Abstract

Local full Mueller matrix measurements in the Fourier plane of a microscope lens were used to determine the internal anisotropic ordering in periodic linear arrays of smectic liquid crystal defects, known as ’oily streaks’. We propose a single microstructure-dependent model taking into account the anisotropic dielectric function of the liquid crystal that reproduces the smectic layers orientation and organization in the oily streaks. The calculated Mueller matrix elements are compared to the measured data to reveal the anchoring mechanism of the smectic oily streaks on the substrate and evidence the presence of new type of defect arrangement. Beyond the scientific inquiry, the understanding and control of the internal structure of such arrays offer technological opportunities for developing liquid-crystal based sensors and self-assembled nanostructures.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. D. Lavrentovich, “Designing Dupin cyclides in micro and macro worlds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(1), 5–6 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Honglawan and S. Yang, “Directing 3D topological defects in smectic liquid crystals and their applications as an emerging class of building blocks,” in Nanoscience With Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2014), pp. 35–68.
    [Crossref]
  3. C. Blanc and M. Kleman, “The confinement of smectics with a strong anchoring,” Eur. Phys. J. E 4, 241–251 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. Y. H. Kim, D. K. Yoon, H. S. Jeong, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Smectic liquid crystal defects for self-assembling of building blocks and their lithographic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(4), 610–627 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. M. Ok, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, H. W. Yoo, J. H. Kim, M. Srinivasarao, and H. T. Jung, “Control of periodic defect arrays of 8CB (4-n-octyl-4-cyano-biphenyl) liquid crystals by multi-directional rubbing,” Soft Matter 9(42), 10135–10140 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  6. J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Alba, M. de Boissieu, M. Gailhanou, and M. Goldmann, “Optical gratings formed in thin smectic films frustrated on a single crystalline substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011709 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  7. B. Zappone and E. Lacaze, “Surface–frustrated periodic textures of smectic–a liquid crystals on crystalline surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 061704 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. Zappone, C. Meyer, L. Bruno, and E. Lacaze, “Periodic lattices of frustrated focal conic defect domains in smectic liquid crystal films,” Soft Matter 8, 4318–4326 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  9. D. K. Yoon, M. C. Choi, Y. H. Kim, M. W. Kim, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Internal structure visualization and lithographic use of periodic toroidal holes in liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 6, 866–870 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano-and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1, 83–109 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. Coursault, J. Grand, B. Zappone, H. Ayeb, G. Lévi, N. Felidj, and E. Lacaze, “Linear self-assembly of nanoparticles within liquid crystal defect arrays,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1461–1465 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  13. J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Goldmann, M. Gailhanou, M. de Boissieu, and M. Alba, “Structure of smectic defect cores: X-Ray study of 8CB liquid crystal ultrathin films,” Phys. Lett. 96, 027803 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  14. B. Zappone, E. Lacaze, H. Ayeb, M. Goldmann, P. Barois, and M. Alba, “Self-ordered arrays of wall defects and virtual singularities in thin smectic-A films,” Soft Matter 7, 1161–1167 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  15. B. Haj Ibrahim, S. Ben Hatit, and A. De Martino, “Angle resolved Mueller polarimetry with a high numerical aperture and characterization of transparent biaxial samples,” Appl. Opt. 48(27), 5025–5034 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  16. T. Novikova, P. Bulkin, V. Popov, B. Haj Ibrahim, and A. De Martino, “Mueller polarimetry as a tool for detecting asymmetry in diffraction grating profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(5), 051804 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  17. L. Li, “Symmetries of cross-polarization diffraction coefficients of gratings,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 17(5), 881–887 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  18. Y. G. J. Lau, S. Klein, C. J. P. Newton, and R. M. Richardson, “Surface ordering at the air-nematic interface. Part 2. A spectroscopic ellipsometry study of orientational order,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 421–429 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  19. N. Sbai, J. Perriere, B. Gallas, E. Millon, W. Seiler, and M. C. Bernard, “Structural, optical, and electrical properties of epitaxial titanium oxide thin films on LaAlO3 substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033529 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Schubert, B. Rheinlander, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Rider, and F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819 (1997).
    [Crossref]

2013 (3)

O. D. Lavrentovich, “Designing Dupin cyclides in micro and macro worlds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(1), 5–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

J. M. Ok, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, H. W. Yoo, J. H. Kim, M. Srinivasarao, and H. T. Jung, “Control of periodic defect arrays of 8CB (4-n-octyl-4-cyano-biphenyl) liquid crystals by multi-directional rubbing,” Soft Matter 9(42), 10135–10140 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano-and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1, 83–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

D. Coursault, J. Grand, B. Zappone, H. Ayeb, G. Lévi, N. Felidj, and E. Lacaze, “Linear self-assembly of nanoparticles within liquid crystal defect arrays,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1461–1465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Zappone, C. Meyer, L. Bruno, and E. Lacaze, “Periodic lattices of frustrated focal conic defect domains in smectic liquid crystal films,” Soft Matter 8, 4318–4326 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

Y. H. Kim, D. K. Yoon, H. S. Jeong, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Smectic liquid crystal defects for self-assembling of building blocks and their lithographic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(4), 610–627 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Zappone, E. Lacaze, H. Ayeb, M. Goldmann, P. Barois, and M. Alba, “Self-ordered arrays of wall defects and virtual singularities in thin smectic-A films,” Soft Matter 7, 1161–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Novikova, P. Bulkin, V. Popov, B. Haj Ibrahim, and A. De Martino, “Mueller polarimetry as a tool for detecting asymmetry in diffraction grating profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(5), 051804 (2011).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

2008 (2)

B. Zappone and E. Lacaze, “Surface–frustrated periodic textures of smectic–a liquid crystals on crystalline surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 061704 (2008).
[Crossref]

N. Sbai, J. Perriere, B. Gallas, E. Millon, W. Seiler, and M. C. Bernard, “Structural, optical, and electrical properties of epitaxial titanium oxide thin films on LaAlO3 substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033529 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (2)

Y. G. J. Lau, S. Klein, C. J. P. Newton, and R. M. Richardson, “Surface ordering at the air-nematic interface. Part 2. A spectroscopic ellipsometry study of orientational order,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 421–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yoon, M. C. Choi, Y. H. Kim, M. W. Kim, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Internal structure visualization and lithographic use of periodic toroidal holes in liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 6, 866–870 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Goldmann, M. Gailhanou, M. de Boissieu, and M. Alba, “Structure of smectic defect cores: X-Ray study of 8CB liquid crystal ultrathin films,” Phys. Lett. 96, 027803 (2006).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Alba, M. de Boissieu, M. Gailhanou, and M. Goldmann, “Optical gratings formed in thin smectic films frustrated on a single crystalline substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011709 (2004).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

C. Blanc and M. Kleman, “The confinement of smectics with a strong anchoring,” Eur. Phys. J. E 4, 241–251 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

1997 (1)

M. Schubert, B. Rheinlander, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Rider, and F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819 (1997).
[Crossref]

Alba, M.

B. Zappone, E. Lacaze, H. Ayeb, M. Goldmann, P. Barois, and M. Alba, “Self-ordered arrays of wall defects and virtual singularities in thin smectic-A films,” Soft Matter 7, 1161–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Goldmann, M. Gailhanou, M. de Boissieu, and M. Alba, “Structure of smectic defect cores: X-Ray study of 8CB liquid crystal ultrathin films,” Phys. Lett. 96, 027803 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Alba, M. de Boissieu, M. Gailhanou, and M. Goldmann, “Optical gratings formed in thin smectic films frustrated on a single crystalline substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011709 (2004).
[Crossref]

Ayeb, H.

D. Coursault, J. Grand, B. Zappone, H. Ayeb, G. Lévi, N. Felidj, and E. Lacaze, “Linear self-assembly of nanoparticles within liquid crystal defect arrays,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1461–1465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zappone, E. Lacaze, H. Ayeb, M. Goldmann, P. Barois, and M. Alba, “Self-ordered arrays of wall defects and virtual singularities in thin smectic-A films,” Soft Matter 7, 1161–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Barois, P.

B. Zappone, E. Lacaze, H. Ayeb, M. Goldmann, P. Barois, and M. Alba, “Self-ordered arrays of wall defects and virtual singularities in thin smectic-A films,” Soft Matter 7, 1161–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ben Hatit, S.

Bernard, M. C.

N. Sbai, J. Perriere, B. Gallas, E. Millon, W. Seiler, and M. C. Bernard, “Structural, optical, and electrical properties of epitaxial titanium oxide thin films on LaAlO3 substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Blanc, C.

C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano-and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1, 83–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

C. Blanc and M. Kleman, “The confinement of smectics with a strong anchoring,” Eur. Phys. J. E 4, 241–251 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bruno, L.

B. Zappone, C. Meyer, L. Bruno, and E. Lacaze, “Periodic lattices of frustrated focal conic defect domains in smectic liquid crystal films,” Soft Matter 8, 4318–4326 (2012).
[Crossref]

Bulkin, P.

T. Novikova, P. Bulkin, V. Popov, B. Haj Ibrahim, and A. De Martino, “Mueller polarimetry as a tool for detecting asymmetry in diffraction grating profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(5), 051804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Choi, M. C.

D. K. Yoon, M. C. Choi, Y. H. Kim, M. W. Kim, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Internal structure visualization and lithographic use of periodic toroidal holes in liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 6, 866–870 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Coursault, D.

C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano-and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1, 83–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Coursault, J. Grand, B. Zappone, H. Ayeb, G. Lévi, N. Felidj, and E. Lacaze, “Linear self-assembly of nanoparticles within liquid crystal defect arrays,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1461–1465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cowling, S. J.

J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
[Crossref]

de Boissieu, M.

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Goldmann, M. Gailhanou, M. de Boissieu, and M. Alba, “Structure of smectic defect cores: X-Ray study of 8CB liquid crystal ultrathin films,” Phys. Lett. 96, 027803 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Alba, M. de Boissieu, M. Gailhanou, and M. Goldmann, “Optical gratings formed in thin smectic films frustrated on a single crystalline substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011709 (2004).
[Crossref]

De Martino, A.

T. Novikova, P. Bulkin, V. Popov, B. Haj Ibrahim, and A. De Martino, “Mueller polarimetry as a tool for detecting asymmetry in diffraction grating profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(5), 051804 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Haj Ibrahim, S. Ben Hatit, and A. De Martino, “Angle resolved Mueller polarimetry with a high numerical aperture and characterization of transparent biaxial samples,” Appl. Opt. 48(27), 5025–5034 (2009).
[Crossref]

Felidj, N.

D. Coursault, J. Grand, B. Zappone, H. Ayeb, G. Lévi, N. Felidj, and E. Lacaze, “Linear self-assembly of nanoparticles within liquid crystal defect arrays,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1461–1465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Franke, E.

M. Schubert, B. Rheinlander, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Rider, and F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gailhanou, M.

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Goldmann, M. Gailhanou, M. de Boissieu, and M. Alba, “Structure of smectic defect cores: X-Ray study of 8CB liquid crystal ultrathin films,” Phys. Lett. 96, 027803 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Alba, M. de Boissieu, M. Gailhanou, and M. Goldmann, “Optical gratings formed in thin smectic films frustrated on a single crystalline substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011709 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gallas, B.

N. Sbai, J. Perriere, B. Gallas, E. Millon, W. Seiler, and M. C. Bernard, “Structural, optical, and electrical properties of epitaxial titanium oxide thin films on LaAlO3 substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Goldmann, M.

B. Zappone, E. Lacaze, H. Ayeb, M. Goldmann, P. Barois, and M. Alba, “Self-ordered arrays of wall defects and virtual singularities in thin smectic-A films,” Soft Matter 7, 1161–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Goldmann, M. Gailhanou, M. de Boissieu, and M. Alba, “Structure of smectic defect cores: X-Ray study of 8CB liquid crystal ultrathin films,” Phys. Lett. 96, 027803 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Alba, M. de Boissieu, M. Gailhanou, and M. Goldmann, “Optical gratings formed in thin smectic films frustrated on a single crystalline substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011709 (2004).
[Crossref]

Goodby, J.

J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
[Crossref]

Grand, J.

D. Coursault, J. Grand, B. Zappone, H. Ayeb, G. Lévi, N. Felidj, and E. Lacaze, “Linear self-assembly of nanoparticles within liquid crystal defect arrays,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1461–1465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hahn, J.

M. Schubert, B. Rheinlander, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Rider, and F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819 (1997).
[Crossref]

Haj Ibrahim, B.

T. Novikova, P. Bulkin, V. Popov, B. Haj Ibrahim, and A. De Martino, “Mueller polarimetry as a tool for detecting asymmetry in diffraction grating profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(5), 051804 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Haj Ibrahim, S. Ben Hatit, and A. De Martino, “Angle resolved Mueller polarimetry with a high numerical aperture and characterization of transparent biaxial samples,” Appl. Opt. 48(27), 5025–5034 (2009).
[Crossref]

Honglawan, A.

A. Honglawan and S. Yang, “Directing 3D topological defects in smectic liquid crystals and their applications as an emerging class of building blocks,” in Nanoscience With Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2014), pp. 35–68.
[Crossref]

Jeong, H. S.

J. M. Ok, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, H. W. Yoo, J. H. Kim, M. Srinivasarao, and H. T. Jung, “Control of periodic defect arrays of 8CB (4-n-octyl-4-cyano-biphenyl) liquid crystals by multi-directional rubbing,” Soft Matter 9(42), 10135–10140 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Kim, D. K. Yoon, H. S. Jeong, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Smectic liquid crystal defects for self-assembling of building blocks and their lithographic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(4), 610–627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jung, H. T.

J. M. Ok, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, H. W. Yoo, J. H. Kim, M. Srinivasarao, and H. T. Jung, “Control of periodic defect arrays of 8CB (4-n-octyl-4-cyano-biphenyl) liquid crystals by multi-directional rubbing,” Soft Matter 9(42), 10135–10140 (2013).
[Crossref]

Jung, H.-T.

Y. H. Kim, D. K. Yoon, H. S. Jeong, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Smectic liquid crystal defects for self-assembling of building blocks and their lithographic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(4), 610–627 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yoon, M. C. Choi, Y. H. Kim, M. W. Kim, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Internal structure visualization and lithographic use of periodic toroidal holes in liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 6, 866–870 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. H.

J. M. Ok, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, H. W. Yoo, J. H. Kim, M. Srinivasarao, and H. T. Jung, “Control of periodic defect arrays of 8CB (4-n-octyl-4-cyano-biphenyl) liquid crystals by multi-directional rubbing,” Soft Matter 9(42), 10135–10140 (2013).
[Crossref]

Kim, M. W.

D. K. Yoon, M. C. Choi, Y. H. Kim, M. W. Kim, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Internal structure visualization and lithographic use of periodic toroidal holes in liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 6, 866–870 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, Y. H.

J. M. Ok, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, H. W. Yoo, J. H. Kim, M. Srinivasarao, and H. T. Jung, “Control of periodic defect arrays of 8CB (4-n-octyl-4-cyano-biphenyl) liquid crystals by multi-directional rubbing,” Soft Matter 9(42), 10135–10140 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Kim, D. K. Yoon, H. S. Jeong, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Smectic liquid crystal defects for self-assembling of building blocks and their lithographic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(4), 610–627 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yoon, M. C. Choi, Y. H. Kim, M. W. Kim, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Internal structure visualization and lithographic use of periodic toroidal holes in liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 6, 866–870 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, S.

Y. G. J. Lau, S. Klein, C. J. P. Newton, and R. M. Richardson, “Surface ordering at the air-nematic interface. Part 2. A spectroscopic ellipsometry study of orientational order,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 421–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kleman, M.

C. Blanc and M. Kleman, “The confinement of smectics with a strong anchoring,” Eur. Phys. J. E 4, 241–251 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lacaze, E.

C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano-and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1, 83–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

D. Coursault, J. Grand, B. Zappone, H. Ayeb, G. Lévi, N. Felidj, and E. Lacaze, “Linear self-assembly of nanoparticles within liquid crystal defect arrays,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1461–1465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zappone, C. Meyer, L. Bruno, and E. Lacaze, “Periodic lattices of frustrated focal conic defect domains in smectic liquid crystal films,” Soft Matter 8, 4318–4326 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Zappone, E. Lacaze, H. Ayeb, M. Goldmann, P. Barois, and M. Alba, “Self-ordered arrays of wall defects and virtual singularities in thin smectic-A films,” Soft Matter 7, 1161–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Zappone and E. Lacaze, “Surface–frustrated periodic textures of smectic–a liquid crystals on crystalline surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 061704 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Goldmann, M. Gailhanou, M. de Boissieu, and M. Alba, “Structure of smectic defect cores: X-Ray study of 8CB liquid crystal ultrathin films,” Phys. Lett. 96, 027803 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Alba, M. de Boissieu, M. Gailhanou, and M. Goldmann, “Optical gratings formed in thin smectic films frustrated on a single crystalline substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011709 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lau, Y. G. J.

Y. G. J. Lau, S. Klein, C. J. P. Newton, and R. M. Richardson, “Surface ordering at the air-nematic interface. Part 2. A spectroscopic ellipsometry study of orientational order,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 421–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Lavigne, C.

J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lavrentovich, O. D.

O. D. Lavrentovich, “Designing Dupin cyclides in micro and macro worlds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(1), 5–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. H. Kim, D. K. Yoon, H. S. Jeong, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Smectic liquid crystal defects for self-assembling of building blocks and their lithographic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(4), 610–627 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yoon, M. C. Choi, Y. H. Kim, M. W. Kim, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Internal structure visualization and lithographic use of periodic toroidal holes in liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 6, 866–870 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lennox, R. B.

J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
[Crossref]

Lévi, G.

D. Coursault, J. Grand, B. Zappone, H. Ayeb, G. Lévi, N. Felidj, and E. Lacaze, “Linear self-assembly of nanoparticles within liquid crystal defect arrays,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1461–1465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, L.

Meyer, C.

B. Zappone, C. Meyer, L. Bruno, and E. Lacaze, “Periodic lattices of frustrated focal conic defect domains in smectic liquid crystal films,” Soft Matter 8, 4318–4326 (2012).
[Crossref]

Michel, J.

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Goldmann, M. Gailhanou, M. de Boissieu, and M. Alba, “Structure of smectic defect cores: X-Ray study of 8CB liquid crystal ultrathin films,” Phys. Lett. 96, 027803 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Alba, M. de Boissieu, M. Gailhanou, and M. Goldmann, “Optical gratings formed in thin smectic films frustrated on a single crystalline substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011709 (2004).
[Crossref]

Milette, J.

J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
[Crossref]

Millon, E.

N. Sbai, J. Perriere, B. Gallas, E. Millon, W. Seiler, and M. C. Bernard, “Structural, optical, and electrical properties of epitaxial titanium oxide thin films on LaAlO3 substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Neumann, H.

M. Schubert, B. Rheinlander, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Rider, and F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819 (1997).
[Crossref]

Newton, C. J. P.

Y. G. J. Lau, S. Klein, C. J. P. Newton, and R. M. Richardson, “Surface ordering at the air-nematic interface. Part 2. A spectroscopic ellipsometry study of orientational order,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 421–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Novikova, T.

T. Novikova, P. Bulkin, V. Popov, B. Haj Ibrahim, and A. De Martino, “Mueller polarimetry as a tool for detecting asymmetry in diffraction grating profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(5), 051804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Ok, J. M.

J. M. Ok, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, H. W. Yoo, J. H. Kim, M. Srinivasarao, and H. T. Jung, “Control of periodic defect arrays of 8CB (4-n-octyl-4-cyano-biphenyl) liquid crystals by multi-directional rubbing,” Soft Matter 9(42), 10135–10140 (2013).
[Crossref]

Perriere, J.

N. Sbai, J. Perriere, B. Gallas, E. Millon, W. Seiler, and M. C. Bernard, “Structural, optical, and electrical properties of epitaxial titanium oxide thin films on LaAlO3 substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Popov, V.

T. Novikova, P. Bulkin, V. Popov, B. Haj Ibrahim, and A. De Martino, “Mueller polarimetry as a tool for detecting asymmetry in diffraction grating profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(5), 051804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Relaix, S.

J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
[Crossref]

Reven, L.

J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
[Crossref]

Rheinlander, B.

M. Schubert, B. Rheinlander, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Rider, and F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819 (1997).
[Crossref]

Richardson, R. M.

Y. G. J. Lau, S. Klein, C. J. P. Newton, and R. M. Richardson, “Surface ordering at the air-nematic interface. Part 2. A spectroscopic ellipsometry study of orientational order,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 421–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Richter, F.

M. Schubert, B. Rheinlander, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Rider, and F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rider, M.

M. Schubert, B. Rheinlander, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Rider, and F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819 (1997).
[Crossref]

Saez, I. M.

J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
[Crossref]

Sbai, N.

N. Sbai, J. Perriere, B. Gallas, E. Millon, W. Seiler, and M. C. Bernard, “Structural, optical, and electrical properties of epitaxial titanium oxide thin films on LaAlO3 substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Schubert, M.

M. Schubert, B. Rheinlander, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Rider, and F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819 (1997).
[Crossref]

Seiler, W.

N. Sbai, J. Perriere, B. Gallas, E. Millon, W. Seiler, and M. C. Bernard, “Structural, optical, and electrical properties of epitaxial titanium oxide thin films on LaAlO3 substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033529 (2008).
[Crossref]

Srinivasarao, M.

J. M. Ok, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, H. W. Yoo, J. H. Kim, M. Srinivasarao, and H. T. Jung, “Control of periodic defect arrays of 8CB (4-n-octyl-4-cyano-biphenyl) liquid crystals by multi-directional rubbing,” Soft Matter 9(42), 10135–10140 (2013).
[Crossref]

Toader, V.

J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

A. Honglawan and S. Yang, “Directing 3D topological defects in smectic liquid crystals and their applications as an emerging class of building blocks,” in Nanoscience With Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2014), pp. 35–68.
[Crossref]

Yoo, H. W.

J. M. Ok, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, H. W. Yoo, J. H. Kim, M. Srinivasarao, and H. T. Jung, “Control of periodic defect arrays of 8CB (4-n-octyl-4-cyano-biphenyl) liquid crystals by multi-directional rubbing,” Soft Matter 9(42), 10135–10140 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yoon, D. K.

Y. H. Kim, D. K. Yoon, H. S. Jeong, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Smectic liquid crystal defects for self-assembling of building blocks and their lithographic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(4), 610–627 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. K. Yoon, M. C. Choi, Y. H. Kim, M. W. Kim, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Internal structure visualization and lithographic use of periodic toroidal holes in liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 6, 866–870 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zappone, B.

B. Zappone, C. Meyer, L. Bruno, and E. Lacaze, “Periodic lattices of frustrated focal conic defect domains in smectic liquid crystal films,” Soft Matter 8, 4318–4326 (2012).
[Crossref]

D. Coursault, J. Grand, B. Zappone, H. Ayeb, G. Lévi, N. Felidj, and E. Lacaze, “Linear self-assembly of nanoparticles within liquid crystal defect arrays,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1461–1465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Zappone, E. Lacaze, H. Ayeb, M. Goldmann, P. Barois, and M. Alba, “Self-ordered arrays of wall defects and virtual singularities in thin smectic-A films,” Soft Matter 7, 1161–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

B. Zappone and E. Lacaze, “Surface–frustrated periodic textures of smectic–a liquid crystals on crystalline surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 061704 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Funct. Mater. (1)

Y. H. Kim, D. K. Yoon, H. S. Jeong, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Smectic liquid crystal defects for self-assembling of building blocks and their lithographic applications,” Adv. Funct. Mater. 21(4), 610–627 (2011).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (1)

D. Coursault, J. Grand, B. Zappone, H. Ayeb, G. Lévi, N. Felidj, and E. Lacaze, “Linear self-assembly of nanoparticles within liquid crystal defect arrays,” Adv. Mater. 24, 1461–1465 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. Schubert, B. Rheinlander, E. Franke, H. Neumann, J. Hahn, M. Rider, and F. Richter, “Anisotropy of boron nitride thin-film reflectivity spectra by generalized ellipsometry,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1819 (1997).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

C. Blanc and M. Kleman, “The confinement of smectics with a strong anchoring,” Eur. Phys. J. E 4, 241–251 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

N. Sbai, J. Perriere, B. Gallas, E. Millon, W. Seiler, and M. C. Bernard, “Structural, optical, and electrical properties of epitaxial titanium oxide thin films on LaAlO3 substrate,” J. Appl. Phys. 104, 033529 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

T. Novikova, P. Bulkin, V. Popov, B. Haj Ibrahim, and A. De Martino, “Mueller polarimetry as a tool for detecting asymmetry in diffraction grating profiles,” J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 29(5), 051804 (2011).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. (1)

Y. G. J. Lau, S. Klein, C. J. P. Newton, and R. M. Richardson, “Surface ordering at the air-nematic interface. Part 2. A spectroscopic ellipsometry study of orientational order,” Liq. Cryst. 34(4), 421–429 (2007).
[Crossref]

Liq. Cryst. Rev. (1)

C. Blanc, D. Coursault, and E. Lacaze, “Ordering nano-and microparticles assemblies with liquid crystals,” Liq. Cryst. Rev. 1, 83–109 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

D. K. Yoon, M. C. Choi, Y. H. Kim, M. W. Kim, O. D. Lavrentovich, and H.-T. Jung, “Internal structure visualization and lithographic use of periodic toroidal holes in liquid crystals,” Nat. Mater. 6, 866–870 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Lett. (1)

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Goldmann, M. Gailhanou, M. de Boissieu, and M. Alba, “Structure of smectic defect cores: X-Ray study of 8CB liquid crystal ultrathin films,” Phys. Lett. 96, 027803 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

J. Michel, E. Lacaze, M. Alba, M. de Boissieu, M. Gailhanou, and M. Goldmann, “Optical gratings formed in thin smectic films frustrated on a single crystalline substrate,” Phys. Rev. E 70, 011709 (2004).
[Crossref]

B. Zappone and E. Lacaze, “Surface–frustrated periodic textures of smectic–a liquid crystals on crystalline surfaces,” Phys. Rev. E 78, 061704 (2008).
[Crossref]

Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1)

O. D. Lavrentovich, “Designing Dupin cyclides in micro and macro worlds,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 110(1), 5–6 (2013).
[Crossref]

Soft Matter (4)

J. M. Ok, Y. H. Kim, H. S. Jeong, H. W. Yoo, J. H. Kim, M. Srinivasarao, and H. T. Jung, “Control of periodic defect arrays of 8CB (4-n-octyl-4-cyano-biphenyl) liquid crystals by multi-directional rubbing,” Soft Matter 9(42), 10135–10140 (2013).
[Crossref]

B. Zappone, C. Meyer, L. Bruno, and E. Lacaze, “Periodic lattices of frustrated focal conic defect domains in smectic liquid crystal films,” Soft Matter 8, 4318–4326 (2012).
[Crossref]

B. Zappone, E. Lacaze, H. Ayeb, M. Goldmann, P. Barois, and M. Alba, “Self-ordered arrays of wall defects and virtual singularities in thin smectic-A films,” Soft Matter 7, 1161–1167 (2011).
[Crossref]

J. Milette, S. Relaix, C. Lavigne, V. Toader, S. J. Cowling, I. M. Saez, R. B. Lennox, J. Goodby, and L. Reven, “Reversible long-range patterning of gold nanoparticles by smectic liquid crystals,” Soft Matter 8(24), 6593–6598 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

A. Honglawan and S. Yang, “Directing 3D topological defects in smectic liquid crystals and their applications as an emerging class of building blocks,” in Nanoscience With Liquid Crystals (Springer, 2014), pp. 35–68.
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Polarized optical microscopy image (transmission mode) of a 8CB smectic film with thickness 120 nm on rubbed PVA, showing an array of parallel stripes corresponding to the oily streaks, seen in top view. In insert, Zoom on the (a) picture. (b) Scheme of flattened hemicylinders, with a detail in side view of the area close to the centers of curvature C, including the grain boundary. Hemicylinders are separated by curvature walls W. (c) Period of the hemicylinders (viewed as parallel stripes on (a)) as a function of the film thickness.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a) Simplified models of the internal structure of the oily streaks, shown in side view. The angle β is the orientation of the optic axis of the smectic layers with respect to the substrate. The rotating grain boundary (RGB) is shown in red. The flat grain boundary (FGB) of the transition layer is shown in green. The two extreme models correspond to: the presence of a flat grain boundary in the transition layer with 45° of tilt and the total wetting of the substrate with perpendicular smectic layers covering all the substrate. (b) Equivalent models with domains of constant optic axes directions (indicated by the double arrows). (c) Models with graded birefringence for direct calculations by ellipsometry.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Scheme of the core of the angularly resolved Mueller micro-polarimeter. BFP : Back Focal Plane of the objective. PSG, PSA : polarization state generator and analyzer. [15, 16]
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Measured Mueller matrix images in the BPF, as mapped by the objective (x = sinθ. cosϕ, y = sinθ. sinϕ) (b) Depolarization factor extracted from these measurements.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Mueller matrix elements calculated using (a) a simple biaxial model (b) the graded biaxial model with a flat grain boundary at 45° in the transition area and (c) the graded biaxial model with total wetting of the substrate in the transition area (best adjustment). All elements are plotted to the same scale.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Volume fractions of non-horizontal layers and angles of the optic axes for each sublayer of the models of Fig. 2.

Equations (2)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ε = [ ε o 0 0 0 ε e . sin 2 ( β ) + ε o . cos 2 ( β ) sin ( β ) . cos ( β ) . ( ε o ε e ) 0 sin ( β ) . cos ( β ) . ( ε o ε e ) ε o . sin 2 ( β ) + ε e . cos 2 ( β ) ] .
ε layer = [ ε o 0 0 0 i f i . ( ε e . sin 2 ( β i ) + ε o . cos 2 ( β i ) ) i f i . ( sin ( β i ) . cos ( β i ) . ( ε o ε e ) ) 0 i f i . ( sin ( β i ) . cos ( β i ) . ( ε o ε e ) ) i f i . ( ε o . sin 2 ( β i ) + ε e . cos 2 ( β i ) ) ] .

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