Abstract

We have observed a remarkable decrease in photoluminescence (PL) from a blue-light emitting InGaN single-quantum-well (SQW) structure under the radiation of a green laser due to the stimulated emission depletion (STED) phenomenon. By extending the observed STED effect, super-resolution imaging of the blue-light emission lateral distribution was demonstrated for the InGaN-SQW structure through co-irradiation using a doughnut-shaped green light beam and a Gaussian-shaped violet excitation light beam. We measured point-spread functions (PSFs) to evaluate the spatial resolution of the system by imaging a small emission area. A lateral PSF size of ~150 nm was confirmed, which was approximately 40% smaller than that without the STED beam. This demonstrates that the STED technique is applicable for PL imaging of semiconductor quantum structures. The present approach may make possible a new strategy for characterizing and investigating the spatial inhomogeneity of emission properties and carrier dynamics in InGaN-based quantum wells, as well as in other semiconductor materials exhibiting quantum confinement effects.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7730–7736 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photon. 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2010 (1)

A. Kaneta, T. Hashimoto, K. Nishimura, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Visualization of the local carrier dynamics in an InGaN quantum well using dual-probe scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102102 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (1)

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photon. 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganière, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

K. Okamoto, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, J. Choi, M. Terazima, and T. Mukai, “Confocal microphotoluminescence of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(6), 064503 (2005).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

F. Bertram, S. Srinivasan, L. Geng, F. A. Ponce, T. Riemann, and J. Christen, “Microscopic correlation of redshifted luminescence and surface defects in thick InxGa1-xN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3524–3526 (2002).
[Crossref]

S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, Y.-Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. S. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, Y.-W. Kim, J. O. White, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, and H. J. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 976–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

K. P. O’Donnell, M. J. Tobin, S. C. Bayliss, and W. Van Der Stricht, “Confocal microscopy and spectroscopy of InGaN epilayers on sapphire,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 105–108 (1999).
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2346–2348 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1987 (1)

Akasaki, I.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Amano, H.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Azuhata, T.

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bayliss, S. C.

K. P. O’Donnell, M. J. Tobin, S. C. Bayliss, and W. Van Der Stricht, “Confocal microscopy and spectroscopy of InGaN epilayers on sapphire,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 105–108 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bertram, F.

F. Bertram, S. Srinivasan, L. Geng, F. A. Ponce, T. Riemann, and J. Christen, “Microscopic correlation of redshifted luminescence and surface defects in thick InxGa1-xN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3524–3526 (2002).
[Crossref]

Carlin, J. F.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganière, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Carlini, A. R.

Chakraborty, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheng, Y.-C.

S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, Y.-Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S.

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2346–2348 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Chichibu, S. F.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Choi, J.

K. Okamoto, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, J. Choi, M. Terazima, and T. Mukai, “Confocal microphotoluminescence of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(6), 064503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Christen, J.

F. Bertram, S. Srinivasan, L. Geng, F. A. Ponce, T. Riemann, and J. Christen, “Microscopic correlation of redshifted luminescence and surface defects in thick InxGa1-xN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3524–3526 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chung, Y.-Y.

S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, Y.-Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chyi, J.-I.

S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, Y.-Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[Crossref]

Crottini, A.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganière, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Denbaars, S. P.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Deveaud, B.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganière, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Eggeling, C.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photon. 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Feltin, E.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganière, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.-W.

S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, Y.-Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[Crossref]

Fini, P. T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fujita, S.

K. Okamoto, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, J. Choi, M. Terazima, and T. Mukai, “Confocal microphotoluminescence of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(6), 064503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Funato, M.

A. Kaneta, T. Hashimoto, K. Nishimura, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Visualization of the local carrier dynamics in an InGaN quantum well using dual-probe scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102102 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7730–7736 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ganière, J. D.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganière, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Geng, L.

F. Bertram, S. Srinivasan, L. Geng, F. A. Ponce, T. Riemann, and J. Christen, “Microscopic correlation of redshifted luminescence and surface defects in thick InxGa1-xN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3524–3526 (2002).
[Crossref]

Grandjean, N.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganière, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Han, J.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Han, K. Y.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photon. 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hashimoto, T.

A. Kaneta, T. Hashimoto, K. Nishimura, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Visualization of the local carrier dynamics in an InGaN quantum well using dual-probe scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Haskell, B. A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hell, S. W.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photon. 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. W. Hell and J. Wichmann, “Breaking the diffraction resolution limit by stimulated emission: stimulated-emission-depletion fluorescence microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 19(11), 780–782 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hong, C.-H.

M. S. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, Y.-W. Kim, J. O. White, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, and H. J. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 976–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hsu, C.

S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, Y.-Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[Crossref]

Irvine, S. E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photon. 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Jahn, R.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jeong, M. S.

M. S. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, Y.-W. Kim, J. O. White, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, and H. J. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 976–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kamin, D.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kamiyama, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kaneta, A.

A. Kaneta, T. Hashimoto, K. Nishimura, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Visualization of the local carrier dynamics in an InGaN quantum well using dual-probe scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102102 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, J. Choi, M. Terazima, and T. Mukai, “Confocal microphotoluminescence of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(6), 064503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kawakami, Y.

A. Kaneta, T. Hashimoto, K. Nishimura, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Visualization of the local carrier dynamics in an InGaN quantum well using dual-probe scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102102 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7730–7736 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, J. Choi, M. Terazima, and T. Mukai, “Confocal microphotoluminescence of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(6), 064503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Keller, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kim, J. Y.

M. S. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, Y.-W. Kim, J. O. White, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, and H. J. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 976–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kim, Y.-W.

M. S. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, Y.-W. Kim, J. O. White, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, and H. J. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 976–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kojima, K.

Koyama, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lauterbach, M. A.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lee, H. J.

M. S. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, Y.-W. Kim, J. O. White, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, and H. J. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 976–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Lin, Y.-S.

S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, Y.-Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[Crossref]

Ma, K.-J.

S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, Y.-Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[Crossref]

Merano, M.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganière, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mishra, U. K.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mukai, T.

K. Kojima, U. T. Schwarz, M. Funato, Y. Kawakami, S. Nagahama, and T. Mukai, “Optical gain spectra for near UV to aquamarine (Al,In)GaN laser diodes,” Opt. Express 15(12), 7730–7736 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Okamoto, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, J. Choi, M. Terazima, and T. Mukai, “Confocal microphotoluminescence of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(6), 064503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nagahama, S.

Nakamura, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2346–2348 (1997).
[Crossref]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nishimura, K.

A. Kaneta, T. Hashimoto, K. Nishimura, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Visualization of the local carrier dynamics in an InGaN quantum well using dual-probe scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102102 (2010).
[Crossref]

O’Donnell, K. P.

K. P. O’Donnell, M. J. Tobin, S. C. Bayliss, and W. Van Der Stricht, “Confocal microscopy and spectroscopy of InGaN epilayers on sapphire,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 105–108 (1999).
[Crossref]

Okamoto, K.

K. Okamoto, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, J. Choi, M. Terazima, and T. Mukai, “Confocal microphotoluminescence of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(6), 064503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Onuma, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ponce, F. A.

F. Bertram, S. Srinivasan, L. Geng, F. A. Ponce, T. Riemann, and J. Christen, “Microscopic correlation of redshifted luminescence and surface defects in thick InxGa1-xN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3524–3526 (2002).
[Crossref]

Riemann, T.

F. Bertram, S. Srinivasan, L. Geng, F. A. Ponce, T. Riemann, and J. Christen, “Microscopic correlation of redshifted luminescence and surface defects in thick InxGa1-xN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3524–3526 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rittweger, E.

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photon. 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Rizzoli, S. O.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sachot, R.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganière, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Schwarz, U. T.

Sonderegger, S.

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganière, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sota, T.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

Speck, J. S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Srinivasan, S.

F. Bertram, S. Srinivasan, L. Geng, F. A. Ponce, T. Riemann, and J. Christen, “Microscopic correlation of redshifted luminescence and surface defects in thick InxGa1-xN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3524–3526 (2002).
[Crossref]

Suh, E.-K.

M. S. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, Y.-W. Kim, J. O. White, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, and H. J. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 976–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Terazima, M.

K. Okamoto, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, J. Choi, M. Terazima, and T. Mukai, “Confocal microphotoluminescence of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(6), 064503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Tobin, M. J.

K. P. O’Donnell, M. J. Tobin, S. C. Bayliss, and W. Van Der Stricht, “Confocal microscopy and spectroscopy of InGaN epilayers on sapphire,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 105–108 (1999).
[Crossref]

Uedono, A.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Van Der Stricht, W.

K. P. O’Donnell, M. J. Tobin, S. C. Bayliss, and W. Van Der Stricht, “Confocal microscopy and spectroscopy of InGaN epilayers on sapphire,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 105–108 (1999).
[Crossref]

Wada, K.

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2346–2348 (1997).
[Crossref]

Westphal, V.

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

White, J. O.

M. S. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, Y.-W. Kim, J. O. White, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, and H. J. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 976–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wichmann, J.

Wilson, T.

Yamaguchi, S.

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, C. C.

S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, Y.-Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

A. Kaneta, T. Hashimoto, K. Nishimura, M. Funato, and Y. Kawakami, “Visualization of the local carrier dynamics in an InGaN quantum well using dual-probe scanning near-field optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Express 3(10), 102102 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

S. Chichibu, K. Wada, and S. Nakamura, “Spatially resolved cathodoluminescence spectra of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71(16), 2346–2348 (1997).
[Crossref]

F. Bertram, S. Srinivasan, L. Geng, F. A. Ponce, T. Riemann, and J. Christen, “Microscopic correlation of redshifted luminescence and surface defects in thick InxGa1-xN layers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 80(19), 3524–3526 (2002).
[Crossref]

S. Sonderegger, E. Feltin, M. Merano, A. Crottini, J. F. Carlin, R. Sachot, B. Deveaud, N. Grandjean, and J. D. Ganière, “High spatial resolution picosecond cathodoluminescence of InGaN quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(23), 232109 (2006).
[Crossref]

M. S. Jeong, J. Y. Kim, Y.-W. Kim, J. O. White, E.-K. Suh, C.-H. Hong, and H. J. Lee, “Spatially resolved photoluminescence in InGaN/GaN quantum wells by near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79(7), 976–978 (2001).
[Crossref]

S. Chichibu, T. Azuhata, T. Sota, and S. Nakamura, “Spontaneous emission of localized excitons in InGaN single and multiquantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69(27), 4188–4190 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

S.-W. Feng, Y.-C. Cheng, Y.-Y. Chung, C. C. Yang, Y.-S. Lin, C. Hsu, K.-J. Ma, and J.-I. Chyi, “Impact of localized states on the recombination dynamics in InGaN/GaN quantum well structures,” J. Appl. Phys. 92(8), 4441–4448 (2002).
[Crossref]

K. Okamoto, A. Kaneta, Y. Kawakami, S. Fujita, J. Choi, M. Terazima, and T. Mukai, “Confocal microphotoluminescence of InGaN-based light-emitting diodes,” J. Appl. Phys. 98(6), 064503 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Microsc. (1)

K. P. O’Donnell, M. J. Tobin, S. C. Bayliss, and W. Van Der Stricht, “Confocal microscopy and spectroscopy of InGaN epilayers on sapphire,” J. Microsc. 193(2), 105–108 (1999).
[Crossref]

Nat. Mater. (1)

S. F. Chichibu, A. Uedono, T. Onuma, B. A. Haskell, A. Chakraborty, T. Koyama, P. T. Fini, S. Keller, S. P. Denbaars, J. S. Speck, U. K. Mishra, S. Nakamura, S. Yamaguchi, S. Kamiyama, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, J. Han, and T. Sota, “Origin of defect-insensitive emission probability in In-containing (Al,In,GaN)N alloy semiconductors,” Nat. Mater. 5(10), 810–816 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photon. (1)

E. Rittweger, K. Y. Han, S. E. Irvine, C. Eggeling, and S. W. Hell, “STED microscopy reveals crystal colour centres with nanometric resolution,” Nat. Photon. 3(3), 144–147 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Science (1)

V. Westphal, S. O. Rizzoli, M. A. Lauterbach, D. Kamin, R. Jahn, and S. W. Hell, “Video-rate far-field optical nanoscopy dissects synaptic vesicle movement,” Science 320(5873), 246–249 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

S. Nakamura and G. Fasol, The Blue Laser Diode (Springer, 1997).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 (a) Schematic diagram of the experimental setup. DM: dichroic mirror, LC-VPP: liquid crystal vortex phase plate, BPF: band-pass filter. The excitation and STED laser beams are focused on the same position on the InGaN-SQW. The photoluminescence (PL) from the sample, which peaked at ~460 nm, was reflected by a DM and detected through a BPF. (b)-(d) Measured intensity distributions at the focus of the laser beams with 405 nm (b), 532 nm without the LC-VPP (c), and 532 nm with the LC-VPP (d). The scale bar is 400 nm.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Typical example of PL spectra indicating the STED effect. PL spectra (i) without and (ii) with a Gaussian STED beam are shown. Pexc. = 70 nW. PSTED = 10.8 mW.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) PL intensity mapping for the InGaN-SQW measured using a 2 × 2 μm2 aperture. The same region was imaged with a Gaussian STED beam (b)-(d) and a doughnut-shaped STED beam (e)-(g) with different incident powers. Pexc. = 3.7 μW. PSTED = 0.2 [(b) and (e)], 5.0 [(c) and (f)], and 17.1 mW [(d) and (g)]. (h)-(j) are the magnified images acquired for the areas marked by the red squares in (a), (d), and (g), respectively. The false-color scales used in (a)-(g) and (h)-(j) are normalized by the maximum intensities in (a) and (h), respectively. The intensity profiles along the dotted lines in (h)-(j) are plotted in (k). The spot-shaped distributions observed when the doughnut-shaped STED beam was used are indicated by arrows in (j) and (k).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Measured PL intensity in a 200 × 200-nm2 region as a function of the STED beam power. Pexc. = 6.2 μW. A Gaussian STED beam was used. The inset shows a magnification of the plot between 4 and 18 mW.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Measured spot-shaped image of the same region as Fig. 4 without a STED beam (a) and with a doughnut-shaped STED beam (b). The intensity profiles along the horizontal and vertical axes for both (a) and (b) are shown in (c) and (d), respectively. Pexc. = 6.2 μW. PSTED = 9.6 mW.

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