Abstract

Recently, S. Mitryukovskiy et al. presented experimental evidence showing that backward Amplified Spontaneous Emission (ASE) at 337 nm can be obtained from plasma filaments in nitrogen gas pumped by circularly polarized 800 nm femtosecond pulses (Opt. Express, 22, 12750 (2014)). Here, we report that a seed pulse injected in the backward direction can be amplified by ~200 times inside this plasma amplifier. The amplified 337 nm radiation can be either linearly or circularly polarized, dictated by the seeding pulse, which is distinct from the non-polarized nature of the ASE. We performed comprehensive measurements of the spatial profile, optical gain dynamics, and seed pulse energy dependence of this amplification process. These measurements allow us to deduce the pulse duration of the ASE and the amplified 337 nm radiation as well as the corresponding laser intensity inside the plasma amplifier. It indicates that the amplification is largely in the unsaturated regime and that further improvement of laser energy is possible. Moreover, we observed optical gain in plasma created in ambient air. This represents an important step towards future applications exploiting backward lasing for remote atmospheric sensing.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (5)

2013 (4)

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, Y. Brelet, G. Point, A. Houard, and A. Mysyrowicz, “Self-seeded lasing in ionized air pumped by 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22791–22798 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. N. Malevich, D. Kartashov, Z. Pu, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, A. A. Lanin, A. M. Zheltikov, M. Marangoni, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrafast-laser-induced backward stimulated Raman scattering for tracing atmospheric gases,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18784–18794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Peñano, Ph. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, D. Fordon, R. Fernsler, and M. Scully, “Remote lasing in air by recombination and electron impact excitation of molecular nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033105 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (5)

E. Oliva, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Fajardo, G. Lambert, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Velarde, “Comparison of nature and forced amplification regimes in plasma-based soft-x-ray lasers seeded by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013811 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, Ph. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3130–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ph. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, “Remotely induced atmospheric lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211102 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

I. R. Al’miev, O. Larroche, D. Benredjem, J. Dubau, S. Kazamias, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, “Dynamical description of transient X-ray lasers seeded with high-order harmonic radiation through Maxwell-Bloch numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

T. Tabata, T. Shirai, M. Sataka, and H. Kubo, “Analytic cross sections for electron impact collisions with nitrogen molecules,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 92(3), 375–406 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

J. T. Fons, R. S. Schappe, and C. C. Lin, “Electron-impact excitation of the second positive band system (C3Πu→B3Πg) and the C3Πu electronic state of the nitrogen molecule,” Phys. Rev. A 53(4), 2239–2247 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

R. S. Kunabenchi, M. R. Gorbal, and M. I. Savadatt, “Nitrogen lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 259–329 (1984).
[Crossref]

Al’miev, I. R.

I. R. Al’miev, O. Larroche, D. Benredjem, J. Dubau, S. Kazamias, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, “Dynamical description of transient X-ray lasers seeded with high-order harmonic radiation through Maxwell-Bloch numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ališauskas, S.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. N. Malevich, D. Kartashov, Z. Pu, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, A. A. Lanin, A. M. Zheltikov, M. Marangoni, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrafast-laser-induced backward stimulated Raman scattering for tracing atmospheric gases,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18784–18794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kartashov, P. Malevich, R. Maurer, S. Ališauskas, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Zheltikov, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “Mirrorless backward SRS in free-space gas driven by filament-initiated UV laser,” International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Okinawa, Japan, 2014.

Andriukaitis, G.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

Antonetti, A.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aubert, D.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balcou, Ph.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. N. Malevich, D. Kartashov, Z. Pu, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, A. A. Lanin, A. M. Zheltikov, M. Marangoni, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrafast-laser-induced backward stimulated Raman scattering for tracing atmospheric gases,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18784–18794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kartashov, P. Malevich, R. Maurer, S. Ališauskas, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Zheltikov, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “Mirrorless backward SRS in free-space gas driven by filament-initiated UV laser,” International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Okinawa, Japan, 2014.

Benredjem, D.

I. R. Al’miev, O. Larroche, D. Benredjem, J. Dubau, S. Kazamias, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, “Dynamical description of transient X-ray lasers seeded with high-order harmonic radiation through Maxwell-Bloch numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brelet, Y.

Burgy, F.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carillon, A.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cerullo, G.

P. N. Malevich, D. Kartashov, Z. Pu, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, A. A. Lanin, A. M. Zheltikov, M. Marangoni, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrafast-laser-induced backward stimulated Raman scattering for tracing atmospheric gases,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18784–18794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kartashov, P. Malevich, R. Maurer, S. Ališauskas, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Zheltikov, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “Mirrorless backward SRS in free-space gas driven by filament-initiated UV laser,” International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Okinawa, Japan, 2014.

Chambaret, J. P.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chin, S. L.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chu, W.

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Daigle, J. F.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Danielius, R.

De Lachèze-Murel, G.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Diels, J. C.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ding, P.

Dogariu, A.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Douillet, D.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubau, J.

I. R. Al’miev, O. Larroche, D. Benredjem, J. Dubau, S. Kazamias, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, “Dynamical description of transient X-ray lasers seeded with high-order harmonic radiation through Maxwell-Bloch numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elizondo, J. M.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Faivre, G.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fajardo, M.

E. Oliva, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Fajardo, G. Lambert, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Velarde, “Comparison of nature and forced amplification regimes in plasma-based soft-x-ray lasers seeded by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013811 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fernsler, R.

J. Peñano, Ph. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, D. Fordon, R. Fernsler, and M. Scully, “Remote lasing in air by recombination and electron impact excitation of molecular nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fons, J. T.

J. T. Fons, R. S. Schappe, and C. C. Lin, “Electron-impact excitation of the second positive band system (C3Πu→B3Πg) and the C3Πu electronic state of the nitrogen molecule,” Phys. Rev. A 53(4), 2239–2247 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fordon, D.

J. Peñano, Ph. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, D. Fordon, R. Fernsler, and M. Scully, “Remote lasing in air by recombination and electron impact excitation of molecular nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Giniunas, L.

Gorbal, M. R.

R. S. Kunabenchi, M. R. Gorbal, and M. I. Savadatt, “Nitrogen lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 259–329 (1984).
[Crossref]

Gordon, D.

Ph. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, “Remotely induced atmospheric lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Grillon, G.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hafizi, B.

J. Peñano, Ph. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, D. Fordon, R. Fernsler, and M. Scully, “Remote lasing in air by recombination and electron impact excitation of molecular nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ph. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, “Remotely induced atmospheric lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hallou, A.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hariri, A.

A. Hariri and S. Sarikhani, “Amplified spontaneous emission in N2 lasers: saturation and bandwidth study,” Opt. Commun. 318, 152–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Haroutunian, R.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hemmer, P. R.

P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, Ph. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3130–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Houard, A.

Hulin, D.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jaeglé, P.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jamelot, G.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jing, C.

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ju, J.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kartashov, D.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. N. Malevich, D. Kartashov, Z. Pu, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, A. A. Lanin, A. M. Zheltikov, M. Marangoni, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrafast-laser-induced backward stimulated Raman scattering for tracing atmospheric gases,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18784–18794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kartashov, P. Malevich, R. Maurer, S. Ališauskas, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Zheltikov, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “Mirrorless backward SRS in free-space gas driven by filament-initiated UV laser,” International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Okinawa, Japan, 2014.

Kazamias, S.

I. R. Al’miev, O. Larroche, D. Benredjem, J. Dubau, S. Kazamias, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, “Dynamical description of transient X-ray lasers seeded with high-order harmonic radiation through Maxwell-Bloch numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klisnick, A.

I. R. Al’miev, O. Larroche, D. Benredjem, J. Dubau, S. Kazamias, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, “Dynamical description of transient X-ray lasers seeded with high-order harmonic radiation through Maxwell-Bloch numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kubo, H.

T. Tabata, T. Shirai, M. Sataka, and H. Kubo, “Analytic cross sections for electron impact collisions with nitrogen molecules,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 92(3), 375–406 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kunabenchi, R. S.

R. S. Kunabenchi, M. R. Gorbal, and M. I. Savadatt, “Nitrogen lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 259–329 (1984).
[Crossref]

Lambert, G.

E. Oliva, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Fajardo, G. Lambert, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Velarde, “Comparison of nature and forced amplification regimes in plasma-based soft-x-ray lasers seeded by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013811 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lanin, A. A.

Larroche, O.

I. R. Al’miev, O. Larroche, D. Benredjem, J. Dubau, S. Kazamias, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, “Dynamical description of transient X-ray lasers seeded with high-order harmonic radiation through Maxwell-Bloch numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Le Pape, S.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lefrou, T.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, G.

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Li, H.

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, R.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lin, C. C.

J. T. Fons, R. S. Schappe, and C. C. Lin, “Electron-impact excitation of the second positive band system (C3Πu→B3Πg) and the C3Πu electronic state of the nitrogen molecule,” Phys. Rev. A 53(4), 2239–2247 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, W.

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Luo, Q.

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Malevich, P.

D. Kartashov, P. Malevich, R. Maurer, S. Ališauskas, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Zheltikov, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “Mirrorless backward SRS in free-space gas driven by filament-initiated UV laser,” International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Okinawa, Japan, 2014.

Malevich, P. N.

Marangoni, M.

P. N. Malevich, D. Kartashov, Z. Pu, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, A. A. Lanin, A. M. Zheltikov, M. Marangoni, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrafast-laser-induced backward stimulated Raman scattering for tracing atmospheric gases,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18784–18794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kartashov, P. Malevich, R. Maurer, S. Ališauskas, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Zheltikov, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “Mirrorless backward SRS in free-space gas driven by filament-initiated UV laser,” International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Okinawa, Japan, 2014.

Marin, T.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Maurer, R.

D. Kartashov, P. Malevich, R. Maurer, S. Ališauskas, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Zheltikov, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “Mirrorless backward SRS in free-space gas driven by filament-initiated UV laser,” International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Okinawa, Japan, 2014.

Mercère, P.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Merdji, H.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michael, J. B.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miles, R. B.

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, Ph. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3130–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mitryukovskiy, S.

Mocek, T.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Möller, C.

I. R. Al’miev, O. Larroche, D. Benredjem, J. Dubau, S. Kazamias, C. Möller, and A. Klisnick, “Dynamical description of transient X-ray lasers seeded with high-order harmonic radiation through Maxwell-Bloch numerical simulations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(12), 123902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morlens, A. S.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

Ni, J.

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Notebaert, L.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oliva, E.

E. Oliva, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Fajardo, G. Lambert, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Velarde, “Comparison of nature and forced amplification regimes in plasma-based soft-x-ray lasers seeded by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013811 (2011).
[Crossref]

Peñano, J.

J. Peñano, Ph. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, D. Fordon, R. Fernsler, and M. Scully, “Remote lasing in air by recombination and electron impact excitation of molecular nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ph. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, “Remotely induced atmospheric lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pittman, M.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Point, G.

Polynkin, P.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[Crossref]

P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, Ph. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3130–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pu, Z.

Pugžlys, A.

P. N. Malevich, D. Kartashov, Z. Pu, S. Ališauskas, A. Pugžlys, A. Baltuška, L. Giniūnas, R. Danielius, A. A. Lanin, A. M. Zheltikov, M. Marangoni, and G. Cerullo, “Ultrafast-laser-induced backward stimulated Raman scattering for tracing atmospheric gases,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18784–18794 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Kartashov, P. Malevich, R. Maurer, S. Ališauskas, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Zheltikov, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “Mirrorless backward SRS in free-space gas driven by filament-initiated UV laser,” International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Okinawa, Japan, 2014.

Roach, W.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ros, D.

E. Oliva, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Fajardo, G. Lambert, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Velarde, “Comparison of nature and forced amplification regimes in plasma-based soft-x-ray lasers seeded by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013811 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rousse, A.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rousseau, J. P.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarikhani, S.

A. Hariri and S. Sarikhani, “Amplified spontaneous emission in N2 lasers: saturation and bandwidth study,” Opt. Commun. 318, 152–161 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sataka, M.

T. Tabata, T. Shirai, M. Sataka, and H. Kubo, “Analytic cross sections for electron impact collisions with nitrogen molecules,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 92(3), 375–406 (2006).
[Crossref]

Savadatt, M. I.

R. S. Kunabenchi, M. R. Gorbal, and M. I. Savadatt, “Nitrogen lasers,” Prog. Quantum Electron. 9(4), 259–329 (1984).
[Crossref]

Schappe, R. S.

J. T. Fons, R. S. Schappe, and C. C. Lin, “Electron-impact excitation of the second positive band system (C3Πu→B3Πg) and the C3Πu electronic state of the nitrogen molecule,” Phys. Rev. A 53(4), 2239–2247 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Sody, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, A. Baltuška, A. Schmitt-Sody, W. Roach, and P. Polynkin, “Remotely pumped stimulated emission at 337 nm in atmospheric nitrogen,” Phys. Rev. A 88(4), 041805 (2013).
[Crossref]

Scully, M.

J. Peñano, Ph. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, D. Fordon, R. Fernsler, and M. Scully, “Remote lasing in air by recombination and electron impact excitation of molecular nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ph. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, “Remotely induced atmospheric lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Scully, M. O.

P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, Ph. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3130–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Dogariu, J. B. Michael, M. O. Scully, and R. B. Miles, “High-gain backward lasing in air,” Science 331(6016), 442–445 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sebban, S.

E. Oliva, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Fajardo, G. Lambert, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Velarde, “Comparison of nature and forced amplification regimes in plasma-based soft-x-ray lasers seeded by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013811 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shirai, T.

T. Tabata, T. Shirai, M. Sataka, and H. Kubo, “Analytic cross sections for electron impact collisions with nitrogen molecules,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 92(3), 375–406 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shneider, M.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

Siebert, T.

P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, Ph. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3130–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolov, A. V.

P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, Ph. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3130–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sprangle, Ph.

J. Peñano, Ph. Sprangle, B. Hafizi, D. Fordon, R. Fernsler, and M. Scully, “Remote lasing in air by recombination and electron impact excitation of molecular nitrogen,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(3), 033105 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ph. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, “Remotely induced atmospheric lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211102 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. R. Hemmer, R. B. Miles, P. Polynkin, T. Siebert, A. V. Sokolov, Ph. Sprangle, and M. O. Scully, “Standoff spectroscopy via remote generation of a backward-propagating laser beam,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 108(8), 3130–3134 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tabata, T.

T. Tabata, T. Shirai, M. Sataka, and H. Kubo, “Analytic cross sections for electron impact collisions with nitrogen molecules,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 92(3), 375–406 (2006).
[Crossref]

Valentin, C.

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Velarde, P.

E. Oliva, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Fajardo, G. Lambert, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Velarde, “Comparison of nature and forced amplification regimes in plasma-based soft-x-ray lasers seeded by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013811 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, C. Y.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wang, T.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wyart, J. F.

S. Sebban, R. Haroutunian, Ph. Balcou, G. Grillon, A. Rousse, S. Kazamias, T. Marin, J. P. Rousseau, L. Notebaert, M. Pittman, J. P. Chambaret, A. Antonetti, D. Hulin, D. Ros, A. Klisnick, A. Carillon, P. Jaeglé, G. Jamelot, and J. F. Wyart, “Saturated amplification of a collisionally pumped optical-field-ionization soft X-ray laser at 41.8 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86(14), 3004–3007 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xie, H.

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

Xu, H.

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Xu, Z.

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yao, J.

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yuan, S.

T. Wang, J. Ju, J. F. Daigle, S. Yuan, R. Li, and S. L. Chin, “Self-seeded forward lasing action from a femtosecond Ti: Sapphire laser filament in air,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(12), 125401 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zeitoun, Ph.

E. Oliva, Ph. Zeitoun, M. Fajardo, G. Lambert, D. Ros, S. Sebban, and P. Velarde, “Comparison of nature and forced amplification regimes in plasma-based soft-x-ray lasers seeded by high-order harmonics,” Phys. Rev. A 84(1), 013811 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ph. Zeitoun, G. Faivre, S. Sebban, T. Mocek, A. Hallou, M. Fajardo, D. Aubert, Ph. Balcou, F. Burgy, D. Douillet, S. Kazamias, G. De Lachèze-Murel, T. Lefrou, S. Le Pape, P. Mercère, H. Merdji, A. S. Morlens, J. P. Rousseau, and C. Valentin, “A high-intensity highly coherent soft X-ray femtosecond laser seeded by a high harmonic beam,” Nature 431(7007), 426–429 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeng, B.

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, H.

J. Yao, H. Xie, B. Zeng, W. Chu, G. Li, J. Ni, H. Zhang, C. Jing, C. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Gain dynamics of a free-space nitrogen laser pumped by circularly polarized femtosecond laser pulses,” Opt. Express 22(16), 19005–19013 (2014).
[Crossref]

G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, H. Xie, J. Yao, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xu, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Signature of superradiance from a nitrogen-gas plasma channel produced by strong-field ionization,” Phys. Rev. A 89(3), 033833 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, G. Li, C. Jing, B. Zeng, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, H. Xie, C. Zhang, H. Li, H. Xu, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “Remote creation of coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses,” New J. Phys. 15(2), 023046 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Yao, B. Zeng, H. Xu, G. Li, W. Chu, J. Ni, H. Zhang, S. L. Chin, Y. Cheng, and Z. Xu, “High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air,” Phys. Rev. A 84(5), 051802 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhao, X. M.

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
[Crossref]

Zheltikov, A.

D. Kartashov, S. Ališauskas, G. Andriukaitis, A. Pugžlys, M. Shneider, A. Zheltikov, S. L. Chin, and A. Baltuška, “Free-space nitrogen gas laser driven by a femtosecond filament,” Phys. Rev. A 86(3), 033831 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Kartashov, P. Malevich, R. Maurer, S. Ališauskas, M. Marangoni, G. Cerullo, A. Zheltikov, A. Pugžlys, and A. Baltuška, “Mirrorless backward SRS in free-space gas driven by filament-initiated UV laser,” International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena, Okinawa, Japan, 2014.

Zheltikov, A. M.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

Q. Luo, W. Liu, and S. L. Chin, “Lasing action in air induced by ultra-fast laser filamentation,” Appl. Phys. B 76(3), 337–340 (2003).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Ph. Sprangle, J. Peñano, B. Hafizi, D. Gordon, and M. Scully, “Remotely induced atmospheric lasing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(21), 211102 (2011).
[Crossref]

At. Data Nucl. Data Tables (1)

T. Tabata, T. Shirai, M. Sataka, and H. Kubo, “Analytic cross sections for electron impact collisions with nitrogen molecules,” At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 92(3), 375–406 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

X. M. Zhao, J. C. Diels, C. Y. Wang, and J. M. Elizondo, “Femtosecond ultraviolet laser pulse induced lightning discharges in gases,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 31(3), 599–612 (1995).
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J. Appl. Phys. (1)

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic experimental setup.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Backward emission spectrum with circularly (a) and linearly (b) polarized pump pulses. The numbers in the parenthesis denote the vibration quantum number of the initial and final states of the transition.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Spectra of the backward emission with circularly (a) and linearly (b) polarized pump pulsed at 800 nm. The spectra of the seed pulses and those of the backward emission from the pump pulses are also presented for comparison. In (a), the spectrum of the seed pulse is magnified by a factor of 10 for visibility.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Polarization of the ASE (a), the seeded backward stimulated emission with linearly (b) and circularly (c) polarized seed pulses at 337 nm. The dots present the experimental results and the dashed lines denote the theoretical fitting.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Spatial profile of the backward ASE (a), the seed pulse (b), and the amplified 337 nm radiation (c). The opening angle of each panel is 12.5 mrad × 10 mrad.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Energy of the amplified 337 nm emission in the backward direction as a function of the seed pulse energy.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Dependence of the backward ASE (a) and the seeded backward stimulated radiation (b) as a function of the rotation angle of the quarter-wave plate. The angles φ = 90° × m correspond to linearly polarized laser, with m = 0, 1, 2, 3. The angles φ = 45° + 90° × m correspond to circularly polarized laser.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured forward amplified 337 nm lasing signal as a function of the time delay between the pump and the seeding pulse. The pump pulse energy was 7.5 mJ.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Amplification of the seed pulse in atmospheric air. In (a) and (b), the seed pulse co-propagates and counter-propagates with respect to the pump pulses respectively. The focal lens was 1000 mm. In (c), the seed and the pump pulses were in the same direction and the focal lens was of f = 500 mm.

Equations (1)

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N 2 ( X 1 Σ g + )+e= N 2 ( C 3 Π u + )+e

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