Abstract

Crystallization following thermal annealing of thin film stacks consisting of alternating nm-thick titania/silica layers was investigated. Several prototypes were designed, featuring a different number of titania/silica layer pairs, and different thicknesses (in the range from 4 to 40 nm, for the titania layers), but the same nominal refractive index (2.09) and optical thickness (a quarter of wavelength at 1064 nm). The prototypes were deposited by ion beam sputtering on silicon substrates. All prototypes were found to be amorphous as-deposited. Thermal annealing in air at progressive temperatures was subsequently performed. It was found that the titania layers eventually crystallized forming the anatase phase, while the silica layers remained always amorphous. However, progressively thinner layers exhibited progressively higher threshold temperatures for crystallization onset. Accordingly it can be expected that composites with thinner layers will be able to sustain higher annealing temperatures without crystallizing, and likely yielding better optical and mechanical properties for advanced coatings application. These results open the way to the use of materials like titania and hafnia, that crystallize easily under thermal anneal, but ARE otherwise promising candidate materials for HR coatings necessary for cryogenic 3rd generation laser interferometric gravitational wave detectors.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2012 (1)

K. Somiya, “Detector configuration of KAGRA–the Japanese cryogenic gravitational-wave detector,” Class. Quantum Gravity 29(12), 124007 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

W. Ai and S. Xiong, “Characterization of hafnia thin films made with different deposition technologies,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900J (2011).
[Crossref]

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

F. L. Mart’ınez, M. Toledano-Luque, J. J. Gand’ıa, J. C’arabe, W. Bohne, and et al.., “Optical properties and structure of HfO2 thin films grown by high pressure reactive sputtering,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 40, 5256–5265 (2007).

2006 (2)

C. C. Lee and C. J. Tang, “TiO2--Ta2O5 composite thin films deposited by radio frequency ion-beam sputtering,” Appl. Opt. 45(36), 9125–9131 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Liu, G. He, L. Q. Zhu, Q. Fanga, G. H. Li, and L. D. Zhang, “Microstructure and Interfacial Properties of HfO2/ Al2O3 Nanolaminate Films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(18), 6206–6211 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Nakagawa, A. M. Gretarsson, E. K. Gustafson, and M. M. Fejer, “Thermal noise in half-infinite mirrors with nonuniform loss: A slab of excess loss in a half-infinite mirror,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 65(10), 102001 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1999 (1)

1998 (2)

W. H. Wang and S. Chao, “Annealing effect on ion-beam-sputtered titanium dioxide film,” Opt. Lett. 23(18), 1417–1419 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yu. Levin, “Internal thermal noise in the LIGO test masses: A direct approach,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 57(2), 659–663 (1998).
[Crossref]

1989 (2)

B. J. Pond, J. I. Debar, C. K. Carniglia, and T. Raj, “Stress reduction in ion beam sputtered mixed oxide films,” Appl. Opt. 28(14), 2800–2805 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Sankur and W. Gunning, “Crystallization and diffusion in composite TiO2/ SiO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(10), 4747 (1989).
[Crossref]

1968 (1)

W. W. Scott and R. K. MacCrone, “Apparatus for mechanical loss measurements in low loss materials at audio frequencies and low temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 39(6), 821 (1968).
[Crossref]

Abernathy, M. R.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ai, W.

W. Ai and S. Xiong, “Characterization of hafnia thin films made with different deposition technologies,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900J (2011).
[Crossref]

Armandula, H.

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Bassiri, R.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bohne, W.

F. L. Mart’ınez, M. Toledano-Luque, J. J. Gand’ıa, J. C’arabe, W. Bohne, and et al.., “Optical properties and structure of HfO2 thin films grown by high pressure reactive sputtering,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 40, 5256–5265 (2007).

C’arabe, J.

F. L. Mart’ınez, M. Toledano-Luque, J. J. Gand’ıa, J. C’arabe, W. Bohne, and et al.., “Optical properties and structure of HfO2 thin films grown by high pressure reactive sputtering,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 40, 5256–5265 (2007).

Cagnoli, G.

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

Carniglia, C. K.

Chalkley, E.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chao, S.

Comtet, C.

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Crooks, D. R. M.

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

Debar, J. I.

Demkov, A.

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Evans, K.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

Fanga, Q.

M. Liu, G. He, L. Q. Zhu, Q. Fanga, G. H. Li, and L. D. Zhang, “Microstructure and Interfacial Properties of HfO2/ Al2O3 Nanolaminate Films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(18), 6206–6211 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fejer, M. M.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Nakagawa, A. M. Gretarsson, E. K. Gustafson, and M. M. Fejer, “Thermal noise in half-infinite mirrors with nonuniform loss: A slab of excess loss in a half-infinite mirror,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 65(10), 102001 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fejes, P.

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gand’ia, J. J.

F. L. Mart’ınez, M. Toledano-Luque, J. J. Gand’ıa, J. C’arabe, W. Bohne, and et al.., “Optical properties and structure of HfO2 thin films grown by high pressure reactive sputtering,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 40, 5256–5265 (2007).

Gretarsson, A.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gretarsson, A. M.

N. Nakagawa, A. M. Gretarsson, E. K. Gustafson, and M. M. Fejer, “Thermal noise in half-infinite mirrors with nonuniform loss: A slab of excess loss in a half-infinite mirror,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 65(10), 102001 (2002).
[Crossref]

Gunning, W.

H. Sankur and W. Gunning, “Crystallization and diffusion in composite TiO2/ SiO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(10), 4747 (1989).
[Crossref]

Gustafson, E.

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gustafson, E. K.

N. Nakagawa, A. M. Gretarsson, E. K. Gustafson, and M. M. Fejer, “Thermal noise in half-infinite mirrors with nonuniform loss: A slab of excess loss in a half-infinite mirror,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 65(10), 102001 (2002).
[Crossref]

Harry, G.

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

Harry, G. M.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

He, G.

M. Liu, G. He, L. Q. Zhu, Q. Fanga, G. H. Li, and L. D. Zhang, “Microstructure and Interfacial Properties of HfO2/ Al2O3 Nanolaminate Films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(18), 6206–6211 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hough, J.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

Hsu, M.-Y.

Kittelberger, S.

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kukli, K.

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. C.

Leskelä, M. A.

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Levin, Yu.

Yu. Levin, “Internal thermal noise in the LIGO test masses: A direct approach,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 57(2), 659–663 (1998).
[Crossref]

Li, G. H.

M. Liu, G. He, L. Q. Zhu, Q. Fanga, G. H. Li, and L. D. Zhang, “Microstructure and Interfacial Properties of HfO2/ Al2O3 Nanolaminate Films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(18), 6206–6211 (2006).
[Crossref]

Liu, M.

M. Liu, G. He, L. Q. Zhu, Q. Fanga, G. H. Li, and L. D. Zhang, “Microstructure and Interfacial Properties of HfO2/ Al2O3 Nanolaminate Films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(18), 6206–6211 (2006).
[Crossref]

MacCrone, R. K.

W. W. Scott and R. K. MacCrone, “Apparatus for mechanical loss measurements in low loss materials at audio frequencies and low temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 39(6), 821 (1968).
[Crossref]

Mackowski, J.-M. M.

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

MacLaren, I.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Markosyan, A.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mart’inez, F. L.

F. L. Mart’ınez, M. Toledano-Luque, J. J. Gand’ıa, J. C’arabe, W. Bohne, and et al.., “Optical properties and structure of HfO2 thin films grown by high pressure reactive sputtering,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 40, 5256–5265 (2007).

Martin, I. W.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Michel, C.

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Montorio, J.-L.

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Morgado, N.

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Murray, P.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

Nakagawa, N.

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

N. Nakagawa, A. M. Gretarsson, E. K. Gustafson, and M. M. Fejer, “Thermal noise in half-infinite mirrors with nonuniform loss: A slab of excess loss in a half-infinite mirror,” Phys. Rev. D Part. Fields 65(10), 102001 (2002).
[Crossref]

Navrotsky, A.

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nawrodt, R.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Nguyen, B.-Y.

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Penn, S.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

Pond, B. J.

Raj, T.

Reid, S.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Remillieux, A.

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ritala, M.

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Route, R.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rowan, S.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sankur, H.

H. Sankur and W. Gunning, “Crystallization and diffusion in composite TiO2/ SiO2 thin films,” J. Appl. Phys. 66(10), 4747 (1989).
[Crossref]

Saulson, P.

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, C.

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Scott, J.

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

Scott, W. W.

W. W. Scott and R. K. MacCrone, “Apparatus for mechanical loss measurements in low loss materials at audio frequencies and low temperatures,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 39(6), 821 (1968).
[Crossref]

Seidel, P.

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

Somiya, K.

K. Somiya, “Detector configuration of KAGRA–the Japanese cryogenic gravitational-wave detector,” Class. Quantum Gravity 29(12), 124007 (2012).
[Crossref]

Startin, W. J.

G. Harry, A. Gretarsson, P. Saulson, S. Kittelberger, S. Penn, W. J. Startin, S. Rowan, M. M. Fejer, D. R. M. Crooks, G. Cagnoli, J. Hough, and N. Nakagawa, “Thermal noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors due to dielectric optical coatings,” Class. Quantum Gravity 19(5), 897–917 (2002).
[Crossref]

Stemmer, S.

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. J.

Tobin, P.

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Toledano-Luque, M.

F. L. Mart’ınez, M. Toledano-Luque, J. J. Gand’ıa, J. C’arabe, W. Bohne, and et al.., “Optical properties and structure of HfO2 thin films grown by high pressure reactive sputtering,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 40, 5256–5265 (2007).

Triyoso, D.

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
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S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
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Vodel, W.

I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
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S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
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Wang, W. H.

Woodcraft, A. L.

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
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W. Ai and S. Xiong, “Characterization of hafnia thin films made with different deposition technologies,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900J (2011).
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Yang, Y.

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
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Zhang, L. D.

M. Liu, G. He, L. Q. Zhu, Q. Fanga, G. H. Li, and L. D. Zhang, “Microstructure and Interfacial Properties of HfO2/ Al2O3 Nanolaminate Films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(18), 6206–6211 (2006).
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Zhu, L. Q.

M. Liu, G. He, L. Q. Zhu, Q. Fanga, G. H. Li, and L. D. Zhang, “Microstructure and Interfacial Properties of HfO2/ Al2O3 Nanolaminate Films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(18), 6206–6211 (2006).
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I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
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Appl. Opt. (3)

Appl. Phys. (Berl.) (1)

F. L. Mart’ınez, M. Toledano-Luque, J. J. Gand’ıa, J. C’arabe, W. Bohne, and et al.., “Optical properties and structure of HfO2 thin films grown by high pressure reactive sputtering,” Appl. Phys. (Berl.) 40, 5256–5265 (2007).

Appl. Surf. Sci. (1)

M. Liu, G. He, L. Q. Zhu, Q. Fanga, G. H. Li, and L. D. Zhang, “Microstructure and Interfacial Properties of HfO2/ Al2O3 Nanolaminate Films,” Appl. Surf. Sci. 252(18), 6206–6211 (2006).
[Crossref]

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I. W. Martin, H. Armandula, C. Comtet, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. Harry, J. Hough, J.-M. M. Mackowski, I. MacLaren, C. Michel, J.-L. Montorio, N. Morgado, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, S. Reid, A. Remillieux, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, W. Vodel, and A. Zimmer, “Measurement of a low temperature mechanical dissipation peak in a single layer of Ta2O5 doped with TiO2,” Class. Quantum Gravity 25(5), 055005 (2008).
[Crossref]

I. W. Martin, R. Bassiri, R. Nawrodt, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, E. Gustafson, G. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, S. Penn, S. Reid, R. Route, S. Rowan, C. Schwarz, P. Seidel, J. Scott, and A. L. Woodcraft, “Effect of heat treatment on mechanical dissipation in Ta2O5 coating,” Class. Quantum Gravity 27(22), 225020 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. R. Abernathy, S. Reid, E. Chalkley, R. Bassiri, I. W. Martin, K. Evans, M. M. Fejer, A. Gretarsson, G. M. Harry, J. Hough, I. MacLaren, A. Markosyan, P. Murray, R. Nawrodt, S. Penn, R. Route, S. Rowan, and P. Seidel, “Cryogenic mechanical loss measurements of heat treated hafnium dioxide,” Class. Quantum Gravity 28(19), 195017 (2011).
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Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. (1)

S. V. Ushakov, A. Navrotsky, Y. Yang, S. Stemmer, K. Kukli, M. Ritala, M. A. Leskelä, P. Fejes, A. Demkov, C. Wang, B.-Y. Nguyen, D. Triyoso, and P. Tobin, “Crystallization in hafnia and zirconia based systems,” Phys. Status Solidi, B Basic Res. 241(10), 2268–2278 (2004).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

W. Ai and S. Xiong, “Characterization of hafnia thin films made with different deposition technologies,” Proc. SPIE 8190, 81900J (2011).
[Crossref]

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M. Abernathy, F. Acernese, P. Ajith, B. Allen, P. Amaro-Seoane, et al., Einstein gravitational wave Telescope conceptual design study (European Gravitational Observatory,2011).

I. Martin, et al., “Mech Loss of Crystalline and Amorphous Coatings,” Proc. GWADW 2014, URL: http://www.gravity.ircs.titech.ac.jp/GWADW2014/slide/Iain_Martin.pdf .

O. Stenzel, S. Wilbrandt, S. Yulin and N. Kaiser et al., “Plasma ion assisted deposition of hafnium dioxide using argon and xenon as process gases,” Opt. Mater. Express. 1(2), 278–292 (2011). The value provided in the text is a fiducial value, extrapolated from a Sellmeyer fit of results in [8]. Measured values reported in the literature for hafnia thin films vary largely, depending on the actual deposition process [9].

S. Penn, “Exploring Coating Thermal Noise via Loss in Fused Silica Coatings,” Proc. Amaldi 2009,LIGO Document G0900600, URL: https://dcc-lho.ligo.org/public/0003/G0900600/001/PennAmaldiPoster.pdf .

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W. J. Huang, “Preparation of the ion beam sputter coater for coating the low loss thin films in LIGO mirror application,” master thesis, National Tsing Hua University Taiwan R.O.C, (2012).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematics of the nano-layer prototypes.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Grazing angle x-ray diffraction pattern of all samples subjected to anneal at various temperatures (a) before anneal, (b) 225 °C, (c) 250°C, (d) 300 °C, (e) 350 °C for 19-layer prototype, (f) 225 °C for 5-layer prototype and (g) 300°C for 19-layer prototype.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 TEM images and electron diffraction patterns of the samples.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Thickness of the nano-layer prototypes.

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Table 2 Summary of the crystallization results of Fig. 2.

Equations (2)

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ρ= n H 2 n eff 2 n eff 2 n L 2
N( δ L + δ H )=z λ 0 / n eff

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