Abstract

The investigation of fundamental mechanisms taking place on a femtosecond time scale is enabled by ultrafast pulsed laser sources. Here, the control of pulse duration, center wavelength, and especially the carrier-envelope phase has been shown to be of essential importance for coherent control of high harmonic generation and attosecond physics and, more recently, also for electron photoemission from metallic nanostructures. In this paper we demonstrate the realization of a source of 2-cycle laser pulses tunable between 1.2 and 2.1 μm, and with intrinsic CEP stability. The latter is guaranteed by difference frequency generation between the output pulse trains of two noncollinear optical parametric amplifier stages that share the same CEP variations. The CEP stability is better than 50 mrad over 20 minutes, when averaging over 100 pulses. We demonstrate the good CEP stability by measuring kinetic energy spectra of photoemitted electrons from a single metal nanostructure and by observing a clear variation of the electron yield with the CEP.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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2014 (3)

B. Piglosiewicz, S. Schmidt, D. J. Park, J. Vogelsang, P. Gross, C. Manzoni, P. Farinello, G. Cerullo, and C. Lienau, “Carrier-envelope phase effects on the strong-field photoemission of electrons from metallic nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 8, 38–43 (2014).

B. Borchers, A. Anderson, and G. Steinmeyer, “On the role of shot noise in carrier- envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 303–315 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Piglosiewicz, J. Vogelsang, S. Schmidt, D. J. Park, P. Gross, and C. Lienau, “Electron Photoemission and Acceleration from Sharp Gold Nanotapers in the Strong-Field, Few-Cycle Regime,” Quantum Matter 3(4), 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (3)

2012 (2)

C. Homann, M. Bradler, M. Förster, P. Hommelhoff, and E. Riedle, “Carrier-envelope phase stable sub-two-cycle pulses tunable around 1.8 µm at 100 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1673–1675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, B. Piglosiewicz, S. Schmidt, H. Kollmann, M. Mascheck, and C. Lienau, “Strong field acceleration and steering of ultrafast electron pulses from a sharp metallic nanotip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 244803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (4)

N. Ishii, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-Envelope-Phase-Preserving, Octave-Spanning Optical Parametric Amplification in the Infrared Based on BiB3O6 Pumped by 800nm Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 022701 (2011).
[Crossref]

M. Krüger, M. Schenk, and P. Hommelhoff, “Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip,” Nature 475(7354), 78–81 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[Crossref]

G. Krauss, D. Fehrenbacher, D. Brida, C. Riek, A. Sell, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “All-passive phase locking of a compact Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 540–542 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (2)

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, E. Schulz, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle oscillator pulse train with constant carrier-envelope- phase and 65 as jitter,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20282–20290 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schaetzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

P. Hommelhoff, C. Kealhofer, and M. A. Kasevich, “Ultrafast Electron Pulses from a Tungsten Tip Triggered by Low-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(24), 247402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
[Crossref]

C. Vozzi, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, “High-energy, few-optical-cycle pulses at 1.5 µm with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10109–10116 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

2004 (3)

2003 (4)

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(8), R43–R59 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1990 (1)

A. Mokhtari, P. Cong, J. L. Herek, and A. H. Zewail, “Direct femtosecond mapping of trajectories in a chemical reaction,” Nature 348(6298), 225–227 (1990).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Emisson in region 400 to 7000 A via 4-photon oupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(11), 584–587 (1970).
[Crossref]

Alfano, R. R.

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Emisson in region 400 to 7000 A via 4-photon oupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(11), 584–587 (1970).
[Crossref]

Amat-Roldán, I.

Anderson, A.

Anscombe, M.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
[Crossref]

Apolonski, A.

Artigas, D.

Azzeer, A. M.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuska, A.

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baltuška, A.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baum, P.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benedetti, E.

Biegert, J.

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
[Crossref]

Binhammer, T.

Birge, J. R.

Birkner, S.

Bonora, S.

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Borchers, B.

B. Borchers, A. Anderson, and G. Steinmeyer, “On the role of shot noise in carrier- envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 303–315 (2014).
[Crossref]

Bradler, M.

M. Bradler, C. Homann, and E. Riedle, “Broadband difference frequency mixing between visible and near-infrared pulses for few-cycle pulse generation with stable carrier-envelope phase,” Appl. Phys. B 113(1), 19–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Homann, M. Bradler, M. Förster, P. Hommelhoff, and E. Riedle, “Carrier-envelope phase stable sub-two-cycle pulses tunable around 1.8 µm at 100 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1673–1675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brida, D.

G. Krauss, D. Fehrenbacher, D. Brida, C. Riek, A. Sell, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “All-passive phase locking of a compact Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 540–542 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Calegari, F.

Cavalieri, A. L.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schaetzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

B. Piglosiewicz, S. Schmidt, D. J. Park, J. Vogelsang, P. Gross, C. Manzoni, P. Farinello, G. Cerullo, and C. Lienau, “Carrier-envelope phase effects on the strong-field photoemission of electrons from metallic nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 8, 38–43 (2014).

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Vozzi, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, “High-energy, few-optical-cycle pulses at 1.5 µm with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10109–10116 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrabroadband self-phase-stabilized pulses by difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2668–2670 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, “Sub-8-fs pulses from an ultrabroadband optical parametric amplifier in the visible,” Opt. Lett. 23(16), 1283–1285 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, X.

Chipperfield, L. E.

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cirmi, G.

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[Crossref]

C. Vozzi, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, “High-energy, few-optical-cycle pulses at 1.5 µm with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10109–10116 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Comte, M.

Cong, P.

A. Mokhtari, P. Cong, J. L. Herek, and A. H. Zewail, “Direct femtosecond mapping of trajectories in a chemical reaction,” Nature 348(6298), 225–227 (1990).
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C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tondello, G.

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Torizuka, K.

Udem, T.

Villeneuve, D. M.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Villoresi, P.

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vogelsang, J.

B. Piglosiewicz, J. Vogelsang, S. Schmidt, D. J. Park, P. Gross, and C. Lienau, “Electron Photoemission and Acceleration from Sharp Gold Nanotapers in the Strong-Field, Few-Cycle Regime,” Quantum Matter 3(4), 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

B. Piglosiewicz, S. Schmidt, D. J. Park, J. Vogelsang, P. Gross, C. Manzoni, P. Farinello, G. Cerullo, and C. Lienau, “Carrier-envelope phase effects on the strong-field photoemission of electrons from metallic nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 8, 38–43 (2014).

Vozzi, C.

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[Crossref]

C. Vozzi, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, “High-energy, few-optical-cycle pulses at 1.5 µm with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10109–10116 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vrakking, M. J. J.

Watanabe, S.

N. Ishii, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-Envelope-Phase-Preserving, Octave-Spanning Optical Parametric Amplification in the Infrared Based on BiB3O6 Pumped by 800nm Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 022701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wilhelm, T.

Winter, A.

Wirth, A.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wittmann, T.

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schaetzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeidler, D.

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zewail, A. H.

A. Mokhtari, P. Cong, J. L. Herek, and A. H. Zewail, “Direct femtosecond mapping of trajectories in a chemical reaction,” Nature 348(6298), 225–227 (1990).
[Crossref]

Zherebtsov, S.

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (2)

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-μJ pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. Bradler, C. Homann, and E. Riedle, “Broadband difference frequency mixing between visible and near-infrared pulses for few-cycle pulse generation with stable carrier-envelope phase,” Appl. Phys. B 113(1), 19–25 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

N. Ishii, K. Kitano, T. Kanai, S. Watanabe, and J. Itatani, “Carrier-Envelope-Phase-Preserving, Octave-Spanning Optical Parametric Amplification in the Infrared Based on BiB3O6 Pumped by 800nm Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(2), 022701 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. (1)

D. Brida, C. Manzoni, G. Cirmi, M. Marangoni, S. Bonora, P. Villoresi, S. De Silvestri, and G. Cerullo, “Few-optical-cycle pulses tunable from the visible to the mid-infrared by optical parametric amplifiers,” J. Opt. 12(1), 013001 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. (1)

A. Guandalini, P. Eckle, M. Anscombe, P. Schlup, J. Biegert, and U. Keller, “5.1 fs pulses generated by filamentation and carrier envelope phase stability analysis,” J. Phys. At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 39(13), S257–S264 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. (1)

S. T. Cundiff, “Phase stabilization of ultrashort optical pulses,” J. Phys. D Appl. Phys. 35(8), R43–R59 (2002).
[Crossref]

Laser Photonics Rev. (2)

G. Cerullo, A. Baltuška, O. D. Mücke, and C. Vozzi, “Few-optical-cycle light pulses with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 5(3), 323–351 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Borchers, A. Anderson, and G. Steinmeyer, “On the role of shot noise in carrier- envelope phase stabilization,” Laser Photonics Rev. 8(2), 303–315 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

B. Piglosiewicz, S. Schmidt, D. J. Park, J. Vogelsang, P. Gross, C. Manzoni, P. Farinello, G. Cerullo, and C. Lienau, “Carrier-envelope phase effects on the strong-field photoemission of electrons from metallic nanostructures,” Nat. Photonics 8, 38–43 (2014).

Nat. Phys. (2)

T. Wittmann, B. Horvath, W. Helml, M. G. Schaetzel, X. Gu, A. L. Cavalieri, G. G. Paulus, and R. Kienberger, “Single-shot carrier-envelope phase measurement of few-cycle laser pulses,” Nat. Phys. 5(5), 357–362 (2009).
[Crossref]

C. A. Haworth, L. E. Chipperfield, J. S. Robinson, P. L. Knight, J. P. Marangos, and J. W. G. Tisch, “Half-cycle cutoffs in harmonic spectra and robust carrier-envelope phase retrieval,” Nat. Phys. 3(1), 52–57 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (5)

J. Itatani, J. Levesque, D. Zeidler, H. Niikura, H. Pépin, J. C. Kieffer, P. B. Corkum, and D. M. Villeneuve, “Tomographic imaging of molecular orbitals,” Nature 432(7019), 867–871 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, “Photonic crystal fibres,” Nature 424(6950), 847–851 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Goulielmakis, Z.-H. Loh, A. Wirth, R. Santra, N. Rohringer, V. S. Yakovlev, S. Zherebtsov, T. Pfeifer, A. M. Azzeer, M. F. Kling, S. R. Leone, and F. Krausz, “Real-time observation of valence electron motion,” Nature 466(7307), 739–743 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Mokhtari, P. Cong, J. L. Herek, and A. H. Zewail, “Direct femtosecond mapping of trajectories in a chemical reaction,” Nature 348(6298), 225–227 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Krüger, M. Schenk, and P. Hommelhoff, “Attosecond control of electrons emitted from a nanoscale metal tip,” Nature 475(7354), 78–81 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (6)

I. Amat-Roldán, I. Cormack, P. Loza-Alvarez, E. Gualda, and D. Artigas, “Ultrashort pulse characterisation with SHG collinear-FROG,” Opt. Express 12(6), 1169–1178 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. D. Mücke, R. Ell, A. Winter, J. W. Kim, J. R. Birge, L. Matos, and F. X. Kärtner, “Self-referenced 200 MHz octave-spanning Ti: sapphire laser with 50 attosecond carrier-envelope phase jitter,” Opt. Express 13(13), 5163–5169 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Vozzi, G. Cirmi, C. Manzoni, E. Benedetti, F. Calegari, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, O. Svelto, S. De Silvestri, M. Nisoli, and G. Cerullo, “High-energy, few-optical-cycle pulses at 1.5 µm with passive carrier-envelope phase stabilization,” Opt. Express 14(21), 10109–10116 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Rausch, T. Binhammer, A. Harth, E. Schulz, M. Siegel, and U. Morgner, “Few-cycle oscillator pulse train with constant carrier-envelope- phase and 65 as jitter,” Opt. Express 17(22), 20282–20290 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Furch, S. Birkner, F. Kelkensberg, A. Giree, A. Anderson, C. P. Schulz, and M. J. J. Vrakking, “Carrier-envelope phase stable few-cycle pulses at 400 kHz for electron-ion coincidence experiments,” Opt. Express 21(19), 22671–22682 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Feng, J. F. Hergott, P. M. Paul, X. Chen, O. Tcherbakoff, M. Comte, O. Gobert, M. Reduzzi, F. Calegari, C. Manzoni, M. Nisoli, and G. Sansone, “Complete analog control of the carrier-envelope-phase of a high-power laser amplifier,” Opt. Express 21(21), 25248–25256 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Lett. (7)

G. Krauss, D. Fehrenbacher, D. Brida, C. Riek, A. Sell, R. Huber, and A. Leitenstorfer, “All-passive phase locking of a compact Er:fiber laser system,” Opt. Lett. 36(4), 540–542 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Homann, M. Bradler, M. Förster, P. Hommelhoff, and E. Riedle, “Carrier-envelope phase stable sub-two-cycle pulses tunable around 1.8 µm at 100 kHz,” Opt. Lett. 37(10), 1673–1675 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Manzoni, G. Cerullo, and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrabroadband self-phase-stabilized pulses by difference-frequency generation,” Opt. Lett. 29(22), 2668–2670 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Fuji, J. Rauschenberger, A. Apolonski, V. S. Yakovlev, G. Tempea, T. Udem, C. Gohle, T. W. Hänsch, W. Lehnert, M. Scherer, and F. Krausz, “Monolithic carrier-envelope phase-stabilization scheme,” Opt. Lett. 30(3), 332–334 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Wilhelm, J. Piel, and E. Riedle, “Sub-20-fs pulses tunable across the visible from a blue-pumped single-pass noncollinear parametric converter,” Opt. Lett. 22(19), 1494–1496 (1997).
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G. Cerullo, M. Nisoli, S. Stagira, and S. De Silvestri, “Sub-8-fs pulses from an ultrabroadband optical parametric amplifier in the visible,” Opt. Lett. 23(16), 1283–1285 (1998).
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M. Kakehata, H. Takada, Y. Kobayashi, K. Torizuka, Y. Fujihira, T. Homma, and H. Takahashi, “Single-shot measurement of carrier-envelope phase changes by spectral interferometry,” Opt. Lett. 26(18), 1436–1438 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

R. R. Alfano and S. L. Shapiro, “Emisson in region 400 to 7000 A via 4-photon oupling in glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 24(11), 584–587 (1970).
[Crossref]

M. Nisoli, G. Sansone, S. Stagira, S. De Silvestri, C. Vozzi, M. Pascolini, L. Poletto, P. Villoresi, and G. Tondello, “Effects of carrier-envelope phase differences of few-optical-cycle light pulses in single-shot high-order-harmonic spectra,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213905 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Baltuska, T. Fuji, and T. Kobayashi, “Controlling the carrier-envelope phase of ultrashort light pulses with optical parametric amplifiers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(13), 133901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Hommelhoff, C. Kealhofer, and M. A. Kasevich, “Ultrafast Electron Pulses from a Tungsten Tip Triggered by Low-Power Femtosecond Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 97(24), 247402 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Park, B. Piglosiewicz, S. Schmidt, H. Kollmann, M. Mascheck, and C. Lienau, “Strong field acceleration and steering of ultrafast electron pulses from a sharp metallic nanotip,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 109(24), 244803 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quantum Matter (1)

B. Piglosiewicz, J. Vogelsang, S. Schmidt, D. J. Park, P. Gross, and C. Lienau, “Electron Photoemission and Acceleration from Sharp Gold Nanotapers in the Strong-Field, Few-Cycle Regime,” Quantum Matter 3(4), 10 (2014).
[Crossref]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

F. Krausz and M. Ivanov, “Attosecond physics,” Rev. Mod. Phys. 81(1), 163–234 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

P. Russell, “Photonic crystal fibers,” Science 299(5605), 358–362 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Experimental setup. The system is based on pulse generation in two NOPA stages (NOPA#1, NOPA#2), which are seeded by the same white light generation (WLG) source, and subsequent difference frequency generation (DFG) of the two pulse trains. For details, see text.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Wavelength tuning of the NOPA-DFG system. (a) Output spectra of the NOPA stages. The spectra at λ < 800 nm are generated by NOPA#1; the wavelength tuning was achieved by changing the time delay between WL and pump pulse. The spectrum at λ = 890 nm is the output of NOPA#2. (b) DFG spectra, corresponding to the three center NOPA#1 spectra shown in (a). The detected wavelength range is limited at long wavelengths by the spectral response of the spectrometer.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Interferometric autocorrelation trace distilled from an IFRAC measurement of the pulses (red curve), recorded at a center wavelength of 1.6 μm and indicating a pulse duration of 10.6 fs or 2 optical cycles. The grey curve is a simulated autocorrelation trace, calculated from the retrieved electric field strength. (b) The retrieved spectrum (red curve) indicates a Fourier-limited pulse duration of 10.4 fs, and the retrieved phase (blue curve) shows a small residual chirp.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Electron counts as a function of the position of the laser focus on a gold tip, with the electron count depending on the laser intensity to the fifth order. The electron counts form a slightly elliptical spot with a diameter of about 0.8 μm in vertical and 0.94 μm in horizontal direction.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Initial time traces of the CEP (black curve) and of the pump pulse duration (grey curve) reveals a high grade of correlation of 0.75. (b) Measurement of the same parameters after amplifier modification show a very low grade of correlation of 0.16. (c) Fourier transforms of the CEP time traces before (blue curve) and after (green curve) amplifier modification show that slow variations in the range of 0.1 to ~3 Hz have been drastically reduced.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) Interference fringes measured in the f-to-2f interferometer over a time span of 18 min when averaging over 100 pulses, showing (b) very low residual CEP fluctuations of only 49.6 mrad. (c) By inserting dispersive material, the CEP can be tuned linearly over 10π. (d) shows the power stability of the generated DFG radiation measured over 30 min, with a residual instability of about 1%.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Shot-to-shot CEP stability. (a) Interference fringes of single laser pulses measured in the f-to-2f interferometer over a time span of 20 minutes. (b) A zoom of a time span of 1 s makes the individual spectra visible, each recorded for a single laser pulse. (c) The Fourier transform of the CEP extracted from each spectrum shows the full CEP noise spectrum.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Residual CEP instability extracted as a function of exposure time interval. The two utmost right data points represent shot-to-shot CEP instabilities.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Fringe visibility as a function of shot-to-shot CEP RMS noise when averaging over 10, 100, and 1000 pulses as the green, red, and blue curve, respectively. The solid curves are simulated data, and the square symbol is from a measured interference pattern, averaged over 100 pulses.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Kinetic energy spectra of electrons photoemitted from a sharp gold tip. The individual curves correspond to consecutive spectra that were recorded after the CEP was increased by p. The spectra can clearly be grouped into two sets (indicated by red and blue), which are offset with respect to each other by a difference in CEP of Δ φ C E P = π .

Equations (2)

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ϕ s g ( τ ) = s ( t ) g * ( t + τ ) d t
φ s g ( τ ) = ϕ s g ( τ ) ϕ s s ( 0 ) ϕ g g ( 0 )

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