Abstract

We present an experimental study and performance improvement of periodic and aperiodic Ni/SiC multilayer coatings. Periodic Ni/SiC multilayer mirrors have been coated and characterized by grazing incidence X-ray reflectometry at 8.048 keV (Cu Kα radiation) and by measurements at 3 keV and 5 keV on synchrotron radiation facilities. An interdiffusion effect is found between Ni and SiC layers. A two-material model, NixSiy/SiC, using a silicide instead of Ni, was used to fit the measurements. The addition of 0.6 nm W barrier layers at the interfaces allows a significant reduction of the interdiffusion between Ni and SiC. In order to obtain a specific reflectivity profile in the 2 – 8 keV energy range, we have designed and coated aperiodic multilayer mirrors by using Ni/SiC with and without W barrier layers. The experimental reflectivity profiles as a function of the photon energy were measured on a synchrotron radiation facility in both cases. Adding W barrier layers in Ni/SiC multilayers provides a better precision on the layer thicknesses and a very good agreement between the experimental data and the targeted spectral profile.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

P. Troussel, B. Villette, B. Emprin, G. Oudot, V. Tassin, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, and M. Krumrey, “Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft x-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Choueikani, B. Lagarde, F. Delmotte, M. Krumrey, F. Bridou, M. Thomasset, E. Meltchakov, and F. Polack, “High-efficiency B₄C/Mo₂C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2141–2144 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (2)

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of x-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

Z. S. Wang, X. B. Cheng, J. T. Zhu, Q. S. Huang, Z. Zhang, and L. Y. Chen, “Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for x-ray optics,” Thin Solid Films 519(20), 6712–6715 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2-10 keV) high resolution x-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1–3), 242–246 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

D. Besnard, “Fusion with the Megajoule laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(1), 012004 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, and F. E. Christensen, “Investigation of new material combinations for hard x-ray telescope designs,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626612 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500(1–2), 84–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, F. Dollar, Y. Liu, and E. Gullikson, “Developments in realistic design for aperiodic Mo/Si multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10073–10078 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

A. Ulyanenkov, “Leptos: a universal software for x-ray reflectivity and diffraction,” Adv. Comput. Math. 5536, 1–15 (2004).

2003 (1)

2002 (2)

D. L. Windt, E. M. Gullikson, and C. C. Walton, “Normal-incidence reflectance of optimized W /B4 C x-ray multilayers in the range 1.4 nm < l < 2.4 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2212–2214 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (4)

M. Krumrey and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration at the PTB four-crystal monochromator beamline,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 1175–1178 (2001).
[Crossref]

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-C. Mertins, and N. Salashchenko, “Cr/sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 349–353 (2001).
[Crossref]

A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, E. Zubaryev, D. L. Voronov, O. Penkov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenskii, I. A. Artioukov, and J. F. Seely, “Structure, thermal stability, and reflectivity of Sc/Si and Sc/W/Si/W multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4505, 230–235 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

A. S. Edelstein, D. J. Gillespie, S. F. Cheng, J. H. Perepezko, and K. Landry, “Reactions at amorphous SiC/Ni interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2636–2641 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (3)

H.-C. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, D. Clemens, P. Böni, and M. Horisberger, “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti, and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 37(10), 1873–1882 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Takenaka, H. Ito, T. Haga, and T. Kawamura, “Design and fabrication of highly heat-resistant Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors with interleaved barrier layers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5(3), 708–710 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Windt, “IMD - software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

1995 (2)

M. Schuster and H. Göbel, “Parallel-beam coupling into channel-cut monochromators using curved graded multilayers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(4A), A270–A275 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. H. Gülpen, A. A. Kodentsov, and F. J. J. Vanloo, “Growth of silicides in Ni-Si and Ni-SiC bulk diffusion couples,” Z. Metallk. 6(8), 530–539 (1995).

1988 (2)

H. Höchst, D. W. Niles, G. W. Zajac, T. H. Fleisch, B. C. Johnson, and J. M. Meese, “Electronic-structure and thermal-stability of Ni/SiC(100) interfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(4), 1320–1325 (1988).

R. C. J. Schiepers, F. J. J. Vanloo, and G. Dewith, “Reactions between alpha-silicon carbide ceramic and nickel or iron,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71(6), C284–C287 (1988).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

M. R. Jackson, R. L. Mehan, A. M. Davis, and E. L. Hall, “Solid-state SiC/Ni alloy reaction,” Metall. Mater. Trans., A Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 14(2), 355–364 (1983).
[Crossref]

Abramsohn, D.

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-C. Mertins, and N. Salashchenko, “Cr/sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 349–353 (2001).
[Crossref]

Alameda, J.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

Alameda, J. B.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

Aquila, A. L.

Artioukov, I. A.

A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, E. Zubaryev, D. L. Voronov, O. Penkov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenskii, I. A. Artioukov, and J. F. Seely, “Structure, thermal stability, and reflectivity of Sc/Si and Sc/W/Si/W multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4505, 230–235 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bajt, S.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Baker, S. L.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barbee, T. W.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Bellotti, J. A.

Besnard, D.

D. Besnard, “Fusion with the Megajoule laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(1), 012004 (2008).
[Crossref]

Birch, J.

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500(1–2), 84–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bocher, J. L.

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Böni, P.

Bourassin-Bouchet, C.

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bourgade, J. L.

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Boutin, J. Y.

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bridou, F.

P. Troussel, B. Villette, B. Emprin, G. Oudot, V. Tassin, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, and M. Krumrey, “Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft x-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Choueikani, B. Lagarde, F. Delmotte, M. Krumrey, F. Bridou, M. Thomasset, E. Meltchakov, and F. Polack, “High-efficiency B₄C/Mo₂C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2141–2144 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of x-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2-10 keV) high resolution x-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1–3), 242–246 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, M. Roulliay, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, and A. Jérome, “Study of normal incidence of three-component multilayer mirrors in the range 20-40 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44(3), 384–390 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapman, H. N.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

Chen, L. Y.

Z. S. Wang, X. B. Cheng, J. T. Zhu, Q. S. Huang, Z. Zhang, and L. Y. Chen, “Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for x-ray optics,” Thin Solid Films 519(20), 6712–6715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cheng, S. F.

A. S. Edelstein, D. J. Gillespie, S. F. Cheng, J. H. Perepezko, and K. Landry, “Reactions at amorphous SiC/Ni interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2636–2641 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cheng, X. B.

Z. S. Wang, X. B. Cheng, J. T. Zhu, Q. S. Huang, Z. Zhang, and L. Y. Chen, “Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for x-ray optics,” Thin Solid Films 519(20), 6712–6715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chiche, S.

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Choueikani, F.

Christensen, F. E.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, and F. E. Christensen, “Investigation of new material combinations for hard x-ray telescope designs,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626612 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. L. Windt, S. Donguy, C. J. Hailey, J. Koglin, V. Honkimaki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, H. Chen, F. A. Harrison, and W. W. Craig, “W/SiC x-ray multilayers optimized for use above 100 keV,” Appl. Opt. 42(13), 2415–2421 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Clemens, D.

Clift, W. M.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Craig, W. W.

Dague, N.

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Dasilva, P.

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Davis, A. M.

M. R. Jackson, R. L. Mehan, A. M. Davis, and E. L. Hall, “Solid-state SiC/Ni alloy reaction,” Metall. Mater. Trans., A Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 14(2), 355–364 (1983).
[Crossref]

de Rossi, S.

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Delmotte, A.

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Delmotte, F.

P. Troussel, B. Villette, B. Emprin, G. Oudot, V. Tassin, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, and M. Krumrey, “Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft x-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Choueikani, B. Lagarde, F. Delmotte, M. Krumrey, F. Bridou, M. Thomasset, E. Meltchakov, and F. Polack, “High-efficiency B₄C/Mo₂C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2141–2144 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of x-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2-10 keV) high resolution x-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1–3), 242–246 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Gautier, F. Delmotte, M. Roulliay, F. Bridou, M. F. Ravet, and A. Jérome, “Study of normal incidence of three-component multilayer mirrors in the range 20-40 nm,” Appl. Opt. 44(3), 384–390 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Descalle, M.-A.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dewith, G.

R. C. J. Schiepers, F. J. J. Vanloo, and G. Dewith, “Reactions between alpha-silicon carbide ceramic and nickel or iron,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71(6), C284–C287 (1988).
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Di Fonzo, S.

Diel, I.

Dollar, F.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, F. Dollar, Y. Liu, and E. Gullikson, “Developments in realistic design for aperiodic Mo/Si multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10073–10078 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Donguy, S.

Edelstein, A. S.

A. S. Edelstein, D. J. Gillespie, S. F. Cheng, J. H. Perepezko, and K. Landry, “Reactions at amorphous SiC/Ni interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2636–2641 (1999).
[Crossref]

Emprin, B.

P. Troussel, B. Villette, B. Emprin, G. Oudot, V. Tassin, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, and M. Krumrey, “Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft x-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eriksson, F.

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500(1–2), 84–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fernández-Perea, M.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleisch, T. H.

H. Höchst, D. W. Niles, G. W. Zajac, T. H. Fleisch, B. C. Johnson, and J. M. Meese, “Electronic-structure and thermal-stability of Ni/SiC(100) interfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(4), 1320–1325 (1988).

Folta, J. A.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Friedrich, J.

Garrett, R.

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gaupp, A.

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-C. Mertins, and N. Salashchenko, “Cr/sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 349–353 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gautier, J.

Gentle, I.

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ghafoor, N.

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500(1–2), 84–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

Giglia, A.

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Gillespie, D. J.

A. S. Edelstein, D. J. Gillespie, S. F. Cheng, J. H. Perepezko, and K. Landry, “Reactions at amorphous SiC/Ni interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2636–2641 (1999).
[Crossref]

Göbel, H.

M. Schuster and H. Göbel, “Parallel-beam coupling into channel-cut monochromators using curved graded multilayers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(4A), A270–A275 (1995).
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Gontier, D.

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Grantham, S.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

Grimmer, H.

Gullikson, E.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

A. L. Aquila, F. Salmassi, F. Dollar, Y. Liu, and E. Gullikson, “Developments in realistic design for aperiodic Mo/Si multilayer mirrors,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10073–10078 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gullikson, E. M.

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500(1–2), 84–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. L. Windt, E. M. Gullikson, and C. C. Walton, “Normal-incidence reflectance of optimized W /B4 C x-ray multilayers in the range 1.4 nm < l < 2.4 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2212–2214 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gülpen, J. H.

J. H. Gülpen, A. A. Kodentsov, and F. J. J. Vanloo, “Growth of silicides in Ni-Si and Ni-SiC bulk diffusion couples,” Z. Metallk. 6(8), 530–539 (1995).

Haga, T.

H. Takenaka, H. Ito, T. Haga, and T. Kawamura, “Design and fabrication of highly heat-resistant Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors with interleaved barrier layers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5(3), 708–710 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hailey, C. J.

Hall, E. L.

M. R. Jackson, R. L. Mehan, A. M. Davis, and E. L. Hall, “Solid-state SiC/Ni alloy reaction,” Metall. Mater. Trans., A Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 14(2), 355–364 (1983).
[Crossref]

Harrison, F. A.

Hau-Riege, S.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

Höchst, H.

H. Höchst, D. W. Niles, G. W. Zajac, T. H. Fleisch, B. C. Johnson, and J. M. Meese, “Electronic-structure and thermal-stability of Ni/SiC(100) interfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(4), 1320–1325 (1988).

Honkimaki, V.

Honkimäki, V.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Horisberger, M.

Huang, Q. S.

Z. S. Wang, X. B. Cheng, J. T. Zhu, Q. S. Huang, Z. Zhang, and L. Y. Chen, “Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for x-ray optics,” Thin Solid Films 519(20), 6712–6715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Idir, M.

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ito, H.

H. Takenaka, H. Ito, T. Haga, and T. Kawamura, “Design and fabrication of highly heat-resistant Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors with interleaved barrier layers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5(3), 708–710 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jackson, M. R.

M. R. Jackson, R. L. Mehan, A. M. Davis, and E. L. Hall, “Solid-state SiC/Ni alloy reaction,” Metall. Mater. Trans., A Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 14(2), 355–364 (1983).
[Crossref]

Jadaud, J. P.

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jakobsen, A. C.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jark, W.

Jensen, C. P.

C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, and F. E. Christensen, “Investigation of new material combinations for hard x-ray telescope designs,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jérome, A.

Johnson, B. C.

H. Höchst, D. W. Niles, G. W. Zajac, T. H. Fleisch, B. C. Johnson, and J. M. Meese, “Electronic-structure and thermal-stability of Ni/SiC(100) interfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(4), 1320–1325 (1988).

Kaufmann, B.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kawamura, T.

H. Takenaka, H. Ito, T. Haga, and T. Kawamura, “Design and fabrication of highly heat-resistant Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors with interleaved barrier layers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5(3), 708–710 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kjornrattanawanich, B.

D. L. Windt, J. A. Bellotti, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and J. F. Seely, “Performance optimization of Si/Gd extreme ultraviolet multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5502–5508 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

Kodentsov, A. A.

J. H. Gülpen, A. A. Kodentsov, and F. J. J. Vanloo, “Growth of silicides in Ni-Si and Ni-SiC bulk diffusion couples,” Z. Metallk. 6(8), 530–539 (1995).

Koglin, J.

Kondratenko, V. V.

A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, E. Zubaryev, D. L. Voronov, O. Penkov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenskii, I. A. Artioukov, and J. F. Seely, “Structure, thermal stability, and reflectivity of Sc/Si and Sc/W/Si/W multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4505, 230–235 (2001).
[Crossref]

Krumrey, M.

P. Troussel, B. Villette, B. Emprin, G. Oudot, V. Tassin, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, and M. Krumrey, “Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft x-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Choueikani, B. Lagarde, F. Delmotte, M. Krumrey, F. Bridou, M. Thomasset, E. Meltchakov, and F. Polack, “High-efficiency B₄C/Mo₂C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2141–2144 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Krumrey and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration at the PTB four-crystal monochromator beamline,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 1175–1178 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kunz, C.

Lagarde, B.

Landry, K.

A. S. Edelstein, D. J. Gillespie, S. F. Cheng, J. H. Perepezko, and K. Landry, “Reactions at amorphous SiC/Ni interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2636–2641 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

Madsen, K. K.

C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, and F. E. Christensen, “Investigation of new material combinations for hard x-ray telescope designs,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626612 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mahne, N.

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Maury, H.

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2-10 keV) high resolution x-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1–3), 242–246 (2010).
[Crossref]

McCarville, T. J.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Meese, J. M.

H. Höchst, D. W. Niles, G. W. Zajac, T. H. Fleisch, B. C. Johnson, and J. M. Meese, “Electronic-structure and thermal-stability of Ni/SiC(100) interfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(4), 1320–1325 (1988).

Mehan, R. L.

M. R. Jackson, R. L. Mehan, A. M. Davis, and E. L. Hall, “Solid-state SiC/Ni alloy reaction,” Metall. Mater. Trans., A Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 14(2), 355–364 (1983).
[Crossref]

Meltchakov, E.

F. Choueikani, B. Lagarde, F. Delmotte, M. Krumrey, F. Bridou, M. Thomasset, E. Meltchakov, and F. Polack, “High-efficiency B₄C/Mo₂C alternate multilayer grating for monochromators in the photon energy range from 0.7 to 3.4 keV,” Opt. Lett. 39(7), 2141–2144 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2-10 keV) high resolution x-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1–3), 242–246 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mercère, P.

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Mertin, M.

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-C. Mertins, and N. Salashchenko, “Cr/sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 349–353 (2001).
[Crossref]

Mertins, H.-C.

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-C. Mertins, and N. Salashchenko, “Cr/sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 349–353 (2001).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, D. Clemens, P. Böni, and M. Horisberger, “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti, and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 37(10), 1873–1882 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Modi, M. H.

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Moreno, T.

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Müller, B. R.

Nannarone, S.

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nelson, A. J.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

Niles, D. W.

H. Höchst, D. W. Niles, G. W. Zajac, T. H. Fleisch, B. C. Johnson, and J. M. Meese, “Electronic-structure and thermal-stability of Ni/SiC(100) interfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(4), 1320–1325 (1988).

Nugent, K.

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Oudot, G.

P. Troussel, B. Villette, B. Emprin, G. Oudot, V. Tassin, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, and M. Krumrey, “Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft x-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Penkov, O.

A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, E. Zubaryev, D. L. Voronov, O. Penkov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenskii, I. A. Artioukov, and J. F. Seely, “Structure, thermal stability, and reflectivity of Sc/Si and Sc/W/Si/W multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4505, 230–235 (2001).
[Crossref]

Perepezko, J. H.

A. S. Edelstein, D. J. Gillespie, S. F. Cheng, J. H. Perepezko, and K. Landry, “Reactions at amorphous SiC/Ni interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2636–2641 (1999).
[Crossref]

Pershin, Y. P.

A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, E. Zubaryev, D. L. Voronov, O. Penkov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenskii, I. A. Artioukov, and J. F. Seely, “Structure, thermal stability, and reflectivity of Sc/Si and Sc/W/Si/W multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4505, 230–235 (2001).
[Crossref]

Pivovaroff, M. J.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Polack, F.

Ravet, M. F.

Roulliay, M.

Salashchenko, N.

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-C. Mertins, and N. Salashchenko, “Cr/sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 349–353 (2001).
[Crossref]

Salmassi, F.

Savale, B.

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Schäfers, F.

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500(1–2), 84–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-C. Mertins, and N. Salashchenko, “Cr/sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 349–353 (2001).
[Crossref]

H.-C. Mertins, F. Schäfers, H. Grimmer, D. Clemens, P. Böni, and M. Horisberger, “W/C, W/Ti, Ni/Ti, and Ni/V multilayers for the soft-x-ray range: experimental investigation with synchrotron radiation,” Appl. Opt. 37(10), 1873–1882 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schiepers, R. C. J.

R. C. J. Schiepers, F. J. J. Vanloo, and G. Dewith, “Reactions between alpha-silicon carbide ceramic and nickel or iron,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71(6), C284–C287 (1988).
[Crossref]

Schuster, M.

M. Schuster and H. Göbel, “Parallel-beam coupling into channel-cut monochromators using curved graded multilayers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(4A), A270–A275 (1995).
[Crossref]

Seely, J. F.

D. L. Windt, J. A. Bellotti, B. Kjornrattanawanich, and J. F. Seely, “Performance optimization of Si/Gd extreme ultraviolet multilayers,” Appl. Opt. 48(29), 5502–5508 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, E. Zubaryev, D. L. Voronov, O. Penkov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenskii, I. A. Artioukov, and J. F. Seely, “Structure, thermal stability, and reflectivity of Sc/Si and Sc/W/Si/W multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4505, 230–235 (2001).
[Crossref]

Soufli, R.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Spiller, E.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

Spiller, E. A.

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Takenaka, H.

H. Takenaka, H. Ito, T. Haga, and T. Kawamura, “Design and fabrication of highly heat-resistant Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors with interleaved barrier layers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5(3), 708–710 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tarrio, C.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

Tassin, V.

P. Troussel, B. Villette, B. Emprin, G. Oudot, V. Tassin, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, and M. Krumrey, “Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft x-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thomasset, M.

Troussel, P.

P. Troussel, B. Villette, B. Emprin, G. Oudot, V. Tassin, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, and M. Krumrey, “Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft x-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of x-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2-10 keV) high resolution x-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1–3), 242–246 (2010).
[Crossref]

Turner, R. E.

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ulm, G.

M. Krumrey and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration at the PTB four-crystal monochromator beamline,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 1175–1178 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ulyanenkov, A.

A. Ulyanenkov, “Leptos: a universal software for x-ray reflectivity and diffraction,” Adv. Comput. Math. 5536, 1–15 (2004).

Uspenskii, Y. A.

A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, E. Zubaryev, D. L. Voronov, O. Penkov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenskii, I. A. Artioukov, and J. F. Seely, “Structure, thermal stability, and reflectivity of Sc/Si and Sc/W/Si/W multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4505, 230–235 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vanloo, F. J. J.

J. H. Gülpen, A. A. Kodentsov, and F. J. J. Vanloo, “Growth of silicides in Ni-Si and Ni-SiC bulk diffusion couples,” Z. Metallk. 6(8), 530–539 (1995).

R. C. J. Schiepers, F. J. J. Vanloo, and G. Dewith, “Reactions between alpha-silicon carbide ceramic and nickel or iron,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71(6), C284–C287 (1988).
[Crossref]

Villette, B.

P. Troussel, B. Villette, B. Emprin, G. Oudot, V. Tassin, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, and M. Krumrey, “Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft x-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of x-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vinogradov, A. V.

A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, E. Zubaryev, D. L. Voronov, O. Penkov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenskii, I. A. Artioukov, and J. F. Seely, “Structure, thermal stability, and reflectivity of Sc/Si and Sc/W/Si/W multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4505, 230–235 (2001).
[Crossref]

Voronov, D. L.

A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, E. Zubaryev, D. L. Voronov, O. Penkov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenskii, I. A. Artioukov, and J. F. Seely, “Structure, thermal stability, and reflectivity of Sc/Si and Sc/W/Si/W multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4505, 230–235 (2001).
[Crossref]

Walton, C. C.

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

D. L. Windt, E. M. Gullikson, and C. C. Walton, “Normal-incidence reflectance of optimized W /B4 C x-ray multilayers in the range 1.4 nm < l < 2.4 nm,” Opt. Lett. 27(24), 2212–2214 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, J.

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z. S.

Z. S. Wang, X. B. Cheng, J. T. Zhu, Q. S. Huang, Z. Zhang, and L. Y. Chen, “Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for x-ray optics,” Thin Solid Films 519(20), 6712–6715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wilkins, S.

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Windt, D. L.

Wrobel, R.

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

Zajac, G. W.

H. Höchst, D. W. Niles, G. W. Zajac, T. H. Fleisch, B. C. Johnson, and J. M. Meese, “Electronic-structure and thermal-stability of Ni/SiC(100) interfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(4), 1320–1325 (1988).

Zhang, Z.

Z. S. Wang, X. B. Cheng, J. T. Zhu, Q. S. Huang, Z. Zhang, and L. Y. Chen, “Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for x-ray optics,” Thin Solid Films 519(20), 6712–6715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J. T.

Z. S. Wang, X. B. Cheng, J. T. Zhu, Q. S. Huang, Z. Zhang, and L. Y. Chen, “Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for x-ray optics,” Thin Solid Films 519(20), 6712–6715 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ziegler, E.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. L. Windt, S. Donguy, C. J. Hailey, J. Koglin, V. Honkimaki, E. Ziegler, F. E. Christensen, H. Chen, F. A. Harrison, and W. W. Craig, “W/SiC x-ray multilayers optimized for use above 100 keV,” Appl. Opt. 42(13), 2415–2421 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ziock, K. P.

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zubaryev, E.

A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, E. Zubaryev, D. L. Voronov, O. Penkov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenskii, I. A. Artioukov, and J. F. Seely, “Structure, thermal stability, and reflectivity of Sc/Si and Sc/W/Si/W multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4505, 230–235 (2001).
[Crossref]

Adv. Comput. Math. (1)

A. Ulyanenkov, “Leptos: a universal software for x-ray reflectivity and diffraction,” Adv. Comput. Math. 5536, 1–15 (2004).

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

M. Idir, P. Mercère, T. Moreno, A. Delmotte, P. Dasilva, M. H. Modi, R. Garrett, I. Gentle, K. Nugent, and S. Wilkins, “Metrology and tests beamline at soleil design and first results,” AIP Conf. Proc. 1234, 485–488 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (5)

Comput. Phys. (1)

D. L. Windt, “IMD - software for modeling the optical properties of multilayer films,” Comput. Phys. 12(4), 360–370 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Am. Ceram. Soc. (1)

R. C. J. Schiepers, F. J. J. Vanloo, and G. Dewith, “Reactions between alpha-silicon carbide ceramic and nickel or iron,” J. Am. Ceram. Soc. 71(6), C284–C287 (1988).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

A. S. Edelstein, D. J. Gillespie, S. F. Cheng, J. H. Perepezko, and K. Landry, “Reactions at amorphous SiC/Ni interfaces,” J. Appl. Phys. 85(5), 2636–2641 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Conf. Ser. (1)

D. Besnard, “Fusion with the Megajoule laser,” J. Phys. Conf. Ser. 112(1), 012004 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Schuster and H. Göbel, “Parallel-beam coupling into channel-cut monochromators using curved graded multilayers,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 28(4A), A270–A275 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. Synchrotron Radiat. (1)

H. Takenaka, H. Ito, T. Haga, and T. Kawamura, “Design and fabrication of highly heat-resistant Mo/Si multilayer soft x-ray mirrors with interleaved barrier layers,” J. Synchrotron Radiat. 5(3), 708–710 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

H. Höchst, D. W. Niles, G. W. Zajac, T. H. Fleisch, B. C. Johnson, and J. M. Meese, “Electronic-structure and thermal-stability of Ni/SiC(100) interfaces,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 6(4), 1320–1325 (1988).

Metall. Mater. Trans., A Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. (1)

M. R. Jackson, R. L. Mehan, A. M. Davis, and E. L. Hall, “Solid-state SiC/Ni alloy reaction,” Metall. Mater. Trans., A Phys. Metall. Mater. Sci. 14(2), 355–364 (1983).
[Crossref]

New J. Phys. (1)

C. Bourassin-Bouchet, S. de Rossi, J. Wang, E. Meltchakov, A. Giglia, N. Mahne, S. Nannarone, and F. Delmotte, “Shaping of single-cycle sub-50-attosecond pulses with multilayer mirrors,” New J. Phys. 14(2), 023040 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A (4)

F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, P. Troussel, and B. Villette, “Design and fabrication of x-ray non-periodic multilayer mirrors: apodization and shaping of their spectral response,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 680, 69–74 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Schäfers, M. Mertin, D. Abramsohn, A. Gaupp, H.-C. Mertins, and N. Salashchenko, “Cr/sc nanolayers for the water window: improved performance,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 349–353 (2001).
[Crossref]

H. Maury, F. Bridou, P. Troussel, E. Meltchakov, and F. Delmotte, “Design and fabrication of supermirrors for (2-10 keV) high resolution x-ray plasmas diagnostic imaging,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 621(1–3), 242–246 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Krumrey and G. Ulm, “High-accuracy detector calibration at the PTB four-crystal monochromator beamline,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 467–468, 1175–1178 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

S. Bajt, J. B. Alameda, T. W. Barbee, W. M. Clift, J. A. Folta, B. Kaufmann, and E. A. Spiller, “Improved reflectance and stability of Mo-Si multilayers,” Opt. Eng. 41(8), 1797–1804 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

M. Fernández-Perea, M.-A. Descalle, R. Soufli, K. P. Ziock, J. Alameda, S. L. Baker, T. J. McCarville, V. Honkimäki, E. Ziegler, A. C. Jakobsen, F. E. Christensen, and M. J. Pivovaroff, “Physics of reflective optics for the soft gamma-ray photon energy range,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 111(2), 027404 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (3)

S. Bajt, H. N. Chapman, E. Spiller, S. Hau-Riege, J. Alameda, A. J. Nelson, C. C. Walton, B. Kjornrattanawanich, A. Aquila, F. Dollar, E. Gullikson, C. Tarrio, and S. Grantham, “Multilayers for next-generation x-ray sources,” Proc. SPIE 6586, 65860J (2007).
[Crossref]

C. P. Jensen, K. K. Madsen, and F. E. Christensen, “Investigation of new material combinations for hard x-ray telescope designs,” Proc. SPIE 6266, 626612 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. V. Vinogradov, Y. P. Pershin, E. Zubaryev, D. L. Voronov, O. Penkov, V. V. Kondratenko, Y. A. Uspenskii, I. A. Artioukov, and J. F. Seely, “Structure, thermal stability, and reflectivity of Sc/Si and Sc/W/Si/W multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Proc. SPIE 4505, 230–235 (2001).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (2)

J. L. Bourgade, B. Villette, J. L. Bocher, J. Y. Boutin, S. Chiche, N. Dague, D. Gontier, J. P. Jadaud, B. Savale, R. Wrobel, and R. E. Turner, “DMX: an absolutely calibrated time resolved broadband soft x-ray spectrometer designed for MJ class laser produced plasmas,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 72(1), 1173–1182 (2001).
[Crossref]

P. Troussel, B. Villette, B. Emprin, G. Oudot, V. Tassin, F. Bridou, F. Delmotte, and M. Krumrey, “Absolute radiant power measurement for the Au M lines of laser-plasma using a calibrated broadband soft x-ray spectrometer with flat-spectral response,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(1), 013503 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Thin Solid Films (2)

Z. S. Wang, X. B. Cheng, J. T. Zhu, Q. S. Huang, Z. Zhang, and L. Y. Chen, “Investigation of aperiodic W/C multi-layer mirror for x-ray optics,” Thin Solid Films 519(20), 6712–6715 (2011).
[Crossref]

F. Eriksson, N. Ghafoor, F. Schäfers, E. M. Gullikson, and J. Birch, “Interface engineering of short-period Ni/V multilayer x-ray mirrors,” Thin Solid Films 500(1–2), 84–95 (2006).
[Crossref]

Z. Metallk. (1)

J. H. Gülpen, A. A. Kodentsov, and F. J. J. Vanloo, “Growth of silicides in Ni-Si and Ni-SiC bulk diffusion couples,” Z. Metallk. 6(8), 530–539 (1995).

Other (1)

TFCalc, “Thin film design software for windows,” Software Spectra Inc., 14025.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Periodic multilayer structures: (a) consisting of 15 Ni/SiC periods. (b) consisting of 15 NiXSiY/SiC periods with the silicide model. (c) consisting of 15 Ni/W/SiC/W periods and a top layer of SiC to protect the stack against oxidation .
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Reflectivity measurements (dots) of sample A: (a) at E = 8.048 keV at LCF; (b) at E = 5 keV and (c) at E = 3 keV on the Metrology and Tests beamline at SOLEIL. For the LCF and SOLEIL measurements, the fits (solid line) were obtained by the Leptos software. All fitted values are presented in Table 1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reflectivity measurements (dots) of sample H: (a) at E = 8.048 keV at LCF and (b) at E = 5 keV on the Metrology and Tests beamline at SOLEIL. For the LCF measurements, the fits (solid line) were obtained by the Leptos software. Their fitted values are presented in Table 3. For the SOLEIL measurements, the fitted parameters given in Table 3 were used to simulate the 5 keV reflectivity spectrum (solid line).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Reflectivity measurements of the first Bragg peak for samples B (star dots with red line) and H (square dots with blue line). They were obtained at 5 keV on the Metrology and Tests beamline at SOLEIL.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Reflectivity measurements obtained with the first Ni/SiC (Ni5Si2/SiC) aperiodic stack (N = 80 layers): Shown are the targeted (solid line), calculated (dash line) reflectivity profiles, and the measured reflectivity profile obtained at PTB (dots), under 1.3° grazing incidence angle between 2.5 keV and 8.0 keV including the nominal bandwidth (4 – 6 keV).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Reflectivity measurements obtained with the Ni/W/SiC/W aperiodic multilayer (N = 83 layers): (a) GIXR measurements at E = 8.048 keV (dots) are compared with the expected reflectivity design (solid line) ; (b) SOLEIL measurements under 1.3° grazing incidence angle (dots), calculated (dash line) and targeted (solid line) reflectivity profiles.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitted values of the Ni/SiC periodic multilayer mirrors. They were obtained by the Leptos software after measurements on the Metrology and Tests beamline at the SOLEIL synchrotron at 3 and 5 keV and at LCF at 8.048 keV. The curves of sample A using the fitted values presented here are shown in Fig. 2. The uncertainties of the fit results are ± 0.05 nm for Ni and SiC. The uncertainties of the fitted densities are ± 0.1 g/cm3.

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fitted values of density for samples A, B and C with the Ni5Si2/SiC model. They were obtained by the Leptos software. The uncertainties of the fit results are ± 0.1 g/cm3.

Tables Icon

Table 3 Fitted values of the Ni/W/SiC/W periodic multilayer mirrors. They were obtained by the Leptos software after measurements at LCF at 8.048 keV. The W barrier layers are fixed at 0.60 nm. The sample H was also measured on the Metrology and Tests beamline at SOLEIL at 5 keV. The curves of sample H using the fitted values presented here are shown in Fig. 3. The uncertainties of the thickness fit results are ± 0.05 nm for Ni and SiC.

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