Abstract

We report an athermal InP (110) optical modulator with a simple planar n-SI-n heterostructure. A symmetrical push-pull operation provides a high-extinction ratio of >25 dB over the entire C-band and zero-chirp modulation. A Mach-Zehnder optical modulator (MZM) exhibits a 3 dB-EO bandwidth of 30 GHz and 40-Gb/s NRZ high-speed modulation with wavelength and temperature insensitive operation. We also successfully demonstrate an MZM integrated twin-IQ modulator that exhibits 56-Gb/s × 2 athermal QPSK modulation at constant drive and bias voltages.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “ 240-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 64-QAM modulation and blind detection using PLC-LN hybrid integrated modulator and digital coherent receiver,” European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2009, PDP PD2.4 (2009)
  2. P. Evans, M. Fisher, R. Malendevich, A. James, P. Studenkov, G. Goldfarb, T. Vallaitis, M. Kato, P. Samra, S. Corzine, E. Strzelecka, R. Salvatore, F. Sedgwick, M. Kuntz, V. Lal, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, D. Pavinski, J. Zhang, B. Behnia, J. Bostak, V. Dominic, A. Nilsson, B. Taylor, J. Rahn, S. Sanders, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, M. Missey, R. Schneider, J. Stewart, M. Reffle, T. Butrie, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Multi-channel coherent PM-QPSK InP transmitter photonic integrated circuit (PIC) operating at 112 Gb/s per wavelength,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2011, PDPC7 (2011)
    [Crossref]
  3. N. Kono, T. Kitamura, H. Yagi, N. Itabashi, T. Tatsumi, Y. Yamauchi, K. Fujii, K. Horino, S. Yamanaka, K. Tanaka, K. Yamaji, C. Fukuda, and H. Shoji, “Compact and Low Power DP-QPSK Modulator Module with InP-Based Modulator and Driver ICs,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2013, OW1G.2 (2013)
    [Crossref]
  4. K.-O. Velthaus, M. Hamacher, M. Gruner, T. Brast, R. Kaiser, K. Prosyk, I. Woods, D. Hoffmann, and M. Schell, “High performance InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulators for 10 to 100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission systems,” International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), TH-9.2.1 (2011)
  5. S. Nojima, “Anisotropy of optical transition in (110)-oriented quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47(20), 13535–13539 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. Oe, K. Wakita, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Enhanced exciton absorption in quantum-confined Stark effect of (110)-oriented InGaAsP quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 28(15), 1390–1391 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, D. M. Hwang, M. J. S. P. Brasil, R. E. Nahory, and K. Oe, “OMCVD growth of InP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP on (110) InP substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 124(1–4), 311–317 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Ogiso, M. Arai, E. Yamada, H. Tanobe, Y. Shibata, and M. Kohtoku, “Novel planar structure single-RF drive MZ optical modulator on InP(110) substrate,” International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), MoD3–2 (2013)
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Ogiso, M. Arai, T. Sato, Y. Shibata, and M. Kohtoku, “Static properties of planar Mach-Zehnder optical modulator on (110) InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 49(14), 898–900 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  10. N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, K. Tsuzuki, T. Yasui, M. Ishikawa, H. Ishii, M. Arai, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and F. Kano, “Full C-band 40-Gbit/s DPSK modulation using Lossless InP n-p-i-n Mach-Zehnder Monolithically Integrated with SOA,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2009, OWQ.3 (2009)
    [Crossref]
  11. F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).

2013 (1)

Y. Ogiso, M. Arai, T. Sato, Y. Shibata, and M. Kohtoku, “Static properties of planar Mach-Zehnder optical modulator on (110) InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 49(14), 898–900 (2013).
[Crossref]

1993 (2)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).

S. Nojima, “Anisotropy of optical transition in (110)-oriented quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47(20), 13535–13539 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (2)

K. Oe, K. Wakita, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Enhanced exciton absorption in quantum-confined Stark effect of (110)-oriented InGaAsP quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 28(15), 1390–1391 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, D. M. Hwang, M. J. S. P. Brasil, R. E. Nahory, and K. Oe, “OMCVD growth of InP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP on (110) InP substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 124(1–4), 311–317 (1992).
[Crossref]

Arai, M.

Y. Ogiso, M. Arai, T. Sato, Y. Shibata, and M. Kohtoku, “Static properties of planar Mach-Zehnder optical modulator on (110) InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 49(14), 898–900 (2013).
[Crossref]

Bhat, R.

R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, D. M. Hwang, M. J. S. P. Brasil, R. E. Nahory, and K. Oe, “OMCVD growth of InP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP on (110) InP substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 124(1–4), 311–317 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. Oe, K. Wakita, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Enhanced exciton absorption in quantum-confined Stark effect of (110)-oriented InGaAsP quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 28(15), 1390–1391 (1992).
[Crossref]

Brasil, M. J. S. P.

R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, D. M. Hwang, M. J. S. P. Brasil, R. E. Nahory, and K. Oe, “OMCVD growth of InP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP on (110) InP substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 124(1–4), 311–317 (1992).
[Crossref]

Devaux, F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).

Hwang, D. M.

R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, D. M. Hwang, M. J. S. P. Brasil, R. E. Nahory, and K. Oe, “OMCVD growth of InP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP on (110) InP substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 124(1–4), 311–317 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kerdiles, J. F.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).

Kohtoku, M.

Y. Ogiso, M. Arai, T. Sato, Y. Shibata, and M. Kohtoku, “Static properties of planar Mach-Zehnder optical modulator on (110) InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 49(14), 898–900 (2013).
[Crossref]

Koza, M. A.

R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, D. M. Hwang, M. J. S. P. Brasil, R. E. Nahory, and K. Oe, “OMCVD growth of InP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP on (110) InP substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 124(1–4), 311–317 (1992).
[Crossref]

K. Oe, K. Wakita, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Enhanced exciton absorption in quantum-confined Stark effect of (110)-oriented InGaAsP quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 28(15), 1390–1391 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nahory, R. E.

R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, D. M. Hwang, M. J. S. P. Brasil, R. E. Nahory, and K. Oe, “OMCVD growth of InP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP on (110) InP substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 124(1–4), 311–317 (1992).
[Crossref]

Nojima, S.

S. Nojima, “Anisotropy of optical transition in (110)-oriented quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47(20), 13535–13539 (1993).
[Crossref]

Oe, K.

K. Oe, K. Wakita, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Enhanced exciton absorption in quantum-confined Stark effect of (110)-oriented InGaAsP quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 28(15), 1390–1391 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, D. M. Hwang, M. J. S. P. Brasil, R. E. Nahory, and K. Oe, “OMCVD growth of InP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP on (110) InP substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 124(1–4), 311–317 (1992).
[Crossref]

Ogiso, Y.

Y. Ogiso, M. Arai, T. Sato, Y. Shibata, and M. Kohtoku, “Static properties of planar Mach-Zehnder optical modulator on (110) InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 49(14), 898–900 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sato, T.

Y. Ogiso, M. Arai, T. Sato, Y. Shibata, and M. Kohtoku, “Static properties of planar Mach-Zehnder optical modulator on (110) InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 49(14), 898–900 (2013).
[Crossref]

Shibata, Y.

Y. Ogiso, M. Arai, T. Sato, Y. Shibata, and M. Kohtoku, “Static properties of planar Mach-Zehnder optical modulator on (110) InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 49(14), 898–900 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sorel, Y.

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).

Wakita, K.

K. Oe, K. Wakita, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Enhanced exciton absorption in quantum-confined Stark effect of (110)-oriented InGaAsP quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 28(15), 1390–1391 (1992).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (2)

K. Oe, K. Wakita, R. Bhat, and M. A. Koza, “Enhanced exciton absorption in quantum-confined Stark effect of (110)-oriented InGaAsP quantum wells,” Electron. Lett. 28(15), 1390–1391 (1992).
[Crossref]

Y. Ogiso, M. Arai, T. Sato, Y. Shibata, and M. Kohtoku, “Static properties of planar Mach-Zehnder optical modulator on (110) InP substrate,” Electron. Lett. 49(14), 898–900 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

F. Devaux, Y. Sorel, and J. F. Kerdiles, “Simple Measurement of fiber Dispersion and of Chirp Parameter of Intensity Modulated Light Emitter,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 11(12), 1937–1940 (1993).

J. Cryst. Growth (1)

R. Bhat, M. A. Koza, D. M. Hwang, M. J. S. P. Brasil, R. E. Nahory, and K. Oe, “OMCVD growth of InP, InGaAs, and InGaAsP on (110) InP substrates,” J. Cryst. Growth 124(1–4), 311–317 (1992).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

S. Nojima, “Anisotropy of optical transition in (110)-oriented quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 47(20), 13535–13539 (1993).
[Crossref]

Other (6)

Y. Ogiso, M. Arai, E. Yamada, H. Tanobe, Y. Shibata, and M. Kohtoku, “Novel planar structure single-RF drive MZ optical modulator on InP(110) substrate,” International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), MoD3–2 (2013)
[Crossref]

N. Kikuchi, Y. Shibata, K. Tsuzuki, T. Yasui, M. Ishikawa, H. Ishii, M. Arai, T. Sato, Y. Kawaguchi, and F. Kano, “Full C-band 40-Gbit/s DPSK modulation using Lossless InP n-p-i-n Mach-Zehnder Monolithically Integrated with SOA,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2009, OWQ.3 (2009)
[Crossref]

A. Sano, T. Kobayashi, K. Ishihara, H. Masuda, S. Yamamoto, K. Mori, E. Yamazaki, E. Yoshida, Y. Miyamoto, T. Yamada, and H. Yamazaki, “ 240-Gb/s polarization-multiplexed 64-QAM modulation and blind detection using PLC-LN hybrid integrated modulator and digital coherent receiver,” European Conference on Optical Communication (ECOC) 2009, PDP PD2.4 (2009)

P. Evans, M. Fisher, R. Malendevich, A. James, P. Studenkov, G. Goldfarb, T. Vallaitis, M. Kato, P. Samra, S. Corzine, E. Strzelecka, R. Salvatore, F. Sedgwick, M. Kuntz, V. Lal, D. Lambert, A. Dentai, D. Pavinski, J. Zhang, B. Behnia, J. Bostak, V. Dominic, A. Nilsson, B. Taylor, J. Rahn, S. Sanders, H. Sun, K.-T. Wu, J. Pleumeekers, R. Muthiah, M. Missey, R. Schneider, J. Stewart, M. Reffle, T. Butrie, R. Nagarajan, C. Joyner, M. Ziari, F. Kish, and D. Welch, “Multi-channel coherent PM-QPSK InP transmitter photonic integrated circuit (PIC) operating at 112 Gb/s per wavelength,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2011, PDPC7 (2011)
[Crossref]

N. Kono, T. Kitamura, H. Yagi, N. Itabashi, T. Tatsumi, Y. Yamauchi, K. Fujii, K. Horino, S. Yamanaka, K. Tanaka, K. Yamaji, C. Fukuda, and H. Shoji, “Compact and Low Power DP-QPSK Modulator Module with InP-Based Modulator and Driver ICs,” Optical Fiber Communication Conference (OFC) 2013, OW1G.2 (2013)
[Crossref]

K.-O. Velthaus, M. Hamacher, M. Gruner, T. Brast, R. Kaiser, K. Prosyk, I. Woods, D. Hoffmann, and M. Schell, “High performance InP-based Mach-Zehnder modulators for 10 to 100 Gb/s optical fiber transmission systems,” International Conference on Indium Phosphide and Related Materials (IPRM), TH-9.2.1 (2011)

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram of InP(110) MZM structure.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Cross-sectional SEM image and (b) microscope image of MZM.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) ER characteristics of MZM and (b) Vπ deviation at wavelengths of 1500 to 1580 nm, and temperatures of 20 to 80°C.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) RF (E/E) response and small signal optical (E/O) response, (b) TDR characteristics of MZM.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured RF (E/E) response and small signal optical (E/O) response of MZM.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Microscope image and (b) E/O (S21) responses of twin-IQM.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental setup for each QPSK modulation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 (a) Constellation diagrams generated by lower and upper IQM and (b) OSNR characteristics at temperatures of 20 to 80 °C at constant drive and bias voltages.

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