Abstract

We investigated the electrical properties and optical quality of two layers a titanium dioxide (TiO2) selective layer and a sol-gel silica cladding layer for use as coating layers for nonlinear optic (NLO) polymers in electro-optic (EO) polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators. We used a simple ellipsometric reflective technique developed by Teng and Man to measure the electro-optic (EO) coefficients of poled thin films of an EO polymer in an EO multilayer device. The Pockels coefficient was enhanced up to 226 and 198 pm/V at wavelengths of 1.31 and 1.55 μm, respectively, when optimally poled with TiO2 and a sol-gel silica cladding.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
OSA Recommended Articles
Enhanced conductivity of sol-gel silica cladding for efficient poling in electro-optic polymer/TiO2 vertical slot waveguide modulators

Yasufumi Enami, Youssef Jouane, Jingdong Luo, and Alex K-Y. Jen
Opt. Express 22(24) 30191-30199 (2014)

Mesoporous sol-gel silica cladding for hybrid TiO2/electro-optic polymer waveguide modulators

Yasufumi Enami, Yasuhisa Kayaba, Jingdong Luo, and Alex K.-Y. Jen
Opt. Express 22(13) 16418-16423 (2014)

TiO2 ring-resonator-based EO polymer modulator

Feng Qiu, Andrew M. Spring, Daisuke Maeda, Masa-aki Ozawa, Keisuke Odoi, Isao Aoki, Akira Otomo, and Shiyoshi Yokoyama
Opt. Express 22(12) 14101-14107 (2014)

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Tailored Organic Electro-optic Materials and Their Hybrid Systems for Device Applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Blum, M. Sprave, J. Sablotny, and M. Eich, “High-electric-field poling of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(1), 318–328 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  3. L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).
  5. D. Cheng, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  6. Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Advances 1, 042137 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Mueller, “Measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled polymers at λ = 1.55 μm by means of sandwich structures with zinc oxide transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4477–4479 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  10. J. S. Schildkraut, “Determination of the electrooptic coefficient of a poled polymer film,” Appl. Opt. 29(19), 2839–2841 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  12. J. G. Grote, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, F. K. Hopkins, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” Opt. Eng. 40(11), 2464–2473 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  13. C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  15. D. H. Park, C. H. Lee, and W. N. Herman, “Analysis of multiple reflection effects in reflective measurements of electro-optic coefficients of poled polymers in multilayer structures,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8866–8884 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. G. M. Sessler, B. Hahn, and D. Y. Yoon, “Electrical conduction in polyimide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(1), 318 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. Sprave, R. Blum, and M. Eich, “High electric field conduction mechanisms in electrode poling of electro-optic polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2962 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  18. M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient Phenyltetraene-Based Nonlinear Optical Chromophores for Electrooptics,” Org. Lett. 8(7), 1387–1390 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Ch. Bosshard, K. Sutter, R. Schlesser, and P. Gunter, “Electro-optic effects in molecular crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10(5), 867 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  21. S. H. Han and J. W. Wu, “Single-beam polarization interferometry measurement of the linear electro-optic effect in poled polymer films with a reflection configuration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(5), 1131–1137 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2012 (1)

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Tailored Organic Electro-optic Materials and Their Hybrid Systems for Device Applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Advances 1, 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

2006 (3)

D. H. Park, C. H. Lee, and W. N. Herman, “Analysis of multiple reflection effects in reflective measurements of electro-optic coefficients of poled polymers in multilayer structures,” Opt. Express 14(19), 8866–8884 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient Phenyltetraene-Based Nonlinear Optical Chromophores for Electrooptics,” Org. Lett. 8(7), 1387–1390 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Mueller, “Measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled polymers at λ = 1.55 μm by means of sandwich structures with zinc oxide transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4477–4479 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

J. G. Grote, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, F. K. Hopkins, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” Opt. Eng. 40(11), 2464–2473 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

1997 (2)

D. Cheng, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. H. Han and J. W. Wu, “Single-beam polarization interferometry measurement of the linear electro-optic effect in poled polymer films with a reflection configuration,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14(5), 1131–1137 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

M. Sprave, R. Blum, and M. Eich, “High electric field conduction mechanisms in electrode poling of electro-optic polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2962 (1996).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

1990 (2)

J. S. Schildkraut, “Determination of the electrooptic coefficient of a poled polymer film,” Appl. Opt. 29(19), 2839–2841 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734 (1990).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

G. M. Sessler, B. Hahn, and D. Y. Yoon, “Electrical conduction in polyimide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(1), 318 (1986).
[Crossref]

Amend, J.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bale, D. H.

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Belardini, A.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Mueller, “Measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled polymers at λ = 1.55 μm by means of sandwich structures with zinc oxide transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4477–4479 (2003).
[Crossref]

Bertolotti, M.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Mueller, “Measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled polymers at λ = 1.55 μm by means of sandwich structures with zinc oxide transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4477–4479 (2003).
[Crossref]

Blum, R.

R. Blum, M. Sprave, J. Sablotny, and M. Eich, “High-electric-field poling of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(1), 318–328 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Sprave, R. Blum, and M. Eich, “High electric field conduction mechanisms in electrode poling of electro-optic polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2962 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bosshard, Ch.

Carlson, B.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chen, A.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Cheng, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cheng, D.

D. Cheng, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cheng, Y. J.

J. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient Phenyltetraene-Based Nonlinear Optical Chromophores for Electrooptics,” Org. Lett. 8(7), 1387–1390 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.-J.

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dalton, L. R.

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. G. Grote, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, F. K. Hopkins, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” Opt. Eng. 40(11), 2464–2473 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Cheng, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

DeRose, C. T.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eich, M.

R. Blum, M. Sprave, J. Sablotny, and M. Eich, “High-electric-field poling of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(1), 318–328 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Sprave, R. Blum, and M. Eich, “High electric field conduction mechanisms in electrode poling of electro-optic polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2962 (1996).
[Crossref]

Enami, Y.

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Advances 1, 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fallahi, M.

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fetterman, H. R.

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

D. Cheng, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Fifield, L.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Garner, S.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Greenlee, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

Grote, J. G.

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. G. Grote, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, F. K. Hopkins, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” Opt. Eng. 40(11), 2464–2473 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gunter, P.

Hahn, B.

G. M. Sessler, B. Hahn, and D. Y. Yoon, “Electrical conduction in polyimide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(1), 318 (1986).
[Crossref]

Han, S. H.

Hau, S.

J. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient Phenyltetraene-Based Nonlinear Optical Chromophores for Electrooptics,” Org. Lett. 8(7), 1387–1390 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Herman, W. N.

Hopkins, F. K.

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. G. Grote, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, F. K. Hopkins, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” Opt. Eng. 40(11), 2464–2473 (2001).
[Crossref]

Huang, S.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Tailored Organic Electro-optic Materials and Their Hybrid Systems for Device Applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Irwin, L.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jang, S. H.

J. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient Phenyltetraene-Based Nonlinear Optical Chromophores for Electrooptics,” Org. Lett. 8(7), 1387–1390 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jang, S.-H.

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Jen, A.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K. Y.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Tailored Organic Electro-optic Materials and Their Hybrid Systems for Device Applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Advances 1, 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient Phenyltetraene-Based Nonlinear Optical Chromophores for Electrooptics,” Org. Lett. 8(7), 1387–1390 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kathaperumal, M.

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kim, T. D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

J. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient Phenyltetraene-Based Nonlinear Optical Chromophores for Electrooptics,” Org. Lett. 8(7), 1387–1390 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, T.-D.

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Kincaid, C.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Larciprete, M. C.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Mueller, “Measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled polymers at λ = 1.55 μm by means of sandwich structures with zinc oxide transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4477–4479 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lee, C. H.

Leovich, M. E.

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Londergan, T.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Loychik, C.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Luo, J.

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Tailored Organic Electro-optic Materials and Their Hybrid Systems for Device Applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Advances 1, 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

J. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient Phenyltetraene-Based Nonlinear Optical Chromophores for Electrooptics,” Org. Lett. 8(7), 1387–1390 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Luo, J. D.

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Man, H. T.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734 (1990).
[Crossref]

Mathine, D.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Michelotti, F.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Mueller, “Measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled polymers at λ = 1.55 μm by means of sandwich structures with zinc oxide transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4477–4479 (2003).
[Crossref]

Mueller, J.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Mueller, “Measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled polymers at λ = 1.55 μm by means of sandwich structures with zinc oxide transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4477–4479 (2003).
[Crossref]

Nelson, R. L.

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. G. Grote, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, F. K. Hopkins, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” Opt. Eng. 40(11), 2464–2473 (2001).
[Crossref]

Norwood, R. A.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Oh, M.-C.

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Park, D. H.

Peyghambarian, N.

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phelan, G.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Plishak, B. M.

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Polishak, B. M.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Tailored Organic Electro-optic Materials and Their Hybrid Systems for Device Applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ratsimihety, A.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Mueller, “Measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled polymers at λ = 1.55 μm by means of sandwich structures with zinc oxide transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4477–4479 (2003).
[Crossref]

Reid, P. J.

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ren, A.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Robinson, B. H.

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rousseau, A.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Mueller, “Measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled polymers at λ = 1.55 μm by means of sandwich structures with zinc oxide transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4477–4479 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sablotny, J.

Schildkraut, J. S.

Schlesser, R.

Schoer, G.

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Mueller, “Measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled polymers at λ = 1.55 μm by means of sandwich structures with zinc oxide transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4477–4479 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sessler, G. M.

G. M. Sessler, B. Hahn, and D. Y. Yoon, “Electrical conduction in polyimide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(1), 318 (1986).
[Crossref]

Shi, Y.

D. Cheng, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Shi, Z.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Tailored Organic Electro-optic Materials and Their Hybrid Systems for Device Applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient Phenyltetraene-Based Nonlinear Optical Chromophores for Electrooptics,” Org. Lett. 8(7), 1387–1390 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sprave, M.

R. Blum, M. Sprave, J. Sablotny, and M. Eich, “High-electric-field poling of nonlinear optical polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15(1), 318–328 (1998).
[Crossref]

M. Sprave, R. Blum, and M. Eich, “High electric field conduction mechanisms in electrode poling of electro-optic polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2962 (1996).
[Crossref]

Steier, W. H.

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. G. Grote, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, F. K. Hopkins, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” Opt. Eng. 40(11), 2464–2473 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

D. Cheng, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Sutter, K.

Takahashi, S.

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, M.

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Teng, C. C.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734 (1990).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

Wang, W.

D. Cheng, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wu, J. W.

Yamamoto, M.

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

Yaney, P. P.

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Yick, A.

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D. Y.

G. M. Sessler, B. Hahn, and D. Y. Yoon, “Electrical conduction in polyimide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(1), 318 (1986).
[Crossref]

Yuan, B.

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zetts, J. S.

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. G. Grote, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, F. K. Hopkins, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” Opt. Eng. 40(11), 2464–2473 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zhang, C.

J. G. Grote, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, F. K. Hopkins, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” Opt. Eng. 40(11), 2464–2473 (2001).
[Crossref]

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

Zheng, C.

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X. H.

J. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient Phenyltetraene-Based Nonlinear Optical Chromophores for Electrooptics,” Org. Lett. 8(7), 1387–1390 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhou, X.-H.

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Tailored Organic Electro-optic Materials and Their Hybrid Systems for Device Applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

AIP Advances (1)

Y. Enami, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Short hybrid sol-gel silica/polymer waveguide directional coupler switches with high in-device electro-optic coefficient based on photostable chromophore,” AIP Advances 1, 042137 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (7)

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56(18), 1734 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. T. DeRose, Y. Enami, C. Loychik, R. A. Norwood, D. Mathine, M. Fallahi, N. Peyghambarian, J. D. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, M. Kathaperumal, and M. Yamamoto, “Pockel’s coefficient enhancement of poled electro-optic polymers with a hybrid organic-inorganic sol-gel cladding layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(13), 131102 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. Sprave, R. Blum, and M. Eich, “High electric field conduction mechanisms in electrode poling of electro-optic polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(20), 2962 (1996).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, B. Yuan, M. Tanaka, J. Luo, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Electro-optic polymer/TiO2 multilayer slot waveguide modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(12), 123509 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Michelotti, A. Belardini, M. C. Larciprete, M. Bertolotti, A. Rousseau, A. Ratsimihety, G. Schoer, and J. Mueller, “Measurement of the electro-optic properties of poled polymers at λ = 1.55 μm by means of sandwich structures with zinc oxide transparent electrode,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(22), 4477–4479 (2003).
[Crossref]

D. Cheng, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “Demonstration of 110 GHz electro-optic polymer modulators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(25), 3335 (1997).
[Crossref]

Y. Enami, D. Mathine, C. T. DeRose, R. A. Norwood, J. Luo, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid crosslinkable polymer/sol-gel waveguide modulators with 0.65V half-wave voltage at 1550nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(9), 093505 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chem. Mater. (2)

J. Luo, S. Huang, Z. Shi, B. M. Polishak, X.-H. Zhou, and A. K. Y. Jen, “Tailored Organic Electro-optic Materials and Their Hybrid Systems for Device Applications,” Chem. Mater. 23(3), 544–553 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y.-J. Cheng, J. Luo, S. Huang, X. Zhou, Z. Shi, T.-D. Kim, D. H. Bale, S. Takahashi, A. Yick, B. M. Plishak, S.-H. Jang, L. R. Dalton, P. J. Reid, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Donor−Acceptor Thiolated Polyenic Chromophores Exhibiting Large Optical Nonlinearity and Excellent Photostability,” Chem. Mater. 20(15), 5047–5054 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

G. M. Sessler, B. Hahn, and D. Y. Yoon, “Electrical conduction in polyimide films,” J. Appl. Phys. 60(1), 318 (1986).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Mater. (1)

L. R. Dalton, W. H. Steier, B. H. Robinson, C. Zhang, A. Ren, S. Garner, A. Chen, T. Londergan, L. Irwin, B. Carlson, L. Fifield, G. Phelan, C. Kincaid, J. Amend, and A. Jen, “From Molecules to Opto-Chips: Organic Electro-Optic Materials,” J. Chem. Mater. 9(9), 1905–1920 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nat. Photonics (1)

Y. Enami, C. T. Derose, D. Mathine, C. Loychik, C. Greenlee, R. A. Norwood, T. D. Kim, J. Luo, Y. Tian, A. K.-Y. Jen, and N. Peyghambarian, “Hybrid polymer/sol–gel waveguide modulators with exceptionally large electro–optic coefficients,” Nat. Photonics 1, 180–185 (2007).

Opt. Eng. (1)

J. G. Grote, J. S. Zetts, R. L. Nelson, F. K. Hopkins, L. R. Dalton, C. Zhang, and W. H. Steier, “Effect of conductivity and dielectric constant on the modulation voltage for optoelectronic devices based on nonlinear optical polymers,” Opt. Eng. 40(11), 2464–2473 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Org. Lett. (1)

J. Luo, Y. J. Cheng, T. D. Kim, S. Hau, S. H. Jang, Z. Shi, X. H. Zhou, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Facile Synthesis of Highly Efficient Phenyltetraene-Based Nonlinear Optical Chromophores for Electrooptics,” Org. Lett. 8(7), 1387–1390 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. E. Leovich, P. P. Yaney, C. Zheng, W. H. Steier, M.-C. Oh, H. R. Fetterman, A. K.-Y. Jen, L. R. Dalton, J. G. Grote, R. L. Nelson, J. S. Zetts, and F. K. Hopkins, “Optimized cladding materials for nonlinear-optic polymer-based devices,” Proc. SPIE 4652, 97–103 (2002).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 a) Device structure with SEO100, the inset image is the molecular structure of dipolar phenyltetraene chromophore for SEO100; b) SEM image of a cross-section of glass/ITO/sol-gel silica/TiO2/SEO100/TiO2, the inset image is at a higher magnification than the rest of the image.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 a) UV-Vis absorption and transmittance spectra for ITO substrate and b) UV-Vis absorption spectrum for SEO100 on ITO substrate.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Current density as a function of the square root of the applied voltage for a 3.7-μm film of sol-gel silica cladding, a 100-nm film of TiO2 and both the sol-gel silica layer and the TiO2 layer together; all of the samples were measured at a poling temperature of 158°C.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Current density as a function of the electric field for a 380-nm-thick SEO100 polymer film with and without a TiO2 SL; all of the samples were measured at a poling temperature of 158°C.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Current density as a function of the square root of the applied voltage for two types of EO multilayer devices: with a TiO2 SL and without a TiO2 SL but with a sol-gel silica CL; all of the samples were measured at a poling temperature of 158°C.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Electro-optic Parameters for SEO100 Polymer with and without Sol-gel Silica Cladding Layer and TiO2

Equations (3)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

J T 2 exp( φ β s E kT )
r 33 3×λ 4.π × I m I dc × V m × n 2 sin (θ) 2 n 2 sin (θ) 2 ×[ 1+( d Ti O 2 d SEO100 )× ( ε SEO100 ε Ti O 2 ) +( d SG d SEO100 )× ( ε SEO100 ε SG ) ]
V Poly V m × d Poly d Poly +( ε Poly ε Ti O 2 × d Ti O 2 )

Metrics