Abstract

In this work we present a study of nonlinear optical properties in organic materials (hibiscus sabdariffa). Our results demonstrate that the medium exhibits a highly nonlocal nonlinear response. We show preliminary numerical results of the transmittance as nonlocal response by considering, simultaneously, the nonlinear absorption and refraction in media. Numerical results are accord to measurement obtained by Z- scan technique where we observe large phase shifts. We also analyze the far field diffraction ring patterns of the sample.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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  1. L. Sarkhosh, H. Aleali, R. Karimzadeh, and N. Mansour, “Large thermally induced nonlinear refraction of gold nanoparticles stabilized by cyclohexanone,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2303–2310 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. Zamiri, R. Parvizi, A. R. Sadrolhosseini, G. Zamiri, M. Darroudi, and M. S. Husin, “Investigation on nonlinear-optical properties of palm oil/silver nanoparticles,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12020 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. Trejo Durán, J. A. Andrade Lucio, A. Martínez Richa, R. Vera Graziano, and V. M. Castaño, “Self-diffracting effects in hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091112 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  4. X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, Y. S. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced nonlinear optical properties of graphene-oligothiophene hybrid material,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23959–23964 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. S. Pramodini, P. Poornesh, and K. K. Nagaraja, “Thermally induced nonlinear optical response and optical power limiting of acid blue 40 dye,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(7), 1175–1182 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Y. Fuh, H. C. Lin, T. S. Mo, and C. H. Chen, “Nonlinear optical property of azo-dye doped liquid crystals determined by biphotonic z-scan technique,” Opt. Express 13(26), 10634–10641 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. R. K. Choubey, S. Medhekar, R. Kumar, S. Mukherjee, and S. Kumar, “Study of nonlinear optical properties of organic dye by z-scan technique using He-Ne laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(3), 1410–1415 (2014).
    [Crossref]
  8. M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  10. E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” in, Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Materials, M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, ed. (CRC Press, 1998).
  11. R. Karimzadeh, H. Aleali, and N. Mansour, “Thermal nonlinear refraction properties of Ag2S semiconductor nanocrystals with its application as a low power optical limiter,” Opt. Commun. 284(9), 2370–2375 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. F. L. S. A. Cuppo, A. M. F. Neto, S. L. Gómez, and P. Palffy Muhoray, “Thermal-lens model compared with the Sheik-Bahae formalism in interpreting z-scan experiments on Iyotropic liquid crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 19(6), 1342–1348 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  13. F. Z. Henari, S. Cassidy, K. E. Jasim, and A. A. Dakgel, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements of curcumin with cw laser,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 22(2), 1350017 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  14. F. Z. Henari and A. Al-Saie, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle- Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions,” Laser Phys. 16(12), 1664–1667 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. E. V. Ramirez, M. L. Carrasco, M. M. Otero, S. C. Cerda, and M. D. Castillo, “Far field intensity distributions due to spatial self phase modulation of a Gaussian beam by a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22067–22079 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  16. E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a Gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. M. R. Rashidian Vaziri, “Z-scan theory for nonlocal nonlinear media with simultaneous nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4843–4848 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. P. U. Rao, “Nutrient composition and biological evaluation of mesta (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) seeds,” Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 49(1), 27–34 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, P. M. Hayward-Jones, Z. Orta-Flores, C. Nolasco-Hipólito, D. M. Barradas-Dermitz, M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, and M. F. Pedroza-Hernández, “Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2009, 394592 (2009).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley classics library, 2003), Chap. 17.
  21. R. Karimzadeh and M. Arshadi, “Thermal lens measurement of the nonlinear phase shift and convection velocity,” Laser Phys. 23(11), 115402 (2013).
    [Crossref]

2014 (1)

R. K. Choubey, S. Medhekar, R. Kumar, S. Mukherjee, and S. Kumar, “Study of nonlinear optical properties of organic dye by z-scan technique using He-Ne laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(3), 1410–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

2013 (4)

S. Pramodini, P. Poornesh, and K. K. Nagaraja, “Thermally induced nonlinear optical response and optical power limiting of acid blue 40 dye,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(7), 1175–1182 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Z. Henari, S. Cassidy, K. E. Jasim, and A. A. Dakgel, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements of curcumin with cw laser,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 22(2), 1350017 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. R. Rashidian Vaziri, “Z-scan theory for nonlocal nonlinear media with simultaneous nonlinear refraction and nonlinear absorption,” Appl. Opt. 52(20), 4843–4848 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Karimzadeh and M. Arshadi, “Thermal lens measurement of the nonlinear phase shift and convection velocity,” Laser Phys. 23(11), 115402 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

R. Zamiri, R. Parvizi, A. R. Sadrolhosseini, G. Zamiri, M. Darroudi, and M. S. Husin, “Investigation on nonlinear-optical properties of palm oil/silver nanoparticles,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (2)

R. Karimzadeh, H. Aleali, and N. Mansour, “Thermal nonlinear refraction properties of Ag2S semiconductor nanocrystals with its application as a low power optical limiter,” Opt. Commun. 284(9), 2370–2375 (2011).
[Crossref]

E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a Gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (2)

E. V. Ramirez, M. L. Carrasco, M. M. Otero, S. C. Cerda, and M. D. Castillo, “Far field intensity distributions due to spatial self phase modulation of a Gaussian beam by a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” Opt. Express 18(21), 22067–22079 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Sarkhosh, H. Aleali, R. Karimzadeh, and N. Mansour, “Large thermally induced nonlinear refraction of gold nanoparticles stabilized by cyclohexanone,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2303–2310 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

X. L. Zhang, X. Zhao, Z. B. Liu, Y. S. Liu, Y. S. Chen, and J. G. Tian, “Enhanced nonlinear optical properties of graphene-oligothiophene hybrid material,” Opt. Express 17(26), 23959–23964 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, P. M. Hayward-Jones, Z. Orta-Flores, C. Nolasco-Hipólito, D. M. Barradas-Dermitz, M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, and M. F. Pedroza-Hernández, “Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2009, 394592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

M. Trejo Durán, J. A. Andrade Lucio, A. Martínez Richa, R. Vera Graziano, and V. M. Castaño, “Self-diffracting effects in hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091112 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

F. Z. Henari and A. Al-Saie, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle- Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions,” Laser Phys. 16(12), 1664–1667 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2002 (1)

1996 (1)

P. U. Rao, “Nutrient composition and biological evaluation of mesta (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) seeds,” Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 49(1), 27–34 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

Aguilar-Uscanga, M. G.

O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, P. M. Hayward-Jones, Z. Orta-Flores, C. Nolasco-Hipólito, D. M. Barradas-Dermitz, M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, and M. F. Pedroza-Hernández, “Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2009, 394592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Aleali, H.

R. Karimzadeh, H. Aleali, and N. Mansour, “Thermal nonlinear refraction properties of Ag2S semiconductor nanocrystals with its application as a low power optical limiter,” Opt. Commun. 284(9), 2370–2375 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sarkhosh, H. Aleali, R. Karimzadeh, and N. Mansour, “Large thermally induced nonlinear refraction of gold nanoparticles stabilized by cyclohexanone,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2303–2310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Al-Saie, A.

F. Z. Henari and A. Al-Saie, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle- Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions,” Laser Phys. 16(12), 1664–1667 (2006).
[Crossref]

Andrade Lucio, J. A.

M. Trejo Durán, J. A. Andrade Lucio, A. Martínez Richa, R. Vera Graziano, and V. M. Castaño, “Self-diffracting effects in hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arroyo Carrasco, M. L.

E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a Gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Arshadi, M.

R. Karimzadeh and M. Arshadi, “Thermal lens measurement of the nonlinear phase shift and convection velocity,” Laser Phys. 23(11), 115402 (2013).
[Crossref]

Barradas-Dermitz, D. M.

O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, P. M. Hayward-Jones, Z. Orta-Flores, C. Nolasco-Hipólito, D. M. Barradas-Dermitz, M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, and M. F. Pedroza-Hernández, “Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2009, 394592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carrasco, M. L.

Carvajal-Zarrabal, O.

O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, P. M. Hayward-Jones, Z. Orta-Flores, C. Nolasco-Hipólito, D. M. Barradas-Dermitz, M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, and M. F. Pedroza-Hernández, “Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2009, 394592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cassidy, S.

F. Z. Henari, S. Cassidy, K. E. Jasim, and A. A. Dakgel, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements of curcumin with cw laser,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 22(2), 1350017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Castaño, V. M.

M. Trejo Durán, J. A. Andrade Lucio, A. Martínez Richa, R. Vera Graziano, and V. M. Castaño, “Self-diffracting effects in hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Castillo, M. D.

Cerda, S. C.

Chavez Cerda, S.

E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a Gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Chen, C. H.

Chen, Y. S.

Choubey, R. K.

R. K. Choubey, S. Medhekar, R. Kumar, S. Mukherjee, and S. Kumar, “Study of nonlinear optical properties of organic dye by z-scan technique using He-Ne laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(3), 1410–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Cuppo, F. L. S. A.

Dakgel, A. A.

F. Z. Henari, S. Cassidy, K. E. Jasim, and A. A. Dakgel, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements of curcumin with cw laser,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 22(2), 1350017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Darroudi, M.

R. Zamiri, R. Parvizi, A. R. Sadrolhosseini, G. Zamiri, M. Darroudi, and M. S. Husin, “Investigation on nonlinear-optical properties of palm oil/silver nanoparticles,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Fuh, A. Y.

García Ramírez, E. V.

E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a Gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Gómez, S. L.

Hagan, D. J.

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hayward-Jones, P. M.

O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, P. M. Hayward-Jones, Z. Orta-Flores, C. Nolasco-Hipólito, D. M. Barradas-Dermitz, M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, and M. F. Pedroza-Hernández, “Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2009, 394592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Henari, F. Z.

F. Z. Henari, S. Cassidy, K. E. Jasim, and A. A. Dakgel, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements of curcumin with cw laser,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 22(2), 1350017 (2013).
[Crossref]

F. Z. Henari and A. Al-Saie, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle- Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions,” Laser Phys. 16(12), 1664–1667 (2006).
[Crossref]

Husin, M. S.

R. Zamiri, R. Parvizi, A. R. Sadrolhosseini, G. Zamiri, M. Darroudi, and M. S. Husin, “Investigation on nonlinear-optical properties of palm oil/silver nanoparticles,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Iturbe Castillo, M. D.

E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a Gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jasim, K. E.

F. Z. Henari, S. Cassidy, K. E. Jasim, and A. A. Dakgel, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements of curcumin with cw laser,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 22(2), 1350017 (2013).
[Crossref]

Karimzadeh, R.

R. Karimzadeh and M. Arshadi, “Thermal lens measurement of the nonlinear phase shift and convection velocity,” Laser Phys. 23(11), 115402 (2013).
[Crossref]

R. Karimzadeh, H. Aleali, and N. Mansour, “Thermal nonlinear refraction properties of Ag2S semiconductor nanocrystals with its application as a low power optical limiter,” Opt. Commun. 284(9), 2370–2375 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sarkhosh, H. Aleali, R. Karimzadeh, and N. Mansour, “Large thermally induced nonlinear refraction of gold nanoparticles stabilized by cyclohexanone,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2303–2310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kumar, R.

R. K. Choubey, S. Medhekar, R. Kumar, S. Mukherjee, and S. Kumar, “Study of nonlinear optical properties of organic dye by z-scan technique using He-Ne laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(3), 1410–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Kumar, S.

R. K. Choubey, S. Medhekar, R. Kumar, S. Mukherjee, and S. Kumar, “Study of nonlinear optical properties of organic dye by z-scan technique using He-Ne laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(3), 1410–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. C.

Liu, Y. S.

Liu, Z. B.

Mansour, N.

R. Karimzadeh, H. Aleali, and N. Mansour, “Thermal nonlinear refraction properties of Ag2S semiconductor nanocrystals with its application as a low power optical limiter,” Opt. Commun. 284(9), 2370–2375 (2011).
[Crossref]

L. Sarkhosh, H. Aleali, R. Karimzadeh, and N. Mansour, “Large thermally induced nonlinear refraction of gold nanoparticles stabilized by cyclohexanone,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2303–2310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Martínez Richa, A.

M. Trejo Durán, J. A. Andrade Lucio, A. Martínez Richa, R. Vera Graziano, and V. M. Castaño, “Self-diffracting effects in hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Medhekar, S.

R. K. Choubey, S. Medhekar, R. Kumar, S. Mukherjee, and S. Kumar, “Study of nonlinear optical properties of organic dye by z-scan technique using He-Ne laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(3), 1410–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Méndez Otero, M. M.

E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a Gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mo, T. S.

Mukherjee, S.

R. K. Choubey, S. Medhekar, R. Kumar, S. Mukherjee, and S. Kumar, “Study of nonlinear optical properties of organic dye by z-scan technique using He-Ne laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(3), 1410–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

Nagaraja, K. K.

S. Pramodini, P. Poornesh, and K. K. Nagaraja, “Thermally induced nonlinear optical response and optical power limiting of acid blue 40 dye,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(7), 1175–1182 (2013).
[Crossref]

Neto, A. M. F.

Nolasco-Hipólito, C.

O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, P. M. Hayward-Jones, Z. Orta-Flores, C. Nolasco-Hipólito, D. M. Barradas-Dermitz, M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, and M. F. Pedroza-Hernández, “Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2009, 394592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Orta-Flores, Z.

O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, P. M. Hayward-Jones, Z. Orta-Flores, C. Nolasco-Hipólito, D. M. Barradas-Dermitz, M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, and M. F. Pedroza-Hernández, “Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2009, 394592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Otero, M. M.

Palffy Muhoray, P.

Parvizi, R.

R. Zamiri, R. Parvizi, A. R. Sadrolhosseini, G. Zamiri, M. Darroudi, and M. S. Husin, “Investigation on nonlinear-optical properties of palm oil/silver nanoparticles,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Pedroza-Hernández, M. F.

O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, P. M. Hayward-Jones, Z. Orta-Flores, C. Nolasco-Hipólito, D. M. Barradas-Dermitz, M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, and M. F. Pedroza-Hernández, “Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2009, 394592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poornesh, P.

S. Pramodini, P. Poornesh, and K. K. Nagaraja, “Thermally induced nonlinear optical response and optical power limiting of acid blue 40 dye,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(7), 1175–1182 (2013).
[Crossref]

Pramodini, S.

S. Pramodini, P. Poornesh, and K. K. Nagaraja, “Thermally induced nonlinear optical response and optical power limiting of acid blue 40 dye,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(7), 1175–1182 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ramirez, E. V.

Rao, P. U.

P. U. Rao, “Nutrient composition and biological evaluation of mesta (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) seeds,” Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 49(1), 27–34 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rashidian Vaziri, M. R.

Reynoso Lara, E.

E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a Gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
[Crossref]

Sadrolhosseini, A. R.

R. Zamiri, R. Parvizi, A. R. Sadrolhosseini, G. Zamiri, M. Darroudi, and M. S. Husin, “Investigation on nonlinear-optical properties of palm oil/silver nanoparticles,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Said, A. A.

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sarkhosh, L.

L. Sarkhosh, H. Aleali, R. Karimzadeh, and N. Mansour, “Large thermally induced nonlinear refraction of gold nanoparticles stabilized by cyclohexanone,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2303–2310 (2010).
[Crossref]

Sheik Bahae, M.

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Tian, J. G.

Trejo Durán, M.

M. Trejo Durán, J. A. Andrade Lucio, A. Martínez Richa, R. Vera Graziano, and V. M. Castaño, “Self-diffracting effects in hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Van Stryland, E. W.

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. Sheik-Bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, “High-sensitivity, single-beam n2 measurements,” Opt. Lett. 14(17), 955–957 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Vera Graziano, R.

M. Trejo Durán, J. A. Andrade Lucio, A. Martínez Richa, R. Vera Graziano, and V. M. Castaño, “Self-diffracting effects in hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

Zamiri, G.

R. Zamiri, R. Parvizi, A. R. Sadrolhosseini, G. Zamiri, M. Darroudi, and M. S. Husin, “Investigation on nonlinear-optical properties of palm oil/silver nanoparticles,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zamiri, R.

R. Zamiri, R. Parvizi, A. R. Sadrolhosseini, G. Zamiri, M. Darroudi, and M. S. Husin, “Investigation on nonlinear-optical properties of palm oil/silver nanoparticles,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhang, X. L.

Zhao, X.

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Trejo Durán, J. A. Andrade Lucio, A. Martínez Richa, R. Vera Graziano, and V. M. Castaño, “Self-diffracting effects in hybrid materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 90(9), 091112 (2007).
[Crossref]

Curr. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Pramodini, P. Poornesh, and K. K. Nagaraja, “Thermally induced nonlinear optical response and optical power limiting of acid blue 40 dye,” Curr. Appl. Phys. 13(7), 1175–1182 (2013).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik Bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, “Sensitive measurement of optical nonlinearities using a single beam,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26(4), 760–769 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Biomed. Biotechnol. (1)

O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, P. M. Hayward-Jones, Z. Orta-Flores, C. Nolasco-Hipólito, D. M. Barradas-Dermitz, M. G. Aguilar-Uscanga, and M. F. Pedroza-Hernández, “Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. dried calyx ethanol extract on fat absorption-excretion, and body weight implication in rats,” J. Biomed. Biotechnol. 2009, 394592 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. (1)

R. Zamiri, R. Parvizi, A. R. Sadrolhosseini, G. Zamiri, M. Darroudi, and M. S. Husin, “Investigation on nonlinear-optical properties of palm oil/silver nanoparticles,” J. Euro. Opt. Soc. Rap. Public. 7, 12020 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. (1)

R. K. Choubey, S. Medhekar, R. Kumar, S. Mukherjee, and S. Kumar, “Study of nonlinear optical properties of organic dye by z-scan technique using He-Ne laser,” J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 25(3), 1410–1415 (2014).
[Crossref]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

F. Z. Henari, S. Cassidy, K. E. Jasim, and A. A. Dakgel, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements of curcumin with cw laser,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 22(2), 1350017 (2013).
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J. Opt. (1)

E. V. García Ramírez, M. L. Arroyo Carrasco, M. M. Méndez Otero, E. Reynoso Lara, S. Chavez Cerda, and M. D. Iturbe Castillo, “Z-scan and spatial self-phase modulation of a Gaussian beam in a thin nonlocal nonlinear media,” J. Opt. 13(8), 085203 (2011).
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J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

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F. Z. Henari and A. Al-Saie, “Nonlinear refractive index measurements and self-action effects in Roselle- Hibiscus Sabdariffa solutions,” Laser Phys. 16(12), 1664–1667 (2006).
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R. Karimzadeh and M. Arshadi, “Thermal lens measurement of the nonlinear phase shift and convection velocity,” Laser Phys. 23(11), 115402 (2013).
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R. Karimzadeh, H. Aleali, and N. Mansour, “Thermal nonlinear refraction properties of Ag2S semiconductor nanocrystals with its application as a low power optical limiter,” Opt. Commun. 284(9), 2370–2375 (2011).
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Opt. Express (3)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

L. Sarkhosh, H. Aleali, R. Karimzadeh, and N. Mansour, “Large thermally induced nonlinear refraction of gold nanoparticles stabilized by cyclohexanone,” Phys. Status Solidi A 207(10), 2303–2310 (2010).
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Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. (1)

P. U. Rao, “Nutrient composition and biological evaluation of mesta (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) seeds,” Plant Foods Hum. Nutr. 49(1), 27–34 (1996).
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Other (2)

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley classics library, 2003), Chap. 17.

E. W. Van Stryland and M. Sheik-Bahae, “Z-scan measurements of optical nonlinearities,” in, Characterization Techniques and Tabulations for Organic Nonlinear Materials, M. G. Kuzyk and C. W. Dirk, ed. (CRC Press, 1998).

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Z-Scan curves with Δ Ψ 0 = 0.5 and (a) Δ Φ 0 = π and R = 6.28, (b) Δ Φ 0 = 7.5 π and R = 47.123.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Z-Scan curves with Δ Ψ 0 = 0.5 and Δ Φ 0 different for (a) m = 2, (b) m = 1.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dependence of transmittance as function of phase change due to nonlinear refraction |ΔΦ0|, and phase change due to nonlinear absorption ΔΨ0 for a medium (a) local (m = 2), (b) nonlocal (m = 1).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Optical absorption spectrum of hibiscus sabdariffa.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Z-scan setup with Ar cw laser, lens (L) and sample (S).
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Z-scan curve with closed opening with P = 1 mW. Numerical comparison is made with Δ Φ 0 = 0.16 π and m = 0.4.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Z-scan curves with power of: (a) 4 mW;(b) 7 mW;(c) 8 mW;(d) 9 mW;(e) 10 mW; y (f) 20 mW.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Dependence of n2 as function of the power.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Far field diffraction patterns of the laser beam propagating in the sample with laser power of: (a) 4mw, (b) 7mw, (c) 8 mw, (d) 9 mw, (e) 10 mw, (f) 20 mw.

Equations (7)

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E ( r , z ) = A 0 ω 0 ω ( z ) exp [ r 2 ω 2 ( z ) ] exp [ i k z i k r 2 2 R ( z ) + i ξ ( z ) ]
E o = E ( r , z ) exp ( α L 2 ) exp [ i Δ φ ( r ) ]
Δ φ ( r ) Δ φ 0 exp [ m r 2 / ω ( z ) 2 ] = Δ φ 0 exp [ r 2 ( ω ( z ) / m ) 2 ]
Δ φ 0 ( z , m ) = Δ Φ 0 [ 1 + ( z / z 0 ) 2 ] m / 2
Δ Φ 0 = k 0 Δ n ( 0 , 0 ) L e f f
L e f f = ( 1 e α L ) / α
E O a b s = E ( r , z ) exp ( α L 2 ) [ 1 + 2 Δ Φ 0 R ( | E | 2 ) m / 2 ] [ 1 2 ( i R 1 ) ] .

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