Abstract

A numerical study is presented of surface plasmon waves excitation in a metal film applied to the cladding of a standard bent single-mode optical fiber. It was shown that by adjusting the bend radius and metal film thickness one can achieve effective coupling between the fiber fundamental mode and symmetric surface plasmon mode through the intermediary of whispering gallery modes supported by the cladding of the bent fiber. This effect is demonstrated to allow for refractometric measurement both in the wavelength and intensity-modulated regimes with a resolution of up to 10−8 RIU. Usage of standard noise reduction techniques for intensity-modulated optical signals promises further increase in accuracy.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. X. Guo, “Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor technique: a review,” J Biophotonics 5(7), 483–501 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Chen and H. Ming, “Review of surface plasmon resonance and localized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Photonic Sensors 2(1), 37–49 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  3. P. Zijlstra, P. M. R. Paulo, and M. Orrit, “Optical detection of single non-absorbing molecules using the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanorod,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(6), 379–382 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. G. Xiao and W. J. Bock, eds., Photonic Sensing: Principles and Applications for Safety and Security Monitoring (Wiley, 2012).
  5. J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (Springer, 2006).
  6. B. D. Gupta and R. K. Verma, “Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensors: principle, probe designs, and some applications,” J. Sens. 2009(1), 979761 (2009).
  7. Yu. N. Kulchin, O. B. Vitrik, A. V. Dyshlyuk, and Zh. Zhou, “Conditions for surface plasmon resonance excitation by whispering gallery modes in a bent single mode optical fiber for the development of novel refractometric sensors,” Laser Phys. 23(8), 085105 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Gallagher “Photonics CAD Matures,” LEOS newsletter, February 2008, 8 – 14 (2008).
  9. K. S. Chiang, “Analysis of optical fibers by the effective-index method,” Appl. Opt. 25(3), 348–354 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).
  11. R. Sammut and A. W. Snyder, “Leaky modes on a dielectric waveguide: orthogonality and excitation,” Appl. Opt. 15(4), 1040–1044 (1976).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2013 (1)

Yu. N. Kulchin, O. B. Vitrik, A. V. Dyshlyuk, and Zh. Zhou, “Conditions for surface plasmon resonance excitation by whispering gallery modes in a bent single mode optical fiber for the development of novel refractometric sensors,” Laser Phys. 23(8), 085105 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (3)

X. Guo, “Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor technique: a review,” J Biophotonics 5(7), 483–501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Chen and H. Ming, “Review of surface plasmon resonance and localized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Photonic Sensors 2(1), 37–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

P. Zijlstra, P. M. R. Paulo, and M. Orrit, “Optical detection of single non-absorbing molecules using the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanorod,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(6), 379–382 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (1)

B. D. Gupta and R. K. Verma, “Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensors: principle, probe designs, and some applications,” J. Sens. 2009(1), 979761 (2009).

1986 (1)

1976 (1)

Chen, Y.

Y. Chen and H. Ming, “Review of surface plasmon resonance and localized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Photonic Sensors 2(1), 37–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chiang, K. S.

Dyshlyuk, A. V.

Yu. N. Kulchin, O. B. Vitrik, A. V. Dyshlyuk, and Zh. Zhou, “Conditions for surface plasmon resonance excitation by whispering gallery modes in a bent single mode optical fiber for the development of novel refractometric sensors,” Laser Phys. 23(8), 085105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Guo, X.

X. Guo, “Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor technique: a review,” J Biophotonics 5(7), 483–501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gupta, B. D.

B. D. Gupta and R. K. Verma, “Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensors: principle, probe designs, and some applications,” J. Sens. 2009(1), 979761 (2009).

Kulchin, Yu. N.

Yu. N. Kulchin, O. B. Vitrik, A. V. Dyshlyuk, and Zh. Zhou, “Conditions for surface plasmon resonance excitation by whispering gallery modes in a bent single mode optical fiber for the development of novel refractometric sensors,” Laser Phys. 23(8), 085105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ming, H.

Y. Chen and H. Ming, “Review of surface plasmon resonance and localized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Photonic Sensors 2(1), 37–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Orrit, M.

P. Zijlstra, P. M. R. Paulo, and M. Orrit, “Optical detection of single non-absorbing molecules using the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanorod,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(6), 379–382 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Paulo, P. M. R.

P. Zijlstra, P. M. R. Paulo, and M. Orrit, “Optical detection of single non-absorbing molecules using the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanorod,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(6), 379–382 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sammut, R.

Snyder, A. W.

Verma, R. K.

B. D. Gupta and R. K. Verma, “Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensors: principle, probe designs, and some applications,” J. Sens. 2009(1), 979761 (2009).

Vitrik, O. B.

Yu. N. Kulchin, O. B. Vitrik, A. V. Dyshlyuk, and Zh. Zhou, “Conditions for surface plasmon resonance excitation by whispering gallery modes in a bent single mode optical fiber for the development of novel refractometric sensors,” Laser Phys. 23(8), 085105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhou, Zh.

Yu. N. Kulchin, O. B. Vitrik, A. V. Dyshlyuk, and Zh. Zhou, “Conditions for surface plasmon resonance excitation by whispering gallery modes in a bent single mode optical fiber for the development of novel refractometric sensors,” Laser Phys. 23(8), 085105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zijlstra, P.

P. Zijlstra, P. M. R. Paulo, and M. Orrit, “Optical detection of single non-absorbing molecules using the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanorod,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(6), 379–382 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt. (2)

J Biophotonics (1)

X. Guo, “Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor technique: a review,” J Biophotonics 5(7), 483–501 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Sens. (1)

B. D. Gupta and R. K. Verma, “Surface plasmon resonance-based fiber optic sensors: principle, probe designs, and some applications,” J. Sens. 2009(1), 979761 (2009).

Laser Phys. (1)

Yu. N. Kulchin, O. B. Vitrik, A. V. Dyshlyuk, and Zh. Zhou, “Conditions for surface plasmon resonance excitation by whispering gallery modes in a bent single mode optical fiber for the development of novel refractometric sensors,” Laser Phys. 23(8), 085105 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Nanotechnol. (1)

P. Zijlstra, P. M. R. Paulo, and M. Orrit, “Optical detection of single non-absorbing molecules using the surface plasmon resonance of a gold nanorod,” Nat. Nanotechnol. 7(6), 379–382 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Photonic Sensors (1)

Y. Chen and H. Ming, “Review of surface plasmon resonance and localized surface plasmon resonance sensor,” Photonic Sensors 2(1), 37–49 (2012).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

G. Xiao and W. J. Bock, eds., Photonic Sensing: Principles and Applications for Safety and Security Monitoring (Wiley, 2012).

J. Homola, Surface Plasmon Resonance Based Sensors (Springer, 2006).

D. Gallagher “Photonics CAD Matures,” LEOS newsletter, February 2008, 8 – 14 (2008).

A. W. Snyder and J. D. Love, Optical Waveguide Theory (Chapman and Hall, 1983).

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic of the waveguiding structure under study and its modes: 1 – input straight waveguide section, 2 – bent waveguide section, 3 – output straight waveguide section, 4 – waveguide core, 5 – waveguide cladding, 6 – polymer jacket, 7 – silver film, 8 – electric field amplitude profile of one of the two modes of section 2 responsible for coupling light guided by the core to surface plasmons (the profile of the second mode is similar to this one and not shown), 9 – electric field profile of the fundamental mode of sections 1 and 3. Inset 1 – refractive index profile of a standard SM fiber (n1) and effective graded index profile of the equivalent slab waveguide n’1. Inset 2 – electric field profile of the fundamental mode of the bent SM waveguide with an infinite cladding. Inset 3 - electric field profile of a cladding whispering gallery mode of the bent waveguide. Inset 4 - electric field profile of the symmetric surface plasmon mode guided by the metal - surrounding medium interface.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated transmission coefficient of the studied structure: a – transmission spectra computed at two values of n0 (1.4216 and 1.4226, respectively) for d = 20 nm (1 and 2), 30 nm (3 and 4) and 40 nm (5 and 6). In the inset: SPR wavelength dependence on the refractive index n0 for d = 30 nm; b – transmission coefficient vs. n0 at a fixed wavelength λ = 1.66 um; dn1 and dn2 dependences on n0.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Dispersion curves for the fundamental mode of the bent SM waveguide with an infinite cladding, WGM, and SPM: 1 – schematic representation of the spectral region where WGM is effectively coupled to SPM; 2 - schematic representation of the spectral region where FM is effectively coupled to WGM. Inset 1 – electric field profile of section 2 mode at λ1 ≅ 1.43 um, which can be interpreted as a result of coupling between WGM and SPM. Inset 2 - electric field profile of section 2 mode at λ2 ≅ 1.61 um, which can be interpreted as FM – WGM – SPM coupling.

Equations (2)

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a p = 1 N p E 1 × H p ·zdx
dn=d n 1 +d n 2 = P N1 P 0 T d n 0 dT + P N2 P 0 d n 0 dT ,

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