Abstract

We report the enhanced conductivity of sol-gel silica under-cladding for efficient poling of electro-optic (EO) polymer in a hybrid EO polymer/TiO2 vertical slot waveguide modulator. The electrical volume conductivity of sol-gel silica cladding increases approximately 30 times when the calcining time of the cladding layer is critically reduced to 45 minutes, which increases the in-device EO coefficient of the 600-nm-thick EO polymer film in modulators and reduces the lower halfwave voltage (Vπ) of the modulators. The lowest driving voltage (Vπ) of the TiO2 slot waveguide modulator is 2.0 V for an electrode length (Le) of 10 mm and wavelength of 1550 nm (VπLe = 2.0 V·cm) for the low-index guest–host EO polymer SEO125. The optical propagation loss is reduced to 7 dB/cm.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  21. X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensor based on broadband bowtie antenna coupled silicon organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3774–3784 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  25. Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Advances 1, 042137 (2011).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  27. C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, B. S. Lee, X. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17372–17377 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  29. X. Lin, T. Ling, H. Subbaraman, X. Zhang, K. Byun, L. J. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraviolet imprinting and aligned ink-jet printing for multilayer patterning of electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1597–1599 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2014 (6)

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, Y. Kayaba, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding for hybrid TiO2/electro-optic polymer waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16418–16423 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Hemi, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly efficient mode converter for coupling light into wide slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20678–20690 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensor based on broadband bowtie antenna coupled silicon organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3774–3784 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jouane, Y.-C. Chang, D. Zhang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and Y. Enami, “Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27725–27732 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (5)

2012 (6)

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. Ziebell, D. Marris-Morini, G. Rasigade, J.-M. Fédéli, P. Crozat, E. Cassan, D. Bouville, and L. Vivien, “40 Gbit/s low-loss silicon optical modulator based on a pipin diode,” Opt. Express 20(10), 10591–10596 (2012).
[PubMed]

Y. Tang, J. D. Peters, and J. E. Bowers, “Over 67 GHz bandwidth hybrid silicon electroabsorption modulator with asymmetric segmented electrode for 1.3 μm transmission,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11529–11535 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

2010 (3)

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (2)

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. A. Block, T. R. Younkin, P. S. Davids, M. R. Reshotko, P. Chang, B. M. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer cladding ring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18326–18333 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Alic, N.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Asghari, M.

Ayazi, A.

Baehr-Jones, T.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Block, B. A.

Bogaerts, W.

Bouville, D.

Bowers, J. E.

Byun, K.

Cassan, E.

Chakravarty, S.

Chang, P.

Chang, Y.-C.

Chen, A.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.-W.

Chen, R. T.

X. Zhang, H. Subbaraman, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly efficient mode converter for coupling light into wide slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Express 22(17), 20678–20690 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensor based on broadband bowtie antenna coupled silicon organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3774–3784 (2014).
[Crossref]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Lin, T. Ling, H. Subbaraman, X. Zhang, K. Byun, L. J. Guo, and R. T. Chen, “Ultraviolet imprinting and aligned ink-jet printing for multilayer patterning of electro-optic polymer modulators,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1597–1599 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, B. S. Lee, X. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17372–17377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chu, T.

Crozat, P.

Cunningham, J. E.

Dalton, L.

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Hemi, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Davids, P. S.

Davies, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

DeRose, C. T.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Ding, R.

Dinu, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dong, P.

Elder, D. L.

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, Y. Kayaba, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding for hybrid TiO2/electro-optic polymer waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16418–16423 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Jouane, Y.-C. Chang, D. Zhang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and Y. Enami, “Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27725–27732 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Advances 1, 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
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Fedeli, J.-M.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

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Feng, D.

Feng, N.-N.

Fetterman, H. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Gan, F.

Gardes, F. Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Guo, L. J.

Harris, N. C.

Hemi, W.

Hillerkuss, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hochberg, M.

T. Baehr-Jones, R. Ding, Y. Liu, A. Ayazi, T. Pinguet, N. C. Harris, M. Streshinsky, P. Lee, Y. Zhang, A. E.-J. Lim, T.-Y. Liow, S. H.-G. Teo, G.-Q. Lo, and M. Hochberg, “Ultralow drive voltage silicon traveling-wave modulator,” Opt. Express 20(11), 12014–12020 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hosseini, A.

Hu, Y.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Huang, J.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

Jain, S.

Jen, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Y. Enami, Y. Kayaba, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding for hybrid TiO2/electro-optic polymer waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16418–16423 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensor based on broadband bowtie antenna coupled silicon organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3774–3784 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jouane, Y.-C. Chang, D. Zhang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and Y. Enami, “Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27725–27732 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Advances 1, 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

B. A. Block, T. R. Younkin, P. S. Davids, M. R. Reshotko, P. Chang, B. M. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer cladding ring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18326–18333 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jouane, Y.

Kayaba, Y.

Kim, T. D.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, T.-D.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Koeber, S.

Kohl, M.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Koos, C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Korn, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Hemi, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Krishnamoorthy, A. V.

Kuo, B. P. P.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lai, W.

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lauermann, M.

Lee, B.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lee, B. S.

C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, B. S. Lee, X. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17372–17377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, P.

Lentine, A. L.

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
[Crossref]

Leuthold, J.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Hemi, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

Li, H.

Li, J.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

Li, X.

Li, Z.

Liang, H.

Liao, S.

Lim, A. E.-J.

Lin, C.-Y.

X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, B. S. Lee, X. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17372–17377 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lin, X.

Ling, T.

Ling, W.

Liow, T.-Y.

Liu, Y.

Lo, G.-Q.

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, Y. Kayaba, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding for hybrid TiO2/electro-optic polymer waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16418–16423 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, H. Subbaraman, S. Wang, Q. Zhan, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Integrated photonic electromagnetic field sensor based on broadband bowtie antenna coupled silicon organic hybrid modulator,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(20), 3774–3784 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. Jouane, Y.-C. Chang, D. Zhang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and Y. Enami, “Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27725–27732 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. Hosseini, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Wide optical spectrum range, subvolt, compact modulator based on an electro-optic polymer refilled silicon slot photonic crystal waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 38(22), 4931–4934 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Advances 1, 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

X. Wang, C.-Y. Lin, S. Chakravarty, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Effective in-device r33 of 735 pm/V on electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 36(6), 882–884 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. Lin, X. Wang, S. Chakravarty, B. S. Lee, W. Lai, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and R. T. Chen, “Electro-optic polymer infiltrated silicon photonic crystal slot waveguide modulator with 23 dB slow light enhancement,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(9), 093304 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. A. Block, T. R. Younkin, P. S. Davids, M. R. Reshotko, P. Chang, B. M. Polishak, S. Huang, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer cladding ring resonator modulators,” Opt. Express 16(22), 18326–18333 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Luo, X.

Marris-Morini, D.

Mashanovich, G. Z.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Melikyan, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muehlbrandt, S.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Myslivets, E.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Palmer, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

R. Palmer, S. Koeber, D. L. Elder, M. Woessner, W. Hemi, D. Korn, M. Lauermann, W. Bogaerts, L. Dalton, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed, low drive-voltage silicon-organic hybrid modulator based on a binary-chromophore electro-optic material,” J. Lightwave Technol. 32(16), 2726–2734 (2014).
[Crossref]

Pang, A.

Penkov, B.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Peters, J. D.

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Pinguet, T.

Polishak, B. M.

Qiu, C.

Radic, S.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rasigade, G.

Reed, G. T.

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reshotko, M. R.

Scherer, A.

T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schindler, P. C.

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Sheng, Z.

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Sommer, M.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335–3337 (1997).
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Subbaraman, H.

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T. Baehr-Jones, B. Penkov, J. Huang, P. Sullivan, J. Davies, J. Takayesu, J. Luo, T.-D. Kim, L. Dalton, A. Jen, M. Hochberg, and A. Scherer, “Nonlinear polymer-clad silicon slot waveguide modulator with a half wave voltage of 0.25 V,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(16), 163303 (2008).
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Yu, J.

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Yu, Y.

Yuan, B.

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M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. R. Watts, W. A. Zortman, D. C. Trotter, R. W. Young, and A. L. Lentine, “Low-voltage, compact, depletion-mode, silicon Mach-Zehnder modulator,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 16(1), 159–164 (2010).
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X. Zhang, B. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, A. Hosseini, and R. T. Chen, “Highly linear broadband optical modulator based on electro-optic polymer,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(6), 2214–2228 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

D. J. Thomson, F. Y. Gardes, J.-M. Fedeli, S. Zlatanovic, Y. Hu, B. P. P. Kuo, E. Myslivets, N. Alic, S. Radic, G. Z. Mashanovich, and G. T. Reed, “50-Gb/s Silicon Optical Modulator,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(4), 234–236 (2012).
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Nat. Photonics (2)

Y. Enami, C. T. DeRose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro-optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1(3), 180–185 (2007).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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X. Tu, T.-Y. Liow, J. Song, X. Luo, Q. Fang, M. Yu, and G.-Q. Lo, “50-Gb/s silicon optical modulator with traveling-wave electrodes,” Opt. Express 21(10), 12776–12782 (2013).
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C.-Y. Lin, A. X. Wang, B. S. Lee, X. Zhang, and R. T. Chen, “High dynamic range electric field sensor for electromagnetic pulse detection,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17372–17377 (2011).
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N.-N. Feng, S. Liao, D. Feng, P. Dong, D. Zheng, H. Liang, R. Shafiiha, G. Li, J. E. Cunningham, A. V. Krishnamoorthy, and M. Asghari, “High speed carrier-depletion modulators with 1.4V-cm VπL integrated on 0.25μm silicon-on-insulator waveguides,” Opt. Express 18(8), 7994–7999 (2010).
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Y. Enami, Y. Kayaba, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding for hybrid TiO2/electro-optic polymer waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(13), 16418–16423 (2014).
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Y. Jouane, Y.-C. Chang, D. Zhang, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and Y. Enami, “Unprecedented highest electro-optic coefficient of 226 pm/V for electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Opt. Express 22(22), 27725–27732 (2014).
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Opt. Lett. (3)

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Cross-sectional view of the MZ EO polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulator in the active region.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated waveguide mode in the active region, determined employing the 3D FDTD method. (a) Cross-sectional view. (b) Mode shape in the vertical (Y) direction at the center of the waveguide (X = 0).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Poling conductivity of modulators having different durations of calcining of the sol-gel silica under-cladding at 150 °C. Red circle, green diamond, and blue triangles show the poling conductivity for 0.3-μm-thick, 0.4-μm-thick, and 0.6-μm-thick EO polymer SEO125, respectively.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Halfwave voltage (Vπ) measured for the EO polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulator under dual-driven operation at 1 kHz. Vπ = 2.0 V (d = 6.0 μm, Le = 10 mm) at 1550 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 VπLe product of the EO polymer/TiO2 vertical slot waveguide modulators and its dependence on the duration of calcining of the sol-gel silica cladding at 150 °C. The red circle, green diamond, and blue triangles show the VπLe product for 0.3-μm-thick, 0.4-μm-thick, and 0.6-μm-thick EO polymer SEO125, respectively.

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