Abstract

We propose new designs of plasmonic modulators, which can be used for dynamic signal switching in photonic integrated circuits. We study performance of a plasmonic waveguide modulator with bismuth ferrite as a tunable material. The bismuth ferrite core is sandwiched between metal plates (metal-insulator-metal configuration), which also serve as electrodes. The core changes its refractive index by means of partial in-plane to out-of-plane reorientation of ferroelectric domains in bismuth ferrite under applied voltage. As a result, guided modes change their propagation constant and absorption coefficient, allowing light modulation in both phase and amplitude control schemes. Due to high field confinement between the metal layers, existence of mode cut-offs for certain values of the core thickness, and near-zero material losses in bismuth ferrite, efficient modulation performance is achieved. For the phase control scheme, the π phase shift is provided by a 0.8-μm long device with propagation losses 0.29 dB/μm. For the amplitude control scheme, up to 38 dB/μm extinction ratio with 1.2 dB/μm propagation loss is predicted.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  54. Ultra-compact plasmonic waveguide modulators, Ph.D. Thesis, Viktoriia Evgenivna Babicheva, DTU Fotonik, Technical University of Denmark, October 2013.

2014 (3)

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. T. Kim, “CMOS-compatible hybrid plasmonic modulator based on vanadium dioxide insulator-metal phase transition,” Opt. Lett. 39(13), 3997–4000 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Ishii, M. Y. Shalaginov, V. E. Babicheva, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides cladded by hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4663–4666 (2014).
[PubMed]

2013 (8)

A. P. Vasudev, J. H. Kang, J. Park, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electro-optical modulation of a silicon waveguide with an “epsilon-near-zero” material,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26387–26397 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, M. Ferrera, A. V. Lavrinenko, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Towards CMOS-compatible nanophotonics: Ultra-compact modulators using alternative plasmonic materials,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27326–27337 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Performance of thermo-optic components based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Scientific Reports 3, 1803 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology 24(18), 185202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. J. A. Ooi, P. Bai, H. S. Chu, and L. K. Ang, “Ultracompact vanadium dioxide dual-mode plasmonic waveguide electroabsorption modulator,” Nanophotonics 2(1), 13–19 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, R. Malureanu, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic finite-thickness metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide as ultra-compact modulator,” Photon. Nanostructures 11(4), 323–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with barium titanate core,” Photonics Letters of Poland 5(2), 57–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (14)

S. H. Chu, D. J. Singh, J. Wang, E.-P. Li, and K. P. Ong, “High optical performance and practicality of active plasmonic devices based on rhombohedral BiFeO3,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 6(5), 684–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Guided plasmonic modes of anisotropic slot waveguides,” Nanotechnology 23(44), 444006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 602–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Lu, W. Zhao, and K. Shi, “Ultracompact electroabsorption modulators based on tunable epsilon-near-zero-slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 735–740 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Kulkova, R. Malureanu, K. Yvind, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator based on gain-assisted metal–semiconductor–metal waveguide,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(4), 389–399 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems 2(2), 154–168 (2012).

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, and R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(1), 183–189 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5500–5507 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Photonic signal processing on electronic scales: electro-optical field-effect nanoplasmonic modulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 053901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

L. A. Sweatlock and K. Diest, “Vanadium dioxide based plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8700–8709 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Kruger, A. Joushaghani, and J. K. S. Poon, “Design of electrically driven hybrid vanadium dioxide (VO2) plasmonic switches,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23598–23609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (5)

S. G. Choi, H. T. Yi, S. W. Cheong, J. N. Hilfiker, R. France, and A. G. Norman, “Optical anisotropy and charge-transfer transition energies in BiFeO3 from 1.0 to 5.5 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 83(10), 100101 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ultrasensitive on-chip biosensing,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9836–9844 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Zhao and Z. Lu, “Nanoplasmonic optical switch based on Ga-Si3N4-Ga waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 50(7), 074002 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (6)

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. F. MacDonald and N. I. Zheludev, “Active plasmonics: current status,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(4), 562–567 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

Y. Kurokawa and H. T. Miyazaki, “Metal-insulator-metal plasmon nanocavities: Analysis of optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035411 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. J. Dicken, K. Diest, Y. B. Park, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth and optical property characterization of textured barium titanate thin films for photonic applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(2), 330–335 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (4)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, “Active control of surface plasmon–polariton waves,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S85–S89 (2005).
[Crossref]

I. D. Kim, Y. Avrahami, H. L. Tuller, Y. B. Park, M. J. Dicken, and H. A. Atwater, “Study of orientation effect on nanoscale polarization in BaTiO3 thin films using piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 192907 (2005).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, A. L. Meier, D. J. Towner, and B. W. Wessels, “BaTiO3 thin-film waveguide modulator with a low voltage-length product at near-infrared wavelengths of 0.98 and 1.55 µm,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 254–256 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (2)

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, “Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4615 (2004).
[Crossref]

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, T. Hamano, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, “Electrooptic modulation up to 40 GHz in a barium titanate thin film waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5962–5967 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, “Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1375 (2002).
[Crossref]

1972 (1)

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Agrawal, G. P.

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Guided plasmonic modes of anisotropic slot waveguides,” Nanotechnology 23(44), 444006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aitchison, J. S.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alain, D.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

Alloatti, L.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Andersen, T. B.

Ang, L. K.

K. J. A. Ooi, P. Bai, H. S. Chu, and L. K. Ang, “Ultracompact vanadium dioxide dual-mode plasmonic waveguide electroabsorption modulator,” Nanophotonics 2(1), 13–19 (2013).
[Crossref]

Atwater, H. A.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, K. Diest, Y. B. Park, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth and optical property characterization of textured barium titanate thin films for photonic applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(2), 330–335 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

I. D. Kim, Y. Avrahami, H. L. Tuller, Y. B. Park, M. J. Dicken, and H. A. Atwater, “Study of orientation effect on nanoscale polarization in BaTiO3 thin films using piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 192907 (2005).
[Crossref]

H. W. H. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale Conducting Oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. (2014), doi.org/10.1021/nl502998z .
[PubMed]

Augendre, E.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Avrahami, Y.

I. D. Kim, Y. Avrahami, H. L. Tuller, Y. B. Park, M. J. Dicken, and H. A. Atwater, “Study of orientation effect on nanoscale polarization in BaTiO3 thin films using piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 192907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Babicheva, V. E.

S. Ishii, M. Y. Shalaginov, V. E. Babicheva, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides cladded by hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4663–4666 (2014).
[PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, M. Ferrera, A. V. Lavrinenko, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Towards CMOS-compatible nanophotonics: Ultra-compact modulators using alternative plasmonic materials,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27326–27337 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with barium titanate core,” Photonics Letters of Poland 5(2), 57–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, R. Malureanu, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic finite-thickness metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide as ultra-compact modulator,” Photon. Nanostructures 11(4), 323–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Kulkova, R. Malureanu, K. Yvind, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator based on gain-assisted metal–semiconductor–metal waveguide,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(4), 389–399 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5500–5507 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding,” in preparation.

Bai, P.

K. J. A. Ooi, P. Bai, H. S. Chu, and L. K. Ang, “Ultracompact vanadium dioxide dual-mode plasmonic waveguide electroabsorption modulator,” Nanophotonics 2(1), 13–19 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barnard, E. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartoli, F. J.

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ultrasensitive on-chip biosensing,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9836–9844 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhattacharya, K.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Boltasseva, A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Performance of thermo-optic components based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Scientific Reports 3, 1803 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[PubMed]

Briggs, R. M.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Brongersma, M. L.

A. P. Vasudev, J. H. Kang, J. Park, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electro-optical modulation of a silicon waveguide with an “epsilon-near-zero” material,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26387–26397 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchal, C.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, “Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1375 (2002).
[Crossref]

Burgos, S. P.

H. W. H. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale Conducting Oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. (2014), doi.org/10.1021/nl502998z .
[PubMed]

Cai, W.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chander, K.

H. W. H. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale Conducting Oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. (2014), doi.org/10.1021/nl502998z .
[PubMed]

Chen, B.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X.

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ultrasensitive on-chip biosensing,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9836–9844 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheong, S. W.

S. G. Choi, H. T. Yi, S. W. Cheong, J. N. Hilfiker, R. France, and A. G. Norman, “Optical anisotropy and charge-transfer transition energies in BiFeO3 from 1.0 to 5.5 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 83(10), 100101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, S. G.

S. G. Choi, H. T. Yi, S. W. Cheong, J. N. Hilfiker, R. France, and A. G. Norman, “Optical anisotropy and charge-transfer transition energies in BiFeO3 from 1.0 to 5.5 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 83(10), 100101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chong, F. T.

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems 2(2), 154–168 (2012).

Christy, R. W.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Chu, H. S.

K. J. A. Ooi, P. Bai, H. S. Chu, and L. K. Ang, “Ultracompact vanadium dioxide dual-mode plasmonic waveguide electroabsorption modulator,” Nanophotonics 2(1), 13–19 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chu, S. H.

S. H. Chu, D. J. Singh, J. Wang, E.-P. Li, and K. P. Ong, “High optical performance and practicality of active plasmonic devices based on rhombohedral BiFeO3,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 6(5), 684–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dai, D.

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems 2(2), 154–168 (2012).

de Salvo, B.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Delacour, C.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Dereux, A.

Dicken, M. J.

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, K. Diest, Y. B. Park, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth and optical property characterization of textured barium titanate thin films for photonic applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(2), 330–335 (2007).
[Crossref]

I. D. Kim, Y. Avrahami, H. L. Tuller, Y. B. Park, M. J. Dicken, and H. A. Atwater, “Study of orientation effect on nanoscale polarization in BaTiO3 thin films using piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 192907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Diest, K.

L. A. Sweatlock and K. Diest, “Vanadium dioxide based plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8700–8709 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, K. Diest, Y. B. Park, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth and optical property characterization of textured barium titanate thin films for photonic applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(2), 330–335 (2007).
[Crossref]

Dinu, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Dionne, J.

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems 2(2), 154–168 (2012).

Dionne, J. A.

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

Emboras, A.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Espiau de Lamaestre, R.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fedeli, J. M.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Feigenbaum, E.

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, J.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 602–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ferrera, M.

France, R.

S. G. Choi, H. T. Yi, S. W. Cheong, J. N. Hilfiker, R. France, and A. G. Norman, “Optical anisotropy and charge-transfer transition energies in BiFeO3 from 1.0 to 5.5 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 83(10), 100101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Freude, W.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gan, Q.

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ultrasensitive on-chip biosensing,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9836–9844 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gao, Y.

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ultrasensitive on-chip biosensing,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9836–9844 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gosciniak, J.

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Performance of thermo-optic components based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Scientific Reports 3, 1803 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology 24(18), 185202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[PubMed]

Gramotnev, D. K.

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

Grosse, P.

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

Hahn, H.

Hamano, T.

Hilfiker, J. N.

S. G. Choi, H. T. Yi, S. W. Cheong, J. N. Hilfiker, R. France, and A. G. Norman, “Optical anisotropy and charge-transfer transition energies in BiFeO3 from 1.0 to 5.5 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 83(10), 100101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hillerkuss, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ikonic, Z.

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, and R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(1), 183–189 (2012).
[Crossref]

Ishii, S.

S. Ishii, M. Y. Shalaginov, V. E. Babicheva, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides cladded by hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4663–4666 (2014).
[PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding,” in preparation.

Johnson, P. B.

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Joushaghani, A.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. A. Kruger, A. Joushaghani, and J. K. S. Poon, “Design of electrically driven hybrid vanadium dioxide (VO2) plasmonic switches,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23598–23609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jun, Y. C.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kang, J. H.

Kelsall, R. W.

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, and R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(1), 183–189 (2012).
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S. Ishii, M. Y. Shalaginov, V. E. Babicheva, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides cladded by hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4663–4666 (2014).
[PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding,” in preparation.

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I. D. Kim, Y. Avrahami, H. L. Tuller, Y. B. Park, M. J. Dicken, and H. A. Atwater, “Study of orientation effect on nanoscale polarization in BaTiO3 thin films using piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 192907 (2005).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
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A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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H. W. H. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale Conducting Oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. (2014), doi.org/10.1021/nl502998z .
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Kruger, B. A.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. A. Kruger, A. Joushaghani, and J. K. S. Poon, “Design of electrically driven hybrid vanadium dioxide (VO2) plasmonic switches,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23598–23609 (2012).
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V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Kulkova, R. Malureanu, K. Yvind, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator based on gain-assisted metal–semiconductor–metal waveguide,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(4), 389–399 (2012).
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Y. Kurokawa and H. T. Miyazaki, “Metal-insulator-metal plasmon nanocavities: Analysis of optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035411 (2007).
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S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
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S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
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V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
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Lavrinenko, A. V.

V. E. Babicheva, R. Malureanu, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic finite-thickness metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide as ultra-compact modulator,” Photon. Nanostructures 11(4), 323–334 (2013).
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V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Kulkova, R. Malureanu, K. Yvind, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator based on gain-assisted metal–semiconductor–metal waveguide,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(4), 389–399 (2012).
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V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5500–5507 (2012).
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H. W. H. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale Conducting Oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. (2014), doi.org/10.1021/nl502998z .
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Leuthold, J.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
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M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, E.-P.

S. H. Chu, D. J. Singh, J. Wang, E.-P. Li, and K. P. Ong, “High optical performance and practicality of active plasmonic devices based on rhombohedral BiFeO3,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 6(5), 684–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Li, J.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lindenmann, N.

Liu, X.

Lo, G. Q.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, Z.

Z. Lu, W. Zhao, and K. Shi, “Ultracompact electroabsorption modulators based on tunable epsilon-near-zero-slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 735–740 (2012).
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W. Zhao and Z. Lu, “Nanoplasmonic optical switch based on Ga-Si3N4-Ga waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 50(7), 074002 (2011).
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Ma, R.-M.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
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K. F. MacDonald and N. I. Zheludev, “Active plasmonics: current status,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(4), 562–567 (2010).
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Malureanu, R.

V. E. Babicheva, R. Malureanu, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic finite-thickness metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide as ultra-compact modulator,” Photon. Nanostructures 11(4), 323–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Kulkova, R. Malureanu, K. Yvind, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator based on gain-assisted metal–semiconductor–metal waveguide,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(4), 389–399 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maradudin, A. A.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Markey, L.

Mehta, V.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 602–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meier, A. L.

Melikyan, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Miyazaki, H. T.

Y. Kurokawa and H. T. Miyazaki, “Metal-insulator-metal plasmon nanocavities: Analysis of optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035411 (2007).
[Crossref]

Muehlbrandt, S.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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Muslija, A.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
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Najar, A.

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S. G. Choi, H. T. Yi, S. W. Cheong, J. N. Hilfiker, R. France, and A. G. Norman, “Optical anisotropy and charge-transfer transition energies in BiFeO3 from 1.0 to 5.5 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 83(10), 100101 (2011).
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Ong, K. P.

S. H. Chu, D. J. Singh, J. Wang, E.-P. Li, and K. P. Ong, “High optical performance and practicality of active plasmonic devices based on rhombohedral BiFeO3,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 6(5), 684–689 (2012).
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K. J. A. Ooi, P. Bai, H. S. Chu, and L. K. Ang, “Ultracompact vanadium dioxide dual-mode plasmonic waveguide electroabsorption modulator,” Nanophotonics 2(1), 13–19 (2013).
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Oulton, R. F.

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pacifici, D.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 602–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pala, R.

H. W. H. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale Conducting Oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. (2014), doi.org/10.1021/nl502998z .
[PubMed]

Palmer, R.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Palmore, G. T. R.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 602–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Papadakis, G.

H. W. H. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale Conducting Oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. (2014), doi.org/10.1021/nl502998z .
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Paradis, S.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

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Park, Y. B.

M. J. Dicken, K. Diest, Y. B. Park, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth and optical property characterization of textured barium titanate thin films for photonic applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(2), 330–335 (2007).
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I. D. Kim, Y. Avrahami, H. L. Tuller, Y. B. Park, M. J. Dicken, and H. A. Atwater, “Study of orientation effect on nanoscale polarization in BaTiO3 thin films using piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 192907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Peschel, U.

H. W. H. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale Conducting Oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. (2014), doi.org/10.1021/nl502998z .
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A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, “Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1375 (2002).
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Polman, A.

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

Poon, J. K. S.

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. A. Kruger, A. Joushaghani, and J. K. S. Poon, “Design of electrically driven hybrid vanadium dioxide (VO2) plasmonic switches,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23598–23609 (2012).
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Premaratne, M.

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Guided plasmonic modes of anisotropic slot waveguides,” Nanotechnology 23(44), 444006 (2012).
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J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 602–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roelke, A.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 602–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Guided plasmonic modes of anisotropic slot waveguides,” Nanotechnology 23(44), 444006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schimmel, T.

Schindler, P. C.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Schmid, M.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, “Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1375 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schubert, J.

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, “Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1375 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schuller, J. A.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
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Shalaev, V. M.

Shalaginov, M. Y.

S. Ishii, M. Y. Shalaginov, V. E. Babicheva, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides cladded by hyperbolic metamaterials,” Opt. Lett. 39(16), 4663–4666 (2014).
[PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding,” in preparation.

Sherwood, T.

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems 2(2), 154–168 (2012).

Shi, K.

Z. Lu, W. Zhao, and K. Shi, “Ultracompact electroabsorption modulators based on tunable epsilon-near-zero-slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 735–740 (2012).
[Crossref]

Singh, D. J.

S. H. Chu, D. J. Singh, J. Wang, E.-P. Li, and K. P. Ong, “High optical performance and practicality of active plasmonic devices based on rhombohedral BiFeO3,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 6(5), 684–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Siu, V. S.

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 602–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sommer, M.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Sorger, V. J.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sweatlock, L. A.

L. A. Sweatlock and K. Diest, “Vanadium dioxide based plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8700–8709 (2012).
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J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

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J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology 24(18), 185202 (2013).
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Tang, P.

Theogarajan, L.

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems 2(2), 154–168 (2012).

Thomas, R.

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, and R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(1), 183–189 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tiwari, M.

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems 2(2), 154–168 (2012).

Towner, D. J.

Tuller, H. L.

I. D. Kim, Y. Avrahami, H. L. Tuller, Y. B. Park, M. J. Dicken, and H. A. Atwater, “Study of orientation effect on nanoscale polarization in BaTiO3 thin films using piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 192907 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ulrich, S.

Valamehr, J. K.

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems 2(2), 154–168 (2012).

Van Thourhout, D.

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Vasudev, A. P.

Vincze, P.

Volkov, V. S.

Walheim, S.

Wang, J.

S. H. Chu, D. J. Singh, J. Wang, E.-P. Li, and K. P. Ong, “High optical performance and practicality of active plasmonic devices based on rhombohedral BiFeO3,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 6(5), 684–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wassel, H. M. G.

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems 2(2), 154–168 (2012).

Wessels, B. W.

White, J. S.

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Xin, Z.

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ultrasensitive on-chip biosensing,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9836–9844 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ye, J.

Yi, H. T.

S. G. Choi, H. T. Yi, S. W. Cheong, J. N. Hilfiker, R. France, and A. G. Norman, “Optical anisotropy and charge-transfer transition energies in BiFeO3 from 1.0 to 5.5 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 83(10), 100101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Yvind, K.

V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Kulkova, R. Malureanu, K. Yvind, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator based on gain-assisted metal–semiconductor–metal waveguide,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(4), 389–399 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zayats, A. V.

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Photonic signal processing on electronic scales: electro-optical field-effect nanoplasmonic modulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 053901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, “Active control of surface plasmon–polariton waves,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S85–S89 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X.

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, W.

Z. Lu, W. Zhao, and K. Shi, “Ultracompact electroabsorption modulators based on tunable epsilon-near-zero-slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 735–740 (2012).
[Crossref]

W. Zhao and Z. Lu, “Nanoplasmonic optical switch based on Ga-Si3N4-Ga waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 50(7), 074002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zheludev, N. I.

K. F. MacDonald and N. I. Zheludev, “Active plasmonics: current status,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(4), 562–567 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, “Active control of surface plasmon–polariton waves,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S85–S89 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhu, S.

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[Crossref]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

ACS Nano (1)

Y. Gao, Q. Gan, Z. Xin, X. Cheng, and F. J. Bartoli, “Plasmonic Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ultrasensitive on-chip biosensing,” ACS Nano 5(12), 9836–9844 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, “Low-voltage, polarization-insensitive, electro-optic modulator based on a polydomain barium titanate thin film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 85(20), 4615 (2004).
[Crossref]

A. Emboras, R. M. Briggs, A. Najar, S. Nambiar, C. Delacour, P. Grosse, E. Augendre, J. M. Fedeli, B. de Salvo, H. A. Atwater, and R. Espiau de Lamaestre, “Efficient coupler between silicon photonic and metal-insulator-silicon-metal plasmonic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(25), 251117 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Electro-absorption modulation in horizontal metal-insulator-silicon-insulator-metal nanoplasmonic slot waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 99(15), 151114 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Joushaghani, B. A. Kruger, S. Paradis, D. Alain, J. S. Aitchison, and J. K. S. Poon, “Sub-volt broadband hybrid plasmonic-vanadium dioxide switches,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 102(6), 061101 (2013).
[Crossref]

A. Petraru, J. Schubert, M. Schmid, and C. Buchal, “Ferroelectric BaTiO3 thin-film optical waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81(8), 1375 (2002).
[Crossref]

I. D. Kim, Y. Avrahami, H. L. Tuller, Y. B. Park, M. J. Dicken, and H. A. Atwater, “Study of orientation effect on nanoscale polarization in BaTiO3 thin films using piezoresponse force microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 86(19), 192907 (2005).
[Crossref]

IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems (1)

H. M. G. Wassel, D. Dai, M. Tiwari, J. K. Valamehr, L. Theogarajan, J. Dionne, F. T. Chong, and T. Sherwood, “Opportunities and Challenges of Using Plasmonic Components in Nanophotonic Architectures,” IEEE Journal on Emerging and Selected Topics in Circuits and Systems 2(2), 154–168 (2012).

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

Z. Lu, W. Zhao, and K. Shi, “Ultracompact electroabsorption modulators based on tunable epsilon-near-zero-slot waveguides,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(3), 735–740 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

M. J. Dicken, K. Diest, Y. B. Park, and H. A. Atwater, “Growth and optical property characterization of textured barium titanate thin films for photonic applications,” J. Cryst. Growth 300(2), 330–335 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. (1)

A. V. Krasavin, A. V. Zayats, and N. I. Zheludev, “Active control of surface plasmon–polariton waves,” J. Opt. A, Pure Appl. Opt. 7(2), S85–S89 (2005).
[Crossref]

Laser & Photonics Reviews (1)

S. H. Chu, D. J. Singh, J. Wang, E.-P. Li, and K. P. Ong, “High optical performance and practicality of active plasmonic devices based on rhombohedral BiFeO3,” Laser & Photonics Reviews 6(5), 684–689 (2012).
[Crossref]

Laser Photon. Rev. (1)

K. F. MacDonald and N. I. Zheludev, “Active plasmonics: current status,” Laser Photon. Rev. 4(4), 562–567 (2010).
[Crossref]

MRS Bull. (1)

V. J. Sorger, R. F. Oulton, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Toward integrated plasmonic circuits,” MRS Bull. 37(08), 728–738 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (5)

W. Cai, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Compact, high-speed and power-efficient electrooptic plasmonic modulators,” Nano Lett. 9(12), 4403–4411 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. A. Dionne, K. Diest, L. A. Sweatlock, and H. A. Atwater, “PlasMOStor: a metal-oxide-Si field effect plasmonic modulator,” Nano Lett. 9(2), 897–902 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Dicken, L. A. Sweatlock, D. Pacifici, H. J. Lezec, K. Bhattacharya, and H. A. Atwater, “Electrooptic modulation in thin film barium titanate plasmonic interferometers,” Nano Lett. 8(11), 4048–4052 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Feigenbaum, K. Diest, and H. A. Atwater, “Unity-order index change in transparent conducting oxides at visible frequencies,” Nano Lett. 10(6), 2111–2116 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Feng, V. S. Siu, A. Roelke, V. Mehta, S. Y. Rhieu, G. T. R. Palmore, and D. Pacifici, “Nanoscale plasmonic interferometers for multispectral, high-throughput biochemical sensing,” Nano Lett. 12(2), 602–609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nanophotonics (2)

K. J. A. Ooi, P. Bai, H. S. Chu, and L. K. Ang, “Ultracompact vanadium dioxide dual-mode plasmonic waveguide electroabsorption modulator,” Nanophotonics 2(1), 13–19 (2013).
[Crossref]

V. J. Sorger, N. D. Lanzillotti-Kimura, R.-M. Ma, and X. Zhang, “Ultra-compact silicon nanophotonic modulator with broadband response,” Nanophotonics 1(1), 17–22 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nanotechnology (2)

J. Gosciniak and D. T. H. Tan, “Graphene-based waveguide integrated dielectric-loaded plasmonic electro-absorption modulators,” Nanotechnology 24(18), 185202 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. D. Rukhlenko, M. Premaratne, and G. P. Agrawal, “Guided plasmonic modes of anisotropic slot waveguides,” Nanotechnology 23(44), 444006 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Mater. (1)

J. A. Schuller, E. S. Barnard, W. Cai, Y. C. Jun, J. S. White, and M. L. Brongersma, “Plasmonics for extreme light concentration and manipulation,” Nat. Mater. 9(3), 193–204 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

D. K. Gramotnev and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Plasmonics beyond the diffraction limit,” Nat. Photonics 4(2), 83–91 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Melikyan, L. Alloatti, A. Muslija, D. Hillerkuss, P. C. Schindler, J. Li, R. Palmer, D. Korn, S. Muehlbrandt, D. Van Thourhout, B. Chen, R. Dinu, M. Sommer, C. Koos, M. Kohl, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “High-speed plasmonic phase modulators,” Nat. Photonics 8(3), 229–233 (2014).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator optimized by patterning of active layer and tuning permittivity,” Opt. Commun. 285(24), 5500–5507 (2012).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

W. Zhao and Z. Lu, “Nanoplasmonic optical switch based on Ga-Si3N4-Ga waveguide,” Opt. Eng. 50(7), 074002 (2011).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (8)

P. Tang, D. J. Towner, T. Hamano, A. L. Meier, and B. W. Wessels, “Electrooptic modulation up to 40 GHz in a barium titanate thin film waveguide modulator,” Opt. Express 12(24), 5962–5967 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Gosciniak, S. I. Bozhevolnyi, T. B. Andersen, V. S. Volkov, J. Kjelstrup-Hansen, L. Markey, and A. Dereux, “Thermo-optic control of dielectric-loaded plasmonic waveguide components,” Opt. Express 18(2), 1207–1216 (2010).
[PubMed]

S. Zhu, G. Q. Lo, and D. L. Kwong, “Theoretical investigation of silicon MOS-type plasmonic slot waveguide based MZI modulators,” Opt. Express 18(26), 27802–27819 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Melikyan, N. Lindenmann, S. Walheim, P. M. Leufke, S. Ulrich, J. Ye, P. Vincze, H. Hahn, T. Schimmel, C. Koos, W. Freude, and J. Leuthold, “Surface plasmon polariton absorption modulator,” Opt. Express 19(9), 8855–8869 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. A. Sweatlock and K. Diest, “Vanadium dioxide based plasmonic modulators,” Opt. Express 20(8), 8700–8709 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Kruger, A. Joushaghani, and J. K. S. Poon, “Design of electrically driven hybrid vanadium dioxide (VO2) plasmonic switches,” Opt. Express 20(21), 23598–23609 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. P. Vasudev, J. H. Kang, J. Park, X. Liu, and M. L. Brongersma, “Electro-optical modulation of a silicon waveguide with an “epsilon-near-zero” material,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26387–26397 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. E. Babicheva, N. Kinsey, G. V. Naik, M. Ferrera, A. V. Lavrinenko, V. M. Shalaev, and A. Boltasseva, “Towards CMOS-compatible nanophotonics: Ultra-compact modulators using alternative plasmonic materials,” Opt. Express 21(22), 27326–27337 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Photon. Nanostructures (3)

V. E. Babicheva, I. V. Kulkova, R. Malureanu, K. Yvind, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator based on gain-assisted metal–semiconductor–metal waveguide,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(4), 389–399 (2012).
[Crossref]

V. E. Babicheva, R. Malureanu, and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic finite-thickness metal-semiconductor-metal waveguide as ultra-compact modulator,” Photon. Nanostructures 11(4), 323–334 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Thomas, Z. Ikonic, and R. W. Kelsall, “Electro-optic metal–insulator–semiconductor–insulator–metal Mach-Zehnder plasmonic modulator,” Photon. Nanostructures 10(1), 183–189 (2012).
[Crossref]

Photonics Letters of Poland (1)

V. E. Babicheva and A. V. Lavrinenko, “Plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with barium titanate core,” Photonics Letters of Poland 5(2), 57–59 (2013).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rep. (1)

A. V. Zayats, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. A. Maradudin, “Nano-optics of surface plasmon polaritons,” Phys. Rep. 408(3-4), 131–314 (2005).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

J. A. Dionne, L. A. Sweatlock, H. A. Atwater, and A. Polman, “Plasmon slot waveguides: Towards chip-scale propagation with subwavelength-scale localization,” Phys. Rev. B 73(3), 035407 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Kurokawa and H. T. Miyazaki, “Metal-insulator-metal plasmon nanocavities: Analysis of optical properties,” Phys. Rev. B 75(3), 035411 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. G. Choi, H. T. Yi, S. W. Cheong, J. N. Hilfiker, R. France, and A. G. Norman, “Optical anisotropy and charge-transfer transition energies in BiFeO3 from 1.0 to 5.5 eV,” Phys. Rev. B 83(10), 100101 (2011).
[Crossref]

P. B. Johnson and R. W. Christy, “Optical constants of the noble metals,” Phys. Rev. B 6(12), 4370–4379 (1972).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

A. V. Krasavin and A. V. Zayats, “Photonic signal processing on electronic scales: electro-optical field-effect nanoplasmonic modulator,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(5), 053901 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Scientific Reports (1)

J. Gosciniak and S. I. Bozhevolnyi, “Performance of thermo-optic components based on dielectric-loaded surface plasmon polariton waveguides,” Scientific Reports 3, 1803 (2013).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

T. Qu, Y. Song, K. Yang, Y. Huang, S. Wu, Z. Tan, and X. Long, “High performance electro-optic modulator employing a thin BiFeO3 film on Au with absorption resonance,” in Optical Interference Coatings, M. Tilsch and D. Ristau, eds., OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2013), paper MB.6.

V. E. Babicheva, M. Y. Shalaginov, S. Ishii, A. Boltasseva, and A. V. Kildishev, “Plasmonic waveguides with hyperbolic multilayer cladding,” in preparation.

H. W. H. Lee, G. Papadakis, S. P. Burgos, K. Chander, A. Kriesch, R. Pala, U. Peschel, and H. A. Atwater, “Nanoscale Conducting Oxide PlasMOStor,” Nano Lett. (2014), doi.org/10.1021/nl502998z .
[PubMed]

Ultra-compact plasmonic waveguide modulators, Ph.D. Thesis, Viktoriia Evgenivna Babicheva, DTU Fotonik, Technical University of Denmark, October 2013.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic view of plasmonic modulator based on metal-insulator-metal waveguide with the switchable BFO core. (b) Illustration of BFO switching in the “x-ordinary” and “z-ordinary” scenario. (c) Schematics of BFO-based plasmonic switches based on phase or absorption modulation principles.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Propagation constants (a) and absorption coefficients (b) for different modes of MIM waveguide: two symmetric (S1 and S2) and antisymmetric (AS). Labels (ox), (oz), and (e) denote the two off-states (x-ordinary and z-ordinary) and the on-state, respectively [see Fig. 1(b)]. Legend is the same on both plots.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Device length Lπ needed to achieve π phase difference between on- and off-state. (b) Loss in the device with length Lπ. The labels (ox) and (oz) correspond to the switching scenarios from the x- and z-ordinary off-state to the on-state [see Fig. 1(b)]. Legend is the same on both plots.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) FoM and (b) propagation length z for the second symmetric (S2) and asymmetric (AS) modes. Triangular marks on (b) correspond to maximum FoM on (a). The first symmetric mode S1 gives nearly zero FoM value.

Equations (2)

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tan h ( q d ) = ( k m q ε z z ε m ) ± 1
F = ( α e α o ) / α o .

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