Photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 58(1), 71–74 (1968).
[Crossref]

1931 (1)

H. E. Ives, “Optical properties of a Lippman lenticulated sheet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(3), 171 (1931).
[Crossref]

1908 (1)

G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821–825 (1908).

Arai, J.

Burckhardt, C. B.

C. B. Burckhardt, “Optimum Parameters and Resolution Limitation of Integral Photography,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 58(1), 71–74 (1968).
[Crossref]

Choi, H.

Davies, N.

Furuya, M.

J. Arai, F. Okano, M. Kawakita, M. Okui, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, M. Furuya, and M. Sato, “Integral Three-Dimensional Television Using a 33-Megapixel Imaging System,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(10), 422–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haino, Y.

J. Arai, F. Okano, M. Kawakita, M. Okui, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, M. Furuya, and M. Sato, “Integral Three-Dimensional Television Using a 33-Megapixel Imaging System,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(10), 422–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hong, S. H.

S. H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of partially occluded objects using integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 354–359 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. H. Hong, J. S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12(3), 483–491 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hoshino, H.

Ives, H. E.

H. E. Ives, “Optical properties of a Lippman lenticulated sheet,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 21(3), 171 (1931).
[Crossref]

Jang, J. S.

Javidi, B.

A. Tolosa, R. Martínez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martínez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Optical implementation of micro-zoom arrays for parallel focusing in integral imaging,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 27(3), 495–500 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-d multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1067–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, D. S. Kim, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Image-forming principle of integral photography,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(3), 324–331 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Martínez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, A. Pons, B. Javidi, and M. Martínez-Corral, “Facet braiding: a fundamental problem in integral imaging,” Opt. Lett. 32(9), 1078–1080 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Martínez-Cuenca, H. Navarro, G. Saavedra, B. Javidi, and M. Martinez-Corral, “Enhanced viewing-angle integral imaging by multiple-axis telecentric relay system,” Opt. Express 15(24), 16255–16260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted Integral image display,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9657–9663 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Martínez-Corral, B. Javidi, R. Martínez-Cuenca, and G. Saavedra, “Multifacet structure of observed reconstructed integral images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 22(4), 597–603 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of partially occluded objects using integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 354–359 (2005).
[Crossref]

S. H. Hong, J. S. Jang, and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional volumetric object reconstruction using computational integral imaging,” Opt. Express 12(3), 483–491 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jung, S.

Kawai, H.

Kawakita, M.

J. Arai, F. Okano, M. Kawakita, M. Okui, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, M. Furuya, and M. Sato, “Integral Three-Dimensional Television Using a 33-Megapixel Imaging System,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(10), 422–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kim, D. S.

J. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, D. S. Kim, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Image-forming principle of integral photography,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(3), 324–331 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kim, S. H.

J. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, D. S. Kim, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Image-forming principle of integral photography,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(3), 324–331 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kwack, K. D.

J. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, D. S. Kim, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Image-forming principle of integral photography,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(3), 324–331 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Lippmann, G.

G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821–825 (1908).

Martinez-Corral, M.

Martínez-Corral, M.

Martinez-Cuenca, R.

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-d multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1067–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Martinez-Cuenca, A. Pons, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Optically-corrected elemental images for undistorted Integral image display,” Opt. Express 14(21), 9657–9663 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martínez-Cuenca, R.

McCormick, M.

Min, S. W.

Mitani, K.

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, “Real-time integral imaging based on extremely high resolution video system,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 490–501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Navarro, H.

Okano, F.

Okui, M.

J. Arai, F. Okano, M. Kawakita, M. Okui, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, M. Furuya, and M. Sato, “Integral Three-Dimensional Television Using a 33-Megapixel Imaging System,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(10), 422–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, “Real-time integral imaging based on extremely high resolution video system,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 490–501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Park, J. H.

Park, J.-H.

Pons, A.

Saavedra, G.

Sato, M.

J. Arai, F. Okano, M. Kawakita, M. Okui, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, M. Furuya, and M. Sato, “Integral Three-Dimensional Television Using a 33-Megapixel Imaging System,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(10), 422–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Son, J. Y.

J. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, D. S. Kim, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Image-forming principle of integral photography,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(3), 324–331 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tolosa, A.

Yang, L.

Yoshimura, M.

J. Arai, F. Okano, M. Kawakita, M. Okui, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, M. Furuya, and M. Sato, “Integral Three-Dimensional Television Using a 33-Megapixel Imaging System,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(10), 422–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yuyama, I.

Appl. Opt. (4)

J. Disp. Technol. (3)

S. H. Hong and B. Javidi, “Three-dimensional visualization of partially occluded objects using integral imaging,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(2), 354–359 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Arai, F. Okano, M. Kawakita, M. Okui, Y. Haino, M. Yoshimura, M. Furuya, and M. Sato, “Integral Three-Dimensional Television Using a 33-Megapixel Imaging System,” J. Disp. Technol. 6(10), 422–430 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Y. Son, S. H. Kim, D. S. Kim, B. Javidi, and K. D. Kwack, “Image-forming principle of integral photography,” J. Disp. Technol. 4(3), 324–331 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

J. Phys. (1)

G. Lippmann, “Epreuves reversibles donnant la sensation du relief,” J. Phys. 7, 821–825 (1908).

Opt. Express (5)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. IEEE (2)

R. Martinez-Cuenca, G. Saavedra, M. Martinez-Corral, and B. Javidi, “Progress in 3-d multiperspective display by integral imaging,” Proc. IEEE 97(6), 1067–1077 (2009).
[Crossref]

F. Okano, J. Arai, K. Mitani, and M. Okui, “Real-time integral imaging based on extremely high resolution video system,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 490–501 (2006).
[Crossref]

Supplementary Material (4)

» Media 1: MP4 (3283 KB)     
» Media 2: MP4 (2930 KB)     
» Media 3: MP4 (4726 KB)     
» Media 4: MP4 (5329 KB)     

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Capturing (a) and display (b) of integral images. The rays of light go from left to right.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Visualization of 3D images through a 3D display based on integral imaging.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Köhler illumination path in transmission microscopy and (b) in slide projection.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The conditions needed for optical barriers which are accomplished by a Köhler illumination system. (b) A simple method to provide an illuminating field onto a plane object that verifies the conditions in (a).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Using a MLA to replicate Köhler illumination onto each elemental image: (a) light cones do not fill the PMLA properly and will lead to flipping effect; (b) correct illumination avoids flipping by filling the PMLA properly.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The flipping effect is characteristic of conventional InIm displays. The top row shows different views for a horizontal (H) displacement of the observer (Media 1), and the lower a vertical (V) displacement (Media 2).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental micro-Köhler projection system shown from two different directions.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 The flipping effect is avoided when the multi-Köhler illumination is used. The top row shows different views for a horizontal (H) displacement of the observe (Media 3), and the lower a vertical (V) displacement (Media 4).

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

x S ' ,n ' = g S z S ( n p S x S )+n p S ,
x R' = p R T R p R x R 0 ' ,
z R' = p R T R p R g R ,
Ω R =2arctan( D v 2 g D ),
ϕ S = d S g ϕ L .
ϕ S =p f CL f PL ,

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