Abstract

Second-order nonlinear processes such as second harmonic generation or parametric amplification have found numerous applications in the scientific and industrial world, from micromachining to petawatt laser facilities. These nonlinear interactions are mostly carried out in birefringent crystals because of their low cost and the possibility to operate at high powers Phase-matching configurations in birefringent crystals are determined by their refractive indexes. Here, we show that an important mechanical stress can be used to significantly change the phase-matching properties of a birefringent crystal. As an example, we demonstrate the shift of second harmonic non-critical phase matching wavelength of LiB3O5 (LBO) crystal at room temperature from 1200 nm to 1120 nm by applying compressive forces up to 100 MPa. We believe that this mechanical phase matching can be used as an additional degree of freedom to optimize nonlinear optical frequency mixing geometries.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-Harmonic generation of Light with Double Refraction,” Phys. Rev. 137(4A), 1305–1320 (1965).
    [Crossref]
  2. G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  3. S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. D. Perry, D. Pennington, B. C. Stuart, G. Tietbohl, J. A. Britten, C. Brown, S. Herman, B. Golick, M. Kartz, J. Miller, H. T. Powell, M. Vergino, and V. Yanovsky, “Petawatt laser pulses,” Opt. Lett. 24(3), 160–162 (1999).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  7. T. Schreiber, H. Schultz, O. Schmidt, F. Röser, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Stress-induced birefringence in large-mode-area micro-structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3637–3646 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  12. I. P. Shakhverdova, P. Paufler, R. S. Bubnova, S. K. Filatov, Levin, and D. C. Meyer, “Mechanical properties of single crystalline and glassy lithium triborate,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(4), 339–349 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. E. Marion, “Appropriate use of the strength parameter in solid-state slab laser design,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(5), 1595–1604 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, “Measurements of non-critically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a LBO crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 980–982 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  15. W. Koechner, “Rupture stress and modulus of elasticity for Nd: YAG crystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 280, 279–280 (1973).
  16. R. Feldman, Y. Golan, Z. Burshtein, S. Jackel, I. Moshe, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and Y. Shimony, “Strengthening of poly-crystalline (ceramic) Nd:YAG elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 695–701 (2011).
    [Crossref]

2013 (1)

S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (1)

Z. Ma, K. Wu, R. Sa, K. Ding, and Q. Li, “Strain-induced improvements on linear and nonlinear optical properties of SrB4O7 crystal,” AIP Adv. 2(032170), 1–6 (2012).

2011 (1)

R. Feldman, Y. Golan, Z. Burshtein, S. Jackel, I. Moshe, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and Y. Shimony, “Strengthening of poly-crystalline (ceramic) Nd:YAG elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 695–701 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Kokh, N. Kononova, G. Mennerat, P. Villeval, S. Durst, D. Lupinski, V. Vlezko, and K. Kokh, “Growth of high quality large size LBO crystals for high energy second harmonic generation,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(10), 1774–1778 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (1)

I. P. Shakhverdova, P. Paufler, R. S. Bubnova, S. K. Filatov, Levin, and D. C. Meyer, “Mechanical properties of single crystalline and glassy lithium triborate,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(4), 339–349 (2008).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (1)

I. I. Zubrinov, V. K. Sapozhnikov, N. A. Pylneva, and V. V. Atuchin, “Elastic and elastooptic properties of LiB3O5,” Ceram. Int. 30(7), 1675–1677 (2004).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

J. J. Chang, B. E. Warner, E. P. Dragon, and M. W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 10(6), 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

1990 (1)

T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, “Measurements of non-critically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a LBO crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 980–982 (1990).
[Crossref]

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

J. E. Marion, “Appropriate use of the strength parameter in solid-state slab laser design,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(5), 1595–1604 (1987).
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

W. Koechner, “Rupture stress and modulus of elasticity for Nd: YAG crystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 280, 279–280 (1973).

1965 (1)

G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-Harmonic generation of Light with Double Refraction,” Phys. Rev. 137(4A), 1305–1320 (1965).
[Crossref]

Ashkin, A.

G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-Harmonic generation of Light with Double Refraction,” Phys. Rev. 137(4A), 1305–1320 (1965).
[Crossref]

Atuchin, V. V.

I. I. Zubrinov, V. K. Sapozhnikov, N. A. Pylneva, and V. V. Atuchin, “Elastic and elastooptic properties of LiB3O5,” Ceram. Int. 30(7), 1675–1677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bosenberg, W. R.

T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, “Measurements of non-critically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a LBO crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 980–982 (1990).
[Crossref]

Boyd, G. D.

G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-Harmonic generation of Light with Double Refraction,” Phys. Rev. 137(4A), 1305–1320 (1965).
[Crossref]

Britten, J. A.

Brown, C.

Bubnova, R. S.

I. P. Shakhverdova, P. Paufler, R. S. Bubnova, S. K. Filatov, Levin, and D. C. Meyer, “Mechanical properties of single crystalline and glassy lithium triborate,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(4), 339–349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Burshtein, Z.

R. Feldman, Y. Golan, Z. Burshtein, S. Jackel, I. Moshe, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and Y. Shimony, “Strengthening of poly-crystalline (ceramic) Nd:YAG elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 695–701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Cerullo, G.

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. J.

J. J. Chang, B. E. Warner, E. P. Dragon, and M. W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 10(6), 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

Chen, C.

Chen, X. F.

Chipperfield, L.

S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

De Silvestri, S.

G. Cerullo and S. De Silvestri, “Ultrafast optical parametric amplifiers,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74(1), 1–18 (2003).
[Crossref]

Demmler, S.

S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ding, K.

Z. Ma, K. Wu, R. Sa, K. Ding, and Q. Li, “Strain-induced improvements on linear and nonlinear optical properties of SrB4O7 crystal,” AIP Adv. 2(032170), 1–6 (2012).

Dragon, E. P.

J. J. Chang, B. E. Warner, E. P. Dragon, and M. W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 10(6), 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

Durst, S.

A. Kokh, N. Kononova, G. Mennerat, P. Villeval, S. Durst, D. Lupinski, V. Vlezko, and K. Kokh, “Growth of high quality large size LBO crystals for high energy second harmonic generation,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(10), 1774–1778 (2010).
[Crossref]

Dziedzic, J. M.

G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-Harmonic generation of Light with Double Refraction,” Phys. Rev. 137(4A), 1305–1320 (1965).
[Crossref]

Feldman, R.

R. Feldman, Y. Golan, Z. Burshtein, S. Jackel, I. Moshe, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and Y. Shimony, “Strengthening of poly-crystalline (ceramic) Nd:YAG elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 695–701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Filatov, S. K.

I. P. Shakhverdova, P. Paufler, R. S. Bubnova, S. K. Filatov, Levin, and D. C. Meyer, “Mechanical properties of single crystalline and glassy lithium triborate,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(4), 339–349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Golan, Y.

R. Feldman, Y. Golan, Z. Burshtein, S. Jackel, I. Moshe, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and Y. Shimony, “Strengthening of poly-crystalline (ceramic) Nd:YAG elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 695–701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Golick, B.

Hädrich, S.

S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Herman, S.

Jackel, S.

R. Feldman, Y. Golan, Z. Burshtein, S. Jackel, I. Moshe, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and Y. Shimony, “Strengthening of poly-crystalline (ceramic) Nd:YAG elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 695–701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jiang, A.

Kartz, M.

Kleinman, D. A.

G. D. Boyd, A. Ashkin, J. M. Dziedzic, and D. A. Kleinman, “Second-Harmonic generation of Light with Double Refraction,” Phys. Rev. 137(4A), 1305–1320 (1965).
[Crossref]

Koechner, W.

W. Koechner, “Rupture stress and modulus of elasticity for Nd: YAG crystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 280, 279–280 (1973).

Kokh, A.

A. Kokh, N. Kononova, G. Mennerat, P. Villeval, S. Durst, D. Lupinski, V. Vlezko, and K. Kokh, “Growth of high quality large size LBO crystals for high energy second harmonic generation,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(10), 1774–1778 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kokh, K.

A. Kokh, N. Kononova, G. Mennerat, P. Villeval, S. Durst, D. Lupinski, V. Vlezko, and K. Kokh, “Growth of high quality large size LBO crystals for high energy second harmonic generation,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(10), 1774–1778 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kononova, N.

A. Kokh, N. Kononova, G. Mennerat, P. Villeval, S. Durst, D. Lupinski, V. Vlezko, and K. Kokh, “Growth of high quality large size LBO crystals for high energy second harmonic generation,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(10), 1774–1778 (2010).
[Crossref]

Krebs, M.

S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Lane, R. J.

T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, “Measurements of non-critically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a LBO crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 980–982 (1990).
[Crossref]

Leng, F.

Levin,

I. P. Shakhverdova, P. Paufler, R. S. Bubnova, S. K. Filatov, Levin, and D. C. Meyer, “Mechanical properties of single crystalline and glassy lithium triborate,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(4), 339–349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Li, Q.

Z. Ma, K. Wu, R. Sa, K. Ding, and Q. Li, “Strain-induced improvements on linear and nonlinear optical properties of SrB4O7 crystal,” AIP Adv. 2(032170), 1–6 (2012).

Li, R.

Limpert, J.

S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Schreiber, H. Schultz, O. Schmidt, F. Röser, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Stress-induced birefringence in large-mode-area micro-structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3637–3646 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, S.

Lu, Y. Q.

Lumer, Y.

R. Feldman, Y. Golan, Z. Burshtein, S. Jackel, I. Moshe, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and Y. Shimony, “Strengthening of poly-crystalline (ceramic) Nd:YAG elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 695–701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Lupinski, D.

A. Kokh, N. Kononova, G. Mennerat, P. Villeval, S. Durst, D. Lupinski, V. Vlezko, and K. Kokh, “Growth of high quality large size LBO crystals for high energy second harmonic generation,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(10), 1774–1778 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ma, Z.

Z. Ma, K. Wu, R. Sa, K. Ding, and Q. Li, “Strain-induced improvements on linear and nonlinear optical properties of SrB4O7 crystal,” AIP Adv. 2(032170), 1–6 (2012).

Marion, J. E.

J. E. Marion, “Appropriate use of the strength parameter in solid-state slab laser design,” J. Appl. Phys. 62(5), 1595–1604 (1987).
[Crossref]

Martinez, M. W.

J. J. Chang, B. E. Warner, E. P. Dragon, and M. W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 10(6), 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

Meir, A.

R. Feldman, Y. Golan, Z. Burshtein, S. Jackel, I. Moshe, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and Y. Shimony, “Strengthening of poly-crystalline (ceramic) Nd:YAG elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 695–701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Mennerat, G.

A. Kokh, N. Kononova, G. Mennerat, P. Villeval, S. Durst, D. Lupinski, V. Vlezko, and K. Kokh, “Growth of high quality large size LBO crystals for high energy second harmonic generation,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(10), 1774–1778 (2010).
[Crossref]

Meyer, D. C.

I. P. Shakhverdova, P. Paufler, R. S. Bubnova, S. K. Filatov, Levin, and D. C. Meyer, “Mechanical properties of single crystalline and glassy lithium triborate,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(4), 339–349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Miller, J.

Moshe, I.

R. Feldman, Y. Golan, Z. Burshtein, S. Jackel, I. Moshe, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and Y. Shimony, “Strengthening of poly-crystalline (ceramic) Nd:YAG elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 695–701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Paufler, P.

I. P. Shakhverdova, P. Paufler, R. S. Bubnova, S. K. Filatov, Levin, and D. C. Meyer, “Mechanical properties of single crystalline and glassy lithium triborate,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(4), 339–349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pennington, D.

Perry, M. D.

Powell, H. T.

Pylneva, N. A.

I. I. Zubrinov, V. K. Sapozhnikov, N. A. Pylneva, and V. V. Atuchin, “Elastic and elastooptic properties of LiB3O5,” Ceram. Int. 30(7), 1675–1677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Qian, X. S.

Röser, F.

Rothhardt, J.

S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Sa, R.

Z. Ma, K. Wu, R. Sa, K. Ding, and Q. Li, “Strain-induced improvements on linear and nonlinear optical properties of SrB4O7 crystal,” AIP Adv. 2(032170), 1–6 (2012).

Sapozhnikov, V. K.

I. I. Zubrinov, V. K. Sapozhnikov, N. A. Pylneva, and V. V. Atuchin, “Elastic and elastooptic properties of LiB3O5,” Ceram. Int. 30(7), 1675–1677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Schmidt, O.

Schreiber, T.

Schultz, H.

Shakhverdova, I. P.

I. P. Shakhverdova, P. Paufler, R. S. Bubnova, S. K. Filatov, Levin, and D. C. Meyer, “Mechanical properties of single crystalline and glassy lithium triborate,” Cryst. Res. Technol. 43(4), 339–349 (2008).
[Crossref]

Shimony, Y.

R. Feldman, Y. Golan, Z. Burshtein, S. Jackel, I. Moshe, A. Meir, Y. Lumer, and Y. Shimony, “Strengthening of poly-crystalline (ceramic) Nd:YAG elements for high-power laser applications,” Opt. Mater. 33(5), 695–701 (2011).
[Crossref]

Stuart, B. C.

Tang, C. L.

T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, “Measurements of non-critically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a LBO crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 980–982 (1990).
[Crossref]

Tietbohl, G.

Tünnermann, A.

S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

T. Schreiber, H. Schultz, O. Schmidt, F. Röser, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Stress-induced birefringence in large-mode-area micro-structured optical fibers,” Opt. Express 13(10), 3637–3646 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ukachi, T.

T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, “Measurements of non-critically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a LBO crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 980–982 (1990).
[Crossref]

Vergino, M.

Villeval, P.

A. Kokh, N. Kononova, G. Mennerat, P. Villeval, S. Durst, D. Lupinski, V. Vlezko, and K. Kokh, “Growth of high quality large size LBO crystals for high energy second harmonic generation,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(10), 1774–1778 (2010).
[Crossref]

Vlezko, V.

A. Kokh, N. Kononova, G. Mennerat, P. Villeval, S. Durst, D. Lupinski, V. Vlezko, and K. Kokh, “Growth of high quality large size LBO crystals for high energy second harmonic generation,” J. Cryst. Growth 312(10), 1774–1778 (2010).
[Crossref]

Warner, B. E.

J. J. Chang, B. E. Warner, E. P. Dragon, and M. W. Martinez, “Precision micromachining with pulsed green lasers,” J. Laser Appl. 10(6), 285 (1998).
[Crossref]

Wu, B.

Wu, K.

Z. Ma, K. Wu, R. Sa, K. Ding, and Q. Li, “Strain-induced improvements on linear and nonlinear optical properties of SrB4O7 crystal,” AIP Adv. 2(032170), 1–6 (2012).

Wu, Y.

Xu, F.

Yanovsky, V.

You, G.

Yu, Z. Y.

Zaïr, A.

S. Demmler, J. Rothhardt, A. Zaïr, M. Krebs, S. Hädrich, L. Chipperfield, J. Limpert, and A. Tünnermann, “Towards isolated attosecond pulses at megahertz repetition rates,” Nat. Photonics 7(7), 555–559 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zubrinov, I. I.

I. I. Zubrinov, V. K. Sapozhnikov, N. A. Pylneva, and V. V. Atuchin, “Elastic and elastooptic properties of LiB3O5,” Ceram. Int. 30(7), 1675–1677 (2004).
[Crossref]

AIP Adv. (1)

Z. Ma, K. Wu, R. Sa, K. Ding, and Q. Li, “Strain-induced improvements on linear and nonlinear optical properties of SrB4O7 crystal,” AIP Adv. 2(032170), 1–6 (2012).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. Ukachi, R. J. Lane, W. R. Bosenberg, and C. L. Tang, “Measurements of non-critically phase-matched second-harmonic generation in a LBO crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57(10), 980–982 (1990).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. (1)

W. Koechner, “Rupture stress and modulus of elasticity for Nd: YAG crystals,” Appl. Phys., A Mater. Sci. Process. 280, 279–280 (1973).

Ceram. Int. (1)

I. I. Zubrinov, V. K. Sapozhnikov, N. A. Pylneva, and V. V. Atuchin, “Elastic and elastooptic properties of LiB3O5,” Ceram. Int. 30(7), 1675–1677 (2004).
[Crossref]

Cryst. Res. Technol. (1)

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Illustration of the elasto-optic principle.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Influence of birefringence change on NCPM wavelength; (solid curve) birefringence for NCPM SHG in LBO cut at θ = 90°, φ = 0° at ambient temperature; (Green dotted lines) birefringence change induced by applied stress; (Red dotted line) Phase matching condition.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scheme and picture of the compression mount.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Experimental setup for stress-induced birefringence analysis.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Stress-induced birefringence measurements depending on the crystal-mount interface. (A) Without indium foil; (B) With indium foil on top surface only; (C) With indium foil on both surfaces. Crystals are constrained along the Z axis.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Damage threshold results. Samples 1 to 4: constraint along Z-axis, without indium; Samples 5 to 8: constraint along Z-axis, with indium; Samples 9 to 12: constraint along Y-axis, with indium.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Experimental setup for second harmonic generation.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Spectral distribution of the supercontinuum average power.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Second harmonic spectrum as a function of stress magnitude; insert shows spectrum ripples at 100 MPa.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Induced birefringence as a function of applied pressure. (Black diamond) retrieved from SHG wavelength shift; (Red circles) retrieved from number of fringes using the crossed polarizers setup.

Equations (2)

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Δ ( 1 n i 2 ) = j = 1..3 ρ i j ε j ,
n z ( ω ) = n y ( 2 ω ) ,

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