Abstract

In this work, we utilize the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method to investigate the Purcell factor, light extraction efficiency (EXE), and cavity quality parameter (Q), and to predict the modulation response of Ag-clad flip-chip GaN/InGaN core-shell nanowire light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with the potential for electrical injection. We consider the need for a pn-junction, the effects of the substrate, and the limitations of nanoscale fabrication techniques in the evaluation. The investigated core-shell nanowire consists of an n-GaN core, surrounded by nonpolar m-plane quantum wells, p-GaN, and silver cladding layers. The core-shell nanowire geometry exhibits a Purcell factor of 57, resulting in a predicted limit of 30 GHz for the 3dB modulation bandwidth

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (4)

J. B. Khurgin and G. Sun, “Comparative analysis of spasers, vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers and surface-plasmon-emitting diodes,” Nat. Photonics 8(6), 468–473 (2014).
[Crossref]

K. C. Y. Huang, M. K. Seo, T. Sarmiento, Y. Huo, J. S. Harris, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically driven subwavelength optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 244–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

D. Heinz, M. Fikry, T. Aschenbrenner, M. Schowalter, T. Meisch, M. Madel, F. Huber, M. Hocker, M. Frey, I. Tischer, B. Neuschl, T. Mehrtens, K. Muller, A. Rosenauer, D. Hommel, K. Thonke, and F. Scholz, “GaN tubes with coaxial non-and semipolar GaInN quanum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(3-4), 648–651 (2014).
[Crossref]

Y. T. Lin, T. W. Yeh, Y. Nakajima, and P. D. Dapkus, “Catalyst-free gaN nanorods synthesized by selective area growth,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 24(21), 3162–3171 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (5)

D. U. Kim, H. Chang, H. Cha, H. Jeon, and S. R. Jeon, “Selective lateral electrochemical etching of a GaN-based superlattice layer for thin film device application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152112 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. K. Rishinaramangalam, M. N. Fairchild, S. D. Hersee, G. Balakrishnan, and D. F. Feezell, “Three-Dimensional GaN Templates for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Coaxial Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 31(3), 03C107 1–7 (2013).

K. Ding, L. Yin, M. T. Hill, Z. Liu, P. J. van Veldhoven, and C. Z. Ning, “An electrical injection metallic cavity nanolaser with azimuthal polarization,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(4), 041110 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. M. Ma, R. F. Oulton, V. J. Sorger, and X. Zhang, “Plasmon lasers: coherent light source at molecular scales,” Laser Photon. Rev. 7(1), 1–21 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Li and M. I. Stockman, “Electric spaser in the extreme quantum limit,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 110(10), 106803 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (6)

M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, M. Katz, J. H. Lee, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Thresholdless nanoscale coaxial lasers,” Nature 482(7384), 204–207 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C.-Y. A. Ni and S. L. Chuang, “Theory of high-speed nanolasers and nanoLEDs,” Opt. Express 20(15), 16450–16470 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Ding, Z. C. Liu, L. J. Yin, M. T. Hill, M. J. H. Marell, P. J. van Veldhoven, R. Noetzel, and C. Z. Ning, “Room-temperature continuous wave lasing in deep-subwavelength metallic cavities under electrical injection,” Phys. Rev. B 85(4), 041301 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. B. Khurgin and G. Sun, “Practicality of compensating the loss in the plasmonic waveguides using semiconductor gain medium,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 100(1), 011105 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. B. Khurgin and G. Sun, “Injection pumped single mode surface plasmon generators: threshold, linewidth, and coherence,” Opt. Express 20(14), 15309–15325 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Holder, J. S. Speck, S. P. DenBaars, S. Nakamura, and D. Feezell, “Demonstration of nonpolar GaN-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers,” Proc. SPIE 8639, 863906 (2012).

2011 (6)

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonics-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. E. Hofmann, F. J. de Abajo, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhancing the radiative rate in III-V semiconductor plasmonic core-shell nanowire resonators,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 372–376 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. G. Wang, C. C. Chen, C. H. Chiu, M. Y. Kuo, M. H. Shih, and H. C. Kuo, “Lasing in metal-coated GaN nanostripe at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(13), 131110 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. T. Wang, Q. Li, J. Huang, A. A. Talin, A. Armstrong, P. C. Upadhya, and R. P. Prasankumar, “III-nitride nanowires: novel materials for solid-state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 79540T (2011).
[Crossref]

M. I. Stockman, “Loss compensation by gain and spasing,” Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci 369(1950), 3510–3524 (2011).
[PubMed]

2010 (6)

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. T. Hill, “Status and prospects for metallic and plasmonic nano-lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 27(11), B36–B44 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. A. Shore, “Modulation bandwidth of metal-clad semiconductor nanolasers with cavity-enhanced spontaneous emission,” Electron. Lett. 46(25), 1688–1689 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1429–1432 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. David and M. J. Grundmann, “Droop in InGaN light-emitting diodes: a differential carrier lifetime analysis,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(10), 103504 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

J. S. Speck and S. F. Chichibu, “Nonpolar and semipolar group III nitride-based materials,” MRS Bull. 34(05), 304–312 (2009).
[Crossref]

A. C. Tamboli, M. C. Schmidt, A. Hirai, S. P. DenBaars, and E. L. Hu, “Photoelectrochemical undercut etching of m-plane GaN for microdisk applications semiconductor devices, materials, and processing,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 156(10), H767 (2009).
[Crossref]

E. K. Lau, A. Lakhani, R. S. Tucker, and M. C. Wu, “Enhanced modulation bandwidth of nanocavity light emitting devices,” Opt. Express 17(10), 7790–7799 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. MacDonald, Z. L. Samson, M. I. Stockman, and N. I. Zheludev, “Ultrafast active plasmonics,” Nat. Photonics 3(1), 55–58 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

M. T. Hill, Y. S. Oei, B. Smalbrugge, Y. Zhu, T. DeVries, P. J. Van Veldhoven, F. W. M. Van Otten, T. J. Eijkemans, J. P. Turkiewicz, H. De Waardt, E. J. Geluk, S. H. Kwon, Y. H. Lee, R. Notzel, and M. K. Smit, “Lasing in metallic-coated nanocavities,” Nat. Photonics 1(10), 589–594 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

S. D. Hersee, X. Sun, and X. Wang, “The controlled growth of GaN nanowires,” Nano Lett. 6(8), 1808–1811 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

N. F. Gardner, J. C. Kim, J. J. Wierer, Y. C. Shen, and M. R. Krames, “Polarization anisotropy in the electroluminescence of m-plane InGaN-GaN multiple-quantum-well light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(11), 111101 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

1946 (1)

E. M. Purcell, “Spontaneous emission probabilities at radio frequencies,” Phys. Rev. 69, 681 (1946).

1939 (1)

P. Sélenyi, “Wide-Angle Interferences and the Nature of the Elementary Light Sources,” Phys. Rev. 56(5), 477–479 (1939).
[Crossref]

Ahmed, F.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, A.

G. T. Wang, Q. Li, J. Huang, A. A. Talin, A. Armstrong, P. C. Upadhya, and R. P. Prasankumar, “III-nitride nanowires: novel materials for solid-state lighting,” Proc. SPIE 7954, 79540T (2011).
[Crossref]

Aschenbrenner, T.

D. Heinz, M. Fikry, T. Aschenbrenner, M. Schowalter, T. Meisch, M. Madel, F. Huber, M. Hocker, M. Frey, I. Tischer, B. Neuschl, T. Mehrtens, K. Muller, A. Rosenauer, D. Hommel, K. Thonke, and F. Scholz, “GaN tubes with coaxial non-and semipolar GaInN quanum wells,” Phys. Status Solidi C 11(3-4), 648–651 (2014).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

C. E. Hofmann, F. J. de Abajo, and H. A. Atwater, “Enhancing the radiative rate in III-V semiconductor plasmonic core-shell nanowire resonators,” Nano Lett. 11(2), 372–376 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Balakrishnan, G.

A. K. Rishinaramangalam, M. N. Fairchild, S. D. Hersee, G. Balakrishnan, and D. F. Feezell, “Three-Dimensional GaN Templates for Molecular Beam Epitaxy of Nonpolar InGaN/GaN Coaxial Light-Emitting Diodes,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B. 31(3), 03C107 1–7 (2013).

Bhat, J. C.

Y. C. Shen, J. J. Wierer, M. R. Krames, M. J. Ludowise, M. S. Misra, F. Ahmed, A. Y. Kim, G. O. Mueller, J. C. Bhat, S. A. Stockman, and P. S. Martin, “Optical cavity effects in InGaN/GaN quantum-well-heterostructure flip-chip light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 82(14), 2221 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bondarenko, O.

J. H. Lee, M. Khajavikhan, A. Simic, Q. Gu, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, M. P. Nezhad, and Y. Fainman, “Electrically pumped sub-wavelength metallo-dielectric pedestal pillar lasers,” Opt. Express 19(22), 21524–21531 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. P. Nezhad, A. Simic, O. Bondarenko, B. Slutsky, A. Mizrahi, L. Feng, V. Lomakin, and Y. Fainman, “Room-temperature subwavelength metallo-dielectric lasers,” Nat. Photonics 4(6), 395–399 (2010).
[Crossref]

Borghs, G.

P. Neutens, L. Lagae, G. Borghs, and P. Van Dorpe, “Electrical excitation of confined surface plasmon polaritons in metallic slot waveguides,” Nano Lett. 10(4), 1429–1432 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brandt, O.

P. Waltereit, O. Brandt, A. Trampert, H. T. Grahn, J. Menniger, M. Ramsteiner, M. Reiche, and K. H. Ploog, “Nitride semiconductors free of electrostatic fields for efficient white light-emitting diodes,” Nature 406(6798), 865–868 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brinkley, S.

E. Matioli, S. Brinkley, K. M. Kelchner, S. Nakamura, S. DenBaars, J. Speck, and C. Weisbuch, “Polarized light extraction in m-plane GaN light-emitting diodes by embedded photonics-crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(25), 251112 (2011).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

K. C. Y. Huang, M. K. Seo, T. Sarmiento, Y. Huo, J. S. Harris, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electrically driven subwavelength optical nanocircuits,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 244–249 (2014).
[Crossref]

Brunets, I.

R. J. Walters, R. V. A. van Loon, I. Brunets, J. Schmitz, and A. Polman, “A silicon-based electrical source of surface plasmon polaritons,” Nat. Mater. 9(1), 21–25 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cha, H.

D. U. Kim, H. Chang, H. Cha, H. Jeon, and S. R. Jeon, “Selective lateral electrochemical etching of a GaN-based superlattice layer for thin film device application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chang, H.

D. U. Kim, H. Chang, H. Cha, H. Jeon, and S. R. Jeon, “Selective lateral electrochemical etching of a GaN-based superlattice layer for thin film device application,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(15), 152112 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. C.

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic of a core-shell nanowire structure with a hexagonal cross-section and a tapered base. The taper has a 40 nm width at the base and a 14 nm width at the top. (b) Cross-section of the core-shell nanowire structure as viewed from the top, showing the location of the n-GaN core, InGaN active region, p-GaN shell, and silver cladding.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Concept of a flip-chip PNLED fabrication process using photoelectrochemical etching to remove the substrate and expose the backside of the NW emitter. Such a structure would allow for fiber coupling or more efficient light extraction into free space than a structure with the substrate still incorporated.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Calculated Purcell factor vs. wavelength for dipole emitters placed at various vertical locations along the active region. (b) Near-field intensity cross-section normalized to bulk GaN for a dipole placed at Y = 25 nm and a monitor placed at the center along the Y direction.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Calculated Purcell factor and EXE into air at 445 nm for dipole emitters placed at various vertical locations along the active region from 5 nm to 45 nm.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 EXE into air at 445 nm for various thicknesses of n-GaN.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Schematic of a core-shell nanowire structure with a hexagonal cross-section and a tapered base. A dielectric layer was added in order to increase the EXE. (b) Cross-section of the core-shell nanowire structure as viewed from the top, showing the location of the n-GaN core, InGaN active region, p-GaN shell, SiNx layer, and silver layer.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Calculated Purcell factor and EXE into air at 445 nm for a dipole emitter placed at Y = 25 nm. The thickness of the SiNx layer (s) was swept from 0 to 40 nm and TAg1 is (a) 30 nm and (b) 20 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Top-view cross-section of the core-shell nanowire structure shown in Fig. 1, the associated coordinate system, and the locations of cross-sectional planes. (b) Cross-sectional near-field intensity within the XZ plane (c) Cross-sectional near-field intensity within the XY plane. (d) Cross-sectional near-field intensity within the YZ plane.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Parameters used to predict the maximum carrier-lifetime-limited 3dB modulation bandwidth for the structure shown in Fig. 1.

Equations (5)

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F= 3 4 π 2 ( λ n ) 3 Q V eff
F= τ sp bulk τ sp cavity = P classical cavity P classical bulk
1 τ eff = F τ r + 1 τ nr
f 3dB 1 2π 1 τ p 2 + τ eff 2
f 3dB 1 2π 1 τ eff

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