Abstract

We present a detailed characterization of enhanced 2.0 μm emission and energy transfer processes by codoping Ce3+ in ZBYA: Ho3+/Yb3+ glasses under 1550 nm excitation. The measured absorption and emission spectra show that Er3+ ions are efficiently excited by pumping and energy transfer from Er3+: 4I13/2 to Ho3+: 5I7 level. The 2.0 μm emission from the Ho3+: 5I75I8 transition is enhanced by codoping Ce3+ (< 0.5 mol %) ions in the Ho3+/Er3+ doped glasses. However, excess Ce3+ ions in the glass network negatively affect the mid-infrared emission. The upconversion luminescence is dominated by Er3+ (667 nm) red emission in the Ho3+/Er3+ doped sample, which is suppressed after introducing Ce3+ ions. The red emission is abnormally dominated by the Ho3+ (650 nm) emission when the ratio of the three ions (Ho3+: Er3+: Ce3+) is 1:1:0.5. These results indicate that Ce3+ ions can enhance Ho3+: 2.0 μm emission by suppressing the upconversion processes. The Ho3+/Er3+/Ce3+ triply-doped ZBYA glass is a promising material for 2.0 μm fiber laser applications.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  27. Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.7μm fluorescence radiative dynamics and energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in fluoride glass under 800nm and 980nm excitation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(1), 87–95 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  32. B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
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  33. G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [PubMed]
  39. Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “1.8 μm emission of highly thulium doped fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083504 (2010).
  40. R. Adhikari, J. Choi, R. Narro-García, E. De la Rosa, T. Sekino, and S. W. Lee, “Understanding the infrared to visible upconversion luminescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped BaMoO4 nanocrystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 216, 36–41 (2014).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

2014 (5)

X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Xiao, and L. Si, “51.5 W monolithic single frequency 1.97 m Tm-doped fiber amplifier,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1(3–4), 123–125 (2014).

H. Fares, I. Jlassi, S. Hraiech, H. Elhouichet, and M. Férid, “Radiative parameters of Nd3+-doped titanium and tungsten modified tellurite glasses for 1.06µm laser materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 147, 224–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

F. Huang, X. Liu, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses,” Sci Rep 4(5053), 5053 (2014).
[PubMed]

R. Adhikari, J. Choi, R. Narro-García, E. De la Rosa, T. Sekino, and S. W. Lee, “Understanding the infrared to visible upconversion luminescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped BaMoO4 nanocrystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 216, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

H. Chen, F. Chen, T. Wei, Q. Liu, R. Shen, and Y. Tian, “Ho3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses sensitized by Yb3+ for efficient 2μm laser applications,” Opt. Commun. 321(15), 183–188 (2014).

2013 (10)

L. Agazzi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer-upconversion models, their applicability and breakdown in the presence of spectroscopically distinct ion classes: a case study in amorphous Al2O3:Er3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6759–6776 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 178, 326–329 (2013).

X. Li, X. Liu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Emission enhancement in Er3+Pr3+-codoped germanate,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12160101–12160103 (2013).

G. Z. Chen, J. G. Yin, L. H. Zhang, M. Z. He, E. Ma, K. J. Ning, P. X. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and Y. Hang, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in PbF2 laser crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(11), 115801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, J. Zhang, X. Jing, Y. Zhu, and S. Xu, “Intense mid-infrared emissions and energy transfer dynamics in Ho3+/Er3+ codoped fluoride glass,” J. Lumin. 138, 94–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Li, Y. Gu, B. Yao, L. Shan, and Y. Wang, “High-power high-brightness 2-μm continuous wave laser with a double-end diffusion-boned Tm, Ho:YVO4 crystal,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(9), 09140401–09140404 (2013).

Q. Yi, T. Tsuboi, S. Zhou, Y. Nakai, H. Lin, and H. Teng, “Investigation of emission properties of Tm3+:Y2O3transpatent ceramic,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09160201–09160205 (2013).

M. Li, X. Liu, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Energy transfer characteristics of silicate glass doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+ for:2 μm emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(24), 243501 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, S. Xiao, Z. Xiang, and B. Zhou, “Enhanced NIR emission in Ce3+/Er3+-doped YAG induced by Bi3+ doping,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12260201–12260204 (2013).

F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er3+-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2012 (9)

S. Guan, Y. Tian, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer processes in Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped tellurite glass for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(7), 071603 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, Y. Tian, H. Fan, J. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Efficient 2.7 μm emission in Er3+-doped bismuth germanate glass pumped by 980-nm laser diode,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 091601 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Lousteau, N. Boetti, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, S. Abrate, G. Scarciglia, A. Venturello, and D. Milanese, “Er3+ and Ce3+ codoped tellurite optical fiber for lasers and amplifiers in the near-infrared wavelength region: fabrication, optical characterization, and prospects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 194–204 (2012).
[Crossref]

C. Guo, D. Shen, J. Long, and F. Wang, “High-power and widely tunable Tm-doped fiber at 2 μm,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09140601–09140603 (2012).

Y. Tian, J. Zhang, X. Jing, and S. Xu, “Optical absorption and near infrared emissions of Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 98, 355–358 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. Tao, Y. H. Tsang, B. Zhou, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhanced 2.0μm emission and energy transfer in Yb3+/Ho3+/Ce3+ triply doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(14), 1644–1648 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.7μm fluorescence radiative dynamics and energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in fluoride glass under 800nm and 980nm excitation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(1), 87–95 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Fluorescence properties and energy transfer study of Er3+/Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass pumped at 800 and 980 nm for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073503 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (1)

R. Xu, M. Wang, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.05μm emission properties and energy transfer mechanism of germanate glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+, and Er3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053503 (2011).
[Crossref]

2010 (4)

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “1.8 μm emission of highly thulium doped fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083504 (2010).

I. Jlassi, H. Elhouichet, M. Ferid, R. Chtourou, and M. Oueslati, “Study of photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(7), 743–747 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, S. Feng, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2μm Emission of Ho3+-doped fluorophosphate glass sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1508–1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Xu, J. Pan, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer processes of Yb3+/Ho3+ codoped germanate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043522 (2010).

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

2007 (3)

D. Theisen-Kunde, V. Ott, R. Brinkmann, and R. Keller, “Potential of a new cw 2μm laser scalpel for laparoscopic surgery,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 139–145 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Gain cross-sections of transparent oxyfluoride glass–ceramics single-doped with Ho3+ (at 2.0μm) and with Tm3+ (at 1.8μm),” J. Alloy. Comp. 436(1-2), 216–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Y. Feng, J. Meng, and W. Chen, “Research development of eye-safe all-solid-state lasers,” Laser&Optoelectronics Progress 44(10), 33–38 (2007).

2006 (3)

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+–Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26(2–3), 523–529 (2006).
[Crossref]

B. M. Walsh, “Judd-Ofelt Theory: Principles and Pratice,” Adv. Spectroscopy or Lasers and Sensing. 2006403–433 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient Thulium-Doped 2-μm Germanate Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

S. Dai, J. Zhang, C. Yu, G. Zhou, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effect of hydroxyl groups on nonradiative decay of Er3+:4I13/2→4I15/2 transition in zinc tellurite glasses,” Mater. Lett. 59(18), 2333–2336 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (1)

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Hydroxyl groups in erbium-doped germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1–3), 48–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, S. H. Park, and J. Heo, “Comparative study of energy transfers from Er3+ to Ce3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 3832–3839 (2000).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

B. Peng and T. Izumitani, “Optical properties, fluorescence mechanisms and energy transfer in Tm3+, Ho3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ doped near-infrared laser glasses, sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 4(6), 797–810 (1995).
[Crossref]

1962 (2)

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Abrate, S.

J. Lousteau, N. Boetti, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, S. Abrate, G. Scarciglia, A. Venturello, and D. Milanese, “Er3+ and Ce3+ codoped tellurite optical fiber for lasers and amplifiers in the near-infrared wavelength region: fabrication, optical characterization, and prospects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 194–204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Adhikari, R.

R. Adhikari, J. Choi, R. Narro-García, E. De la Rosa, T. Sekino, and S. W. Lee, “Understanding the infrared to visible upconversion luminescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped BaMoO4 nanocrystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 216, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Agazzi, L.

L. Agazzi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer-upconversion models, their applicability and breakdown in the presence of spectroscopically distinct ion classes: a case study in amorphous Al2O3:Er3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6759–6776 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ajroud, M.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+–Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26(2–3), 523–529 (2006).
[Crossref]

Auzel, F.

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Barnes, N. P.

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient Thulium-Doped 2-μm Germanate Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ben Ouada, H.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+–Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26(2–3), 523–529 (2006).
[Crossref]

Boetti, N.

J. Lousteau, N. Boetti, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, S. Abrate, G. Scarciglia, A. Venturello, and D. Milanese, “Er3+ and Ce3+ codoped tellurite optical fiber for lasers and amplifiers in the near-infrared wavelength region: fabrication, optical characterization, and prospects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 194–204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Boyland, A. J.

Brenier, A.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+–Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26(2–3), 523–529 (2006).
[Crossref]

Brinkmann, R.

D. Theisen-Kunde, V. Ott, R. Brinkmann, and R. Keller, “Potential of a new cw 2μm laser scalpel for laparoscopic surgery,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 139–145 (2007).
[Crossref]

Brown, C. T. A.

Champagnon, B.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+–Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26(2–3), 523–529 (2006).
[Crossref]

Chen, B.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 178, 326–329 (2013).

Chen, D.

F. Huang, X. Liu, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses,” Sci Rep 4(5053), 5053 (2014).
[PubMed]

Chen, F.

H. Chen, F. Chen, T. Wei, Q. Liu, R. Shen, and Y. Tian, “Ho3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses sensitized by Yb3+ for efficient 2μm laser applications,” Opt. Commun. 321(15), 183–188 (2014).

Chen, G. Z.

G. Z. Chen, J. G. Yin, L. H. Zhang, M. Z. He, E. Ma, K. J. Ning, P. X. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and Y. Hang, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in PbF2 laser crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(11), 115801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, F. Chen, T. Wei, Q. Liu, R. Shen, and Y. Tian, “Ho3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses sensitized by Yb3+ for efficient 2μm laser applications,” Opt. Commun. 321(15), 183–188 (2014).

Chen, Q. J.

Chen, W.

Y. Feng, J. Meng, and W. Chen, “Research development of eye-safe all-solid-state lasers,” Laser&Optoelectronics Progress 44(10), 33–38 (2007).

Chengaiah, T.

T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
[Crossref]

Chiasera, A.

J. Lousteau, N. Boetti, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, S. Abrate, G. Scarciglia, A. Venturello, and D. Milanese, “Er3+ and Ce3+ codoped tellurite optical fiber for lasers and amplifiers in the near-infrared wavelength region: fabrication, optical characterization, and prospects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 194–204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Choi, J.

R. Adhikari, J. Choi, R. Narro-García, E. De la Rosa, T. Sekino, and S. W. Lee, “Understanding the infrared to visible upconversion luminescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped BaMoO4 nanocrystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 216, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. G.

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, S. H. Park, and J. Heo, “Comparative study of energy transfers from Er3+ to Ce3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 3832–3839 (2000).
[Crossref]

Chtourou, R.

I. Jlassi, H. Elhouichet, M. Ferid, R. Chtourou, and M. Oueslati, “Study of photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(7), 743–747 (2010).
[Crossref]

Clarkson, W. A.

Dai, S.

S. Dai, J. Zhang, C. Yu, G. Zhou, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effect of hydroxyl groups on nonradiative decay of Er3+:4I13/2→4I15/2 transition in zinc tellurite glasses,” Mater. Lett. 59(18), 2333–2336 (2005).
[Crossref]

De la Rosa, E.

R. Adhikari, J. Choi, R. Narro-García, E. De la Rosa, T. Sekino, and S. W. Lee, “Understanding the infrared to visible upconversion luminescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped BaMoO4 nanocrystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 216, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Elhouichet, H.

H. Fares, I. Jlassi, S. Hraiech, H. Elhouichet, and M. Férid, “Radiative parameters of Nd3+-doped titanium and tungsten modified tellurite glasses for 1.06µm laser materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 147, 224–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Jlassi, H. Elhouichet, M. Ferid, R. Chtourou, and M. Oueslati, “Study of photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(7), 743–747 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fan, H.

Fares, H.

H. Fares, I. Jlassi, S. Hraiech, H. Elhouichet, and M. Férid, “Radiative parameters of Nd3+-doped titanium and tungsten modified tellurite glasses for 1.06µm laser materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 147, 224–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Feng, S.

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, S. Feng, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2μm Emission of Ho3+-doped fluorophosphate glass sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1508–1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Feng, X.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Hydroxyl groups in erbium-doped germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1–3), 48–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Feng, Y.

Y. Feng, J. Meng, and W. Chen, “Research development of eye-safe all-solid-state lasers,” Laser&Optoelectronics Progress 44(10), 33–38 (2007).

Ferid, M.

I. Jlassi, H. Elhouichet, M. Ferid, R. Chtourou, and M. Oueslati, “Study of photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(7), 743–747 (2010).
[Crossref]

Férid, M.

H. Fares, I. Jlassi, S. Hraiech, H. Elhouichet, and M. Férid, “Radiative parameters of Nd3+-doped titanium and tungsten modified tellurite glasses for 1.06µm laser materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 147, 224–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ferrari, M.

J. Lousteau, N. Boetti, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, S. Abrate, G. Scarciglia, A. Venturello, and D. Milanese, “Er3+ and Ce3+ codoped tellurite optical fiber for lasers and amplifiers in the near-infrared wavelength region: fabrication, optical characterization, and prospects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 194–204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Furniss, D.

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Gain cross-sections of transparent oxyfluoride glass–ceramics single-doped with Ho3+ (at 2.0μm) and with Tm3+ (at 1.8μm),” J. Alloy. Comp. 436(1-2), 216–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fusari, F.

Geng, J.

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 μm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient Thulium-Doped 2-μm Germanate Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gu, Y.

G. Li, Y. Gu, B. Yao, L. Shan, and Y. Wang, “High-power high-brightness 2-μm continuous wave laser with a double-end diffusion-boned Tm, Ho:YVO4 crystal,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(9), 09140401–09140404 (2013).

Guan, S.

Guo, C.

C. Guo, D. Shen, J. Long, and F. Wang, “High-power and widely tunable Tm-doped fiber at 2 μm,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09140601–09140603 (2012).

Guo, Y.

Hanada, T.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Hydroxyl groups in erbium-doped germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1–3), 48–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Hang, Y.

G. Z. Chen, J. G. Yin, L. H. Zhang, M. Z. He, E. Ma, K. J. Ning, P. X. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and Y. Hang, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in PbF2 laser crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(11), 115801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Haouari, M.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+–Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26(2–3), 523–529 (2006).
[Crossref]

He, M. Z.

G. Z. Chen, J. G. Yin, L. H. Zhang, M. Z. He, E. Ma, K. J. Ning, P. X. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and Y. Hang, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in PbF2 laser crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(11), 115801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Heo, J.

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, S. H. Park, and J. Heo, “Comparative study of energy transfers from Er3+ to Ce3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 3832–3839 (2000).
[Crossref]

Hraiech, S.

H. Fares, I. Jlassi, S. Hraiech, H. Elhouichet, and M. Férid, “Radiative parameters of Nd3+-doped titanium and tungsten modified tellurite glasses for 1.06µm laser materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 147, 224–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

Hu, H.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 178, 326–329 (2013).

Hu, J.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 178, 326–329 (2013).

Hu, L.

F. Huang, X. Liu, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses,” Sci Rep 4(5053), 5053 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Li, X. Liu, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Energy transfer characteristics of silicate glass doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+ for:2 μm emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(24), 243501 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Li, X. Liu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Emission enhancement in Er3+Pr3+-codoped germanate,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12160101–12160103 (2013).

S. Guan, Y. Tian, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer processes in Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped tellurite glass for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(7), 071603 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, Y. Tian, H. Fan, J. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Efficient 2.7 μm emission in Er3+-doped bismuth germanate glass pumped by 980-nm laser diode,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 091601 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Fluorescence properties and energy transfer study of Er3+/Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass pumped at 800 and 980 nm for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.7μm fluorescence radiative dynamics and energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in fluoride glass under 800nm and 980nm excitation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(1), 87–95 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Xu, M. Wang, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.05μm emission properties and energy transfer mechanism of germanate glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+, and Er3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “1.8 μm emission of highly thulium doped fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083504 (2010).

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, S. Feng, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2μm Emission of Ho3+-doped fluorophosphate glass sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1508–1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Xu, J. Pan, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer processes of Yb3+/Ho3+ codoped germanate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043522 (2010).

S. Dai, J. Zhang, C. Yu, G. Zhou, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effect of hydroxyl groups on nonradiative decay of Er3+:4I13/2→4I15/2 transition in zinc tellurite glasses,” Mater. Lett. 59(18), 2333–2336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Huang, F.

F. Huang, X. Liu, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses,” Sci Rep 4(5053), 5053 (2014).
[PubMed]

F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er3+-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Huang, P.

Ibsen, M.

Izumitani, T.

B. Peng and T. Izumitani, “Optical properties, fluorescence mechanisms and energy transfer in Tm3+, Ho3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ doped near-infrared laser glasses, sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 4(6), 797–810 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jha, A.

L. Tao, Y. H. Tsang, B. Zhou, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhanced 2.0μm emission and energy transfer in Yb3+/Ho3+/Ce3+ triply doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(14), 1644–1648 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+-doped bulk TZN and TZNG tellurite glasses operating around 1.9 μm,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19146–19151 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jiang, H.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 178, 326–329 (2013).

Jiang, S.

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 μm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient Thulium-Doped 2-μm Germanate Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Jing, X.

Y. Tian, J. Zhang, X. Jing, Y. Zhu, and S. Xu, “Intense mid-infrared emissions and energy transfer dynamics in Ho3+/Er3+ codoped fluoride glass,” J. Lumin. 138, 94–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, J. Zhang, X. Jing, and S. Xu, “Optical absorption and near infrared emissions of Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 98, 355–358 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jlassi, I.

H. Fares, I. Jlassi, S. Hraiech, H. Elhouichet, and M. Férid, “Radiative parameters of Nd3+-doped titanium and tungsten modified tellurite glasses for 1.06µm laser materials,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 147, 224–232 (2014).
[Crossref]

I. Jlassi, H. Elhouichet, M. Ferid, R. Chtourou, and M. Oueslati, “Study of photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(7), 743–747 (2010).
[Crossref]

Judd, B. R.

B. R. Judd, “Optical absorption intensities of rare-earth ions,” Phys. Rev. 127(3), 750–761 (1962).
[Crossref]

Keller, R.

D. Theisen-Kunde, V. Ott, R. Brinkmann, and R. Keller, “Potential of a new cw 2μm laser scalpel for laparoscopic surgery,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 139–145 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. H.

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, S. H. Park, and J. Heo, “Comparative study of energy transfers from Er3+ to Ce3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 3832–3839 (2000).
[Crossref]

Lagatsky, A. A.

Lee, S. W.

R. Adhikari, J. Choi, R. Narro-García, E. De la Rosa, T. Sekino, and S. W. Lee, “Understanding the infrared to visible upconversion luminescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped BaMoO4 nanocrystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 216, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

G. Li, Y. Gu, B. Yao, L. Shan, and Y. Wang, “High-power high-brightness 2-μm continuous wave laser with a double-end diffusion-boned Tm, Ho:YVO4 crystal,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(9), 09140401–09140404 (2013).

Li, M.

M. Li, X. Liu, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Energy transfer characteristics of silicate glass doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+ for:2 μm emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(24), 243501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

X. Li, X. Liu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Emission enhancement in Er3+Pr3+-codoped germanate,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12160101–12160103 (2013).

Lin, H.

Q. Yi, T. Tsuboi, S. Zhou, Y. Nakai, H. Lin, and H. Teng, “Investigation of emission properties of Tm3+:Y2O3transpatent ceramic,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09160201–09160205 (2013).

Liu, Q.

H. Chen, F. Chen, T. Wei, Q. Liu, R. Shen, and Y. Tian, “Ho3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses sensitized by Yb3+ for efficient 2μm laser applications,” Opt. Commun. 321(15), 183–188 (2014).

Liu, X.

F. Huang, X. Liu, L. Hu, and D. Chen, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer parameters of Er3+-doped fluorozirconate and oxyfluoroaluminate glasses,” Sci Rep 4(5053), 5053 (2014).
[PubMed]

M. Li, X. Liu, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Energy transfer characteristics of silicate glass doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+ for:2 μm emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(24), 243501 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. Liu, S. Xiao, Z. Xiang, and B. Zhou, “Enhanced NIR emission in Ce3+/Er3+-doped YAG induced by Bi3+ doping,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12260201–12260204 (2013).

X. Li, X. Liu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Emission enhancement in Er3+Pr3+-codoped germanate,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12160101–12160103 (2013).

Liu, Y. C.

G. Z. Chen, J. G. Yin, L. H. Zhang, M. Z. He, E. Ma, K. J. Ning, P. X. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and Y. Hang, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in PbF2 laser crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(11), 115801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Long, J.

C. Guo, D. Shen, J. Long, and F. Wang, “High-power and widely tunable Tm-doped fiber at 2 μm,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09140601–09140603 (2012).

Lousteau, J.

J. Lousteau, N. Boetti, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, S. Abrate, G. Scarciglia, A. Venturello, and D. Milanese, “Er3+ and Ce3+ codoped tellurite optical fiber for lasers and amplifiers in the near-infrared wavelength region: fabrication, optical characterization, and prospects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 194–204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Luo, T.

Q. Wang, J. Geng, T. Luo, and S. Jiang, “Mode-locked 2 μm laser with highly thulium-doped silicate fiber,” Opt. Lett. 34(23), 3616–3618 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient Thulium-Doped 2-μm Germanate Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ma, E.

G. Z. Chen, J. G. Yin, L. H. Zhang, M. Z. He, E. Ma, K. J. Ning, P. X. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and Y. Hang, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in PbF2 laser crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(11), 115801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ma, Y.

Mâaref, H.

M. Ajroud, M. Haouari, H. Ben Ouada, H. Mâaref, A. Brenier, and B. Champagnon, “Energy transfer processes in (Er3+–Yb3+)-codoped germanate glasses for mid-infrared and up-conversion applications,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 26(2–3), 523–529 (2006).
[Crossref]

Méndez-Ramos, J.

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Gain cross-sections of transparent oxyfluoride glass–ceramics single-doped with Ho3+ (at 2.0μm) and with Tm3+ (at 1.8μm),” J. Alloy. Comp. 436(1-2), 216–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Meng, J.

Y. Feng, J. Meng, and W. Chen, “Research development of eye-safe all-solid-state lasers,” Laser&Optoelectronics Progress 44(10), 33–38 (2007).

Milanese, D.

J. Lousteau, N. Boetti, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, S. Abrate, G. Scarciglia, A. Venturello, and D. Milanese, “Er3+ and Ce3+ codoped tellurite optical fiber for lasers and amplifiers in the near-infrared wavelength region: fabrication, optical characterization, and prospects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 194–204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Moorthy, L. R.

T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
[Crossref]

Nakai, Y.

Q. Yi, T. Tsuboi, S. Zhou, Y. Nakai, H. Lin, and H. Teng, “Investigation of emission properties of Tm3+:Y2O3transpatent ceramic,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09160201–09160205 (2013).

Narro-García, R.

R. Adhikari, J. Choi, R. Narro-García, E. De la Rosa, T. Sekino, and S. W. Lee, “Understanding the infrared to visible upconversion luminescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped BaMoO4 nanocrystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 216, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Ning, K. J.

G. Z. Chen, J. G. Yin, L. H. Zhang, M. Z. He, E. Ma, K. J. Ning, P. X. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and Y. Hang, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in PbF2 laser crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(11), 115801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Ofelt, G. S.

G. S. Ofelt, “Intensities of crystal spectra of rare-earth ions,” J. Chem. Phys. 37(3), 511–520 (1962).
[Crossref]

Ott, V.

D. Theisen-Kunde, V. Ott, R. Brinkmann, and R. Keller, “Potential of a new cw 2μm laser scalpel for laparoscopic surgery,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 139–145 (2007).
[Crossref]

Oueslati, M.

I. Jlassi, H. Elhouichet, M. Ferid, R. Chtourou, and M. Oueslati, “Study of photoluminescence quenching in Er3+-doped tellurite glasses,” Opt. Mater. 32(7), 743–747 (2010).
[Crossref]

Pan, J.

R. Xu, J. Pan, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer processes of Yb3+/Ho3+ codoped germanate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043522 (2010).

Park, S. H.

Y. G. Choi, K. H. Kim, S. H. Park, and J. Heo, “Comparative study of energy transfers from Er3+ to Ce3+ in tellurite and sulfide glasses under 980 nm excitation,” J. Appl. Phys. 88(7), 3832–3839 (2000).
[Crossref]

Pavani, K.

T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
[Crossref]

Peng, B.

B. Peng and T. Izumitani, “Optical properties, fluorescence mechanisms and energy transfer in Tm3+, Ho3+ and Tm3+-Ho3+ doped near-infrared laser glasses, sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 4(6), 797–810 (1995).
[Crossref]

Peng, J.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 178, 326–329 (2013).

Peyghambarian, N.

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient Thulium-Doped 2-μm Germanate Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Pollnau, M.

L. Agazzi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer-upconversion models, their applicability and breakdown in the presence of spectroscopically distinct ion classes: a case study in amorphous Al2O3:Er3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6759–6776 (2013).
[Crossref]

Qian, Q.

Qiu, J. R.

Richards, B.

L. Tao, Y. H. Tsang, B. Zhou, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhanced 2.0μm emission and energy transfer in Yb3+/Ho3+/Ce3+ triply doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(14), 1644–1648 (2012).
[Crossref]

F. Fusari, A. A. Lagatsky, B. Richards, A. Jha, W. Sibbett, and C. T. A. Brown, “Spectroscopic and lasing performance of Tm3+-doped bulk TZN and TZNG tellurite glasses operating around 1.9 μm,” Opt. Express 16(23), 19146–19151 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rodríguez, V. D.

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Gain cross-sections of transparent oxyfluoride glass–ceramics single-doped with Ho3+ (at 2.0μm) and with Tm3+ (at 1.8μm),” J. Alloy. Comp. 436(1-2), 216–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sahu, J. K.

Sasikala, T.

T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
[Crossref]

Scarciglia, G.

J. Lousteau, N. Boetti, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, S. Abrate, G. Scarciglia, A. Venturello, and D. Milanese, “Er3+ and Ce3+ codoped tellurite optical fiber for lasers and amplifiers in the near-infrared wavelength region: fabrication, optical characterization, and prospects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 194–204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Seddon, A. B.

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Gain cross-sections of transparent oxyfluoride glass–ceramics single-doped with Ho3+ (at 2.0μm) and with Tm3+ (at 1.8μm),” J. Alloy. Comp. 436(1-2), 216–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sekino, T.

R. Adhikari, J. Choi, R. Narro-García, E. De la Rosa, T. Sekino, and S. W. Lee, “Understanding the infrared to visible upconversion luminescence properties of Er3+/Yb3+ co-doped BaMoO4 nanocrystals,” J. Solid State Chem. 216, 36–41 (2014).
[Crossref]

Shan, L.

G. Li, Y. Gu, B. Yao, L. Shan, and Y. Wang, “High-power high-brightness 2-μm continuous wave laser with a double-end diffusion-boned Tm, Ho:YVO4 crystal,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(9), 09140401–09140404 (2013).

Shen, D.

C. Guo, D. Shen, J. Long, and F. Wang, “High-power and widely tunable Tm-doped fiber at 2 μm,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09140601–09140603 (2012).

Shen, D. Y.

Shen, R.

H. Chen, F. Chen, T. Wei, Q. Liu, R. Shen, and Y. Tian, “Ho3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses sensitized by Yb3+ for efficient 2μm laser applications,” Opt. Commun. 321(15), 183–188 (2014).

Si, L.

X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Xiao, and L. Si, “51.5 W monolithic single frequency 1.97 m Tm-doped fiber amplifier,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1(3–4), 123–125 (2014).

Sibbett, W.

Tanabe, S.

X. Feng, S. Tanabe, and T. Hanada, “Hydroxyl groups in erbium-doped germanotellurite glasses,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 281(1–3), 48–54 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tao, L.

L. Tao, Y. H. Tsang, B. Zhou, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhanced 2.0μm emission and energy transfer in Yb3+/Ho3+/Ce3+ triply doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(14), 1644–1648 (2012).
[Crossref]

Teng, H.

Q. Yi, T. Tsuboi, S. Zhou, Y. Nakai, H. Lin, and H. Teng, “Investigation of emission properties of Tm3+:Y2O3transpatent ceramic,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09160201–09160205 (2013).

Theisen-Kunde, D.

D. Theisen-Kunde, V. Ott, R. Brinkmann, and R. Keller, “Potential of a new cw 2μm laser scalpel for laparoscopic surgery,” Med. Laser Appl. 22(2), 139–145 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tian, Y.

H. Chen, F. Chen, T. Wei, Q. Liu, R. Shen, and Y. Tian, “Ho3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses sensitized by Yb3+ for efficient 2μm laser applications,” Opt. Commun. 321(15), 183–188 (2014).

Y. Tian, J. Zhang, X. Jing, Y. Zhu, and S. Xu, “Intense mid-infrared emissions and energy transfer dynamics in Ho3+/Er3+ codoped fluoride glass,” J. Lumin. 138, 94–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, J. Zhang, X. Jing, and S. Xu, “Optical absorption and near infrared emissions of Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 98, 355–358 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.7μm fluorescence radiative dynamics and energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in fluoride glass under 800nm and 980nm excitation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(1), 87–95 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Fluorescence properties and energy transfer study of Er3+/Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass pumped at 800 and 980 nm for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073503 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, Y. Tian, H. Fan, J. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Efficient 2.7 μm emission in Er3+-doped bismuth germanate glass pumped by 980-nm laser diode,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 091601 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Guan, Y. Tian, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer processes in Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped tellurite glass for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(7), 071603 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Xu, M. Wang, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.05μm emission properties and energy transfer mechanism of germanate glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+, and Er3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “1.8 μm emission of highly thulium doped fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083504 (2010).

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, S. Feng, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2μm Emission of Ho3+-doped fluorophosphate glass sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1508–1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tikhomirov, V. K.

V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Méndez-Ramos, V. D. Rodríguez, D. Furniss, and A. B. Seddon, “Gain cross-sections of transparent oxyfluoride glass–ceramics single-doped with Ho3+ (at 2.0μm) and with Tm3+ (at 1.8μm),” J. Alloy. Comp. 436(1-2), 216–220 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsang, Y. H.

L. Tao, Y. H. Tsang, B. Zhou, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhanced 2.0μm emission and energy transfer in Yb3+/Ho3+/Ce3+ triply doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(14), 1644–1648 (2012).
[Crossref]

Tsuboi, T.

Q. Yi, T. Tsuboi, S. Zhou, Y. Nakai, H. Lin, and H. Teng, “Investigation of emission properties of Tm3+:Y2O3transpatent ceramic,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09160201–09160205 (2013).

Venturello, A.

J. Lousteau, N. Boetti, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, S. Abrate, G. Scarciglia, A. Venturello, and D. Milanese, “Er3+ and Ce3+ codoped tellurite optical fiber for lasers and amplifiers in the near-infrared wavelength region: fabrication, optical characterization, and prospects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 194–204 (2012).
[Crossref]

Walsh, B. M.

B. M. Walsh, “Judd-Ofelt Theory: Principles and Pratice,” Adv. Spectroscopy or Lasers and Sensing. 2006403–433 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, F.

C. Guo, D. Shen, J. Long, and F. Wang, “High-power and widely tunable Tm-doped fiber at 2 μm,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09140601–09140603 (2012).

Wang, G.

S. Dai, J. Zhang, C. Yu, G. Zhou, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effect of hydroxyl groups on nonradiative decay of Er3+:4I13/2→4I15/2 transition in zinc tellurite glasses,” Mater. Lett. 59(18), 2333–2336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, M.

R. Xu, M. Wang, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.05μm emission properties and energy transfer mechanism of germanate glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+, and Er3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wang, P.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 178, 326–329 (2013).

Wang, Q.

Wang, X.

X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Xiao, and L. Si, “51.5 W monolithic single frequency 1.97 m Tm-doped fiber amplifier,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1(3–4), 123–125 (2014).

X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Xiao, and L. Si, “51.5 W monolithic single frequency 1.97 m Tm-doped fiber amplifier,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1(3–4), 123–125 (2014).

Wang, Y.

G. Li, Y. Gu, B. Yao, L. Shan, and Y. Wang, “High-power high-brightness 2-μm continuous wave laser with a double-end diffusion-boned Tm, Ho:YVO4 crystal,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(9), 09140401–09140404 (2013).

Wang, Y. S.

Wei, T.

H. Chen, F. Chen, T. Wei, Q. Liu, R. Shen, and Y. Tian, “Ho3+ doped fluorophosphate glasses sensitized by Yb3+ for efficient 2μm laser applications,” Opt. Commun. 321(15), 183–188 (2014).

Wörhoff, K.

L. Agazzi, K. Wörhoff, and M. Pollnau, “Energy-transfer-upconversion models, their applicability and breakdown in the presence of spectroscopically distinct ion classes: a case study in amorphous Al2O3:Er3+,” J. Phys. Chem. C 117(13), 6759–6776 (2013).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient Thulium-Doped 2-μm Germanate Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

Xia, H.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 178, 326–329 (2013).

Xiang, Z.

X. Liu, S. Xiao, Z. Xiang, and B. Zhou, “Enhanced NIR emission in Ce3+/Er3+-doped YAG induced by Bi3+ doping,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12260201–12260204 (2013).

Xiao, H.

X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Xiao, and L. Si, “51.5 W monolithic single frequency 1.97 m Tm-doped fiber amplifier,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1(3–4), 123–125 (2014).

Xiao, S.

X. Liu, S. Xiao, Z. Xiang, and B. Zhou, “Enhanced NIR emission in Ce3+/Er3+-doped YAG induced by Bi3+ doping,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12260201–12260204 (2013).

Xu, R.

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Fluorescence properties and energy transfer study of Er3+/Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass pumped at 800 and 980 nm for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.7μm fluorescence radiative dynamics and energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in fluoride glass under 800nm and 980nm excitation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(1), 87–95 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Xu, M. Wang, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.05μm emission properties and energy transfer mechanism of germanate glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+, and Er3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “1.8 μm emission of highly thulium doped fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083504 (2010).

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, S. Feng, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2μm Emission of Ho3+-doped fluorophosphate glass sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1508–1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Xu, J. Pan, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer processes of Yb3+/Ho3+ codoped germanate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043522 (2010).

Xu, S.

Y. Tian, J. Zhang, X. Jing, Y. Zhu, and S. Xu, “Intense mid-infrared emissions and energy transfer dynamics in Ho3+/Er3+ codoped fluoride glass,” J. Lumin. 138, 94–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, J. Zhang, X. Jing, and S. Xu, “Optical absorption and near infrared emissions of Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 98, 355–358 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, Z. M.

Yao, B.

G. Li, Y. Gu, B. Yao, L. Shan, and Y. Wang, “High-power high-brightness 2-μm continuous wave laser with a double-end diffusion-boned Tm, Ho:YVO4 crystal,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(9), 09140401–09140404 (2013).

Yi, Q.

Q. Yi, T. Tsuboi, S. Zhou, Y. Nakai, H. Lin, and H. Teng, “Investigation of emission properties of Tm3+:Y2O3transpatent ceramic,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09160201–09160205 (2013).

Yin, J. G.

G. Z. Chen, J. G. Yin, L. H. Zhang, M. Z. He, E. Ma, K. J. Ning, P. X. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and Y. Hang, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in PbF2 laser crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(11), 115801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yu, C.

S. Dai, J. Zhang, C. Yu, G. Zhou, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effect of hydroxyl groups on nonradiative decay of Er3+:4I13/2→4I15/2 transition in zinc tellurite glasses,” Mater. Lett. 59(18), 2333–2336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J.

X. Li, X. Liu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Emission enhancement in Er3+Pr3+-codoped germanate,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12160101–12160103 (2013).

F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er3+-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, J. Zhang, X. Jing, Y. Zhu, and S. Xu, “Intense mid-infrared emissions and energy transfer dynamics in Ho3+/Er3+ codoped fluoride glass,” J. Lumin. 138, 94–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

M. Li, X. Liu, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Energy transfer characteristics of silicate glass doped with Er3+, Tm3+, and Ho3+ for:2 μm emission,” J. Appl. Phys. 114(24), 243501 (2013).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Fluorescence properties and energy transfer study of Er3+/Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass pumped at 800 and 980 nm for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073503 (2012).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, J. Zhang, X. Jing, and S. Xu, “Optical absorption and near infrared emissions of Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass,” Spectrochim. Acta A Mol. Biomol. Spectrosc. 98, 355–358 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.7μm fluorescence radiative dynamics and energy transfer between Er3+ and Tm3+ ions in fluoride glass under 800nm and 980nm excitation,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 113(1), 87–95 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, Y. Tian, H. Fan, J. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Efficient 2.7 μm emission in Er3+-doped bismuth germanate glass pumped by 980-nm laser diode,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 091601 (2012).
[Crossref]

S. Guan, Y. Tian, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer processes in Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped tellurite glass for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(7), 071603 (2012).
[Crossref]

R. Xu, M. Wang, Y. Tian, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.05μm emission properties and energy transfer mechanism of germanate glass doped with Ho3+, Tm3+, and Er3+,” J. Appl. Phys. 109(5), 053503 (2011).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “1.8 μm emission of highly thulium doped fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083504 (2010).

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, S. Feng, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2μm Emission of Ho3+-doped fluorophosphate glass sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1508–1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

R. Xu, J. Pan, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2.0 μm emission properties and energy transfer processes of Yb3+/Ho3+ codoped germanate glass,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(4), 043522 (2010).

S. Dai, J. Zhang, C. Yu, G. Zhou, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effect of hydroxyl groups on nonradiative decay of Er3+:4I13/2→4I15/2 transition in zinc tellurite glasses,” Mater. Lett. 59(18), 2333–2336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhang, L.

X. Li, X. Liu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Emission enhancement in Er3+Pr3+-codoped germanate,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12160101–12160103 (2013).

F. Huang, Y. Guo, Y. Ma, L. Zhang, and J. Zhang, “Highly Er3+-doped ZrF4-based fluoride glasses for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Appl. Opt. 52(7), 1399–1403 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Tian, L. Zhang, S. Feng, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “2μm Emission of Ho3+-doped fluorophosphate glass sensitized by Yb3+,” Opt. Mater. 32(11), 1508–1513 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “1.8 μm emission of highly thulium doped fluorophosphate glasses,” J. Appl. Phys. 108(8), 083504 (2010).

Zhang, L. H.

G. Z. Chen, J. G. Yin, L. H. Zhang, M. Z. He, E. Ma, K. J. Ning, P. X. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and Y. Hang, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in PbF2 laser crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(11), 115801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, P. X.

G. Z. Chen, J. G. Yin, L. H. Zhang, M. Z. He, E. Ma, K. J. Ning, P. X. Zhang, Y. C. Liu, and Y. Hang, “Optical properties of Dy3+ ion in PbF2 laser crystal,” Laser Phys. Lett. 10(11), 115801 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Q. Y.

Zhang, W. J.

Zhang, Y.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 178, 326–329 (2013).

Zhang, Z.

Zhao, G.

Zhou, B.

X. Liu, S. Xiao, Z. Xiang, and B. Zhou, “Enhanced NIR emission in Ce3+/Er3+-doped YAG induced by Bi3+ doping,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12260201–12260204 (2013).

L. Tao, Y. H. Tsang, B. Zhou, B. Richards, and A. Jha, “Enhanced 2.0μm emission and energy transfer in Yb3+/Ho3+/Ce3+ triply doped tellurite glass,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 358(14), 1644–1648 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhou, G.

S. Dai, J. Zhang, C. Yu, G. Zhou, G. Wang, and L. Hu, “Effect of hydroxyl groups on nonradiative decay of Er3+:4I13/2→4I15/2 transition in zinc tellurite glasses,” Mater. Lett. 59(18), 2333–2336 (2005).
[Crossref]

Zhou, P.

X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Xiao, and L. Si, “51.5 W monolithic single frequency 1.97 m Tm-doped fiber amplifier,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1(3–4), 123–125 (2014).

Zhou, S.

Q. Yi, T. Tsuboi, S. Zhou, Y. Nakai, H. Lin, and H. Teng, “Investigation of emission properties of Tm3+:Y2O3transpatent ceramic,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09160201–09160205 (2013).

Zhu, Y.

Y. Tian, J. Zhang, X. Jing, Y. Zhu, and S. Xu, “Intense mid-infrared emissions and energy transfer dynamics in Ho3+/Er3+ codoped fluoride glass,” J. Lumin. 138, 94–97 (2013).
[Crossref]

Zhuang, X.

X. Zhuang, H. Xia, H. Hu, J. Hu, P. Wang, J. Peng, Y. Zhang, H. Jiang, and B. Chen, “Enhanced emission of 2.7μm from Er3+/Nd3+-codoped LiYF4 single crystals,” Mater. Sci. Eng. C 178, 326–329 (2013).

Adv. Spectroscopy or Lasers and Sensing. (1)

B. M. Walsh, “Judd-Ofelt Theory: Principles and Pratice,” Adv. Spectroscopy or Lasers and Sensing. 2006403–433 (2006).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Chem. Rev. (1)

F. Auzel, “Upconversion and Anti-Stokes Processes with f and d ions in solids,” Chem. Rev. 104(1), 139–174 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chin. Opt. Lett. (7)

X. Li, X. Liu, L. Zhang, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Emission enhancement in Er3+Pr3+-codoped germanate,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12160101–12160103 (2013).

S. Guan, Y. Tian, Y. Guo, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Spectroscopic properties and energy transfer processes in Er3+/Nd3+ co-doped tellurite glass for 2.7 μm laser materials,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(7), 071603 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Zhao, Y. Tian, H. Fan, J. Zhang, and L. Hu, “Efficient 2.7 μm emission in Er3+-doped bismuth germanate glass pumped by 980-nm laser diode,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 091601 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Yi, T. Tsuboi, S. Zhou, Y. Nakai, H. Lin, and H. Teng, “Investigation of emission properties of Tm3+:Y2O3transpatent ceramic,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09160201–09160205 (2013).

G. Li, Y. Gu, B. Yao, L. Shan, and Y. Wang, “High-power high-brightness 2-μm continuous wave laser with a double-end diffusion-boned Tm, Ho:YVO4 crystal,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(9), 09140401–09140404 (2013).

X. Liu, S. Xiao, Z. Xiang, and B. Zhou, “Enhanced NIR emission in Ce3+/Er3+-doped YAG induced by Bi3+ doping,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 11(12), 12260201–12260204 (2013).

C. Guo, D. Shen, J. Long, and F. Wang, “High-power and widely tunable Tm-doped fiber at 2 μm,” Chin. Opt. Lett. 10(9), 09140601–09140603 (2012).

High Power Laser Sci. Eng. (1)

X. Wang, P. Zhou, X. Wang, H. Xiao, and L. Si, “51.5 W monolithic single frequency 1.97 m Tm-doped fiber amplifier,” High Power Laser Sci. Eng. 1(3–4), 123–125 (2014).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

J. Wu, S. Jiang, T. Luo, J. Geng, N. Peyghambarian, and N. P. Barnes, “Efficient Thulium-Doped 2-μm Germanate Fiber Laser,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 18(2), 334–336 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics J. (1)

J. Lousteau, N. Boetti, A. Chiasera, M. Ferrari, S. Abrate, G. Scarciglia, A. Venturello, and D. Milanese, “Er3+ and Ce3+ codoped tellurite optical fiber for lasers and amplifiers in the near-infrared wavelength region: fabrication, optical characterization, and prospects,” IEEE Photonics J. 4(1), 194–204 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Alloy. Comp. (2)

T. Sasikala, L. R. Moorthy, K. Pavani, and T. Chengaiah, “Spectroscopic properties of Er3+ and Ce3+ co-doped tellurite glasses,” J. Alloy. Comp. 542(25), 271–275 (2012).
[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Y. Tian, R. Xu, L. Hu, and J. Zhang, “Fluorescence properties and energy transfer study of Er3+/Nd3+ doped fluorophosphate glass pumped at 800 and 980 nm for mid-infrared laser applications,” J. Appl. Phys. 111(7), 073503 (2012).
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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Absorption spectra of the Ho3+ singly doped, Ho3+/Er3+ codoped and Ho3+/Er3+/Ce3+ tridoped ZBYA glasses in the wavelength region of 400 nm to 2100 nm. Inset (a) is the absorption spectra of the codoped and tridoped samples in the wavelength region of 250 nm to 320 nm. Inset (b) is the transmittance spectrum of the Ho3+ doped ZBYA glass.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Calculated absorption cross section of Ho3+ singly doped, Ho3+/Er3+ codoped and Ho3+/Er3+/Ce3+ tridoped ZBYA glasses.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 2.0 μm emission spectra of Ho3+ singly doped, Ho3+/Er3+ codoped and Ho3+/Er3+/Ce3+ tridoped fluoride glasses in the wavelength region 1800 nm to 2200 nm.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Upconversion fluorescence spectra of Ho3+ singly doped, Ho3+/Er3+ codoped and Ho3+/Er3+/Ce3+ tridoped ZBYA glasses in the wavelength region of 500 nm to 850 nm. Inset shows the deconvolution of the red emission (665 nm) of the EHC0.5 sample.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Partial energy level diagram of Ho3+, Er3+, and Ce3+ ions and involved energy transfer mechanisms.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 (a) The spectra of 980, 1200, and 2708 nm emissions, (b) The decay curves of the samples at 1949 nm.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Log-log plot of the luminescence intensity versus IR pump intensity (P in mW) for Ho3+/Er3+ codoped and Ho3+/Er3+/Ce3+ tridoped samples. The luminescence intensity is at 667 nm.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Gain spectra of Ho3+ in the EHC0.25 sample. Inset shows calculated absorption and emission cross sections of the EHC0.25 sample.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Experimental and Calculated Oscillator Strength of Ho3+ in Present Glass

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Table 2 J-O Parameters Ωt of Ho3+ in Various Glasses

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Table 3 Energy Gap (ΔE), Predicted Spontaneous Transition Probability (A), Radiative Lifetime (τrad), and Branching Ratio (β) of Present Glass for Various Selected Levels of Ho3+

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

O H = ln( T T 0 ) l
N OH = N A ε O H
σ a ( λ )= 2.303log( I 0 I ) NL
S ed ( I 5 7 I 5 8 )= U (2) × Ω 2 + U (4) × Ω 4 + U (6) × Ω 6 =0.0249 Ω 2 +0.1345 Ω 4 +1.5217 Ω 6
σ em = λ 4 A rad 8πc n 2 × λI( λ ) λI( λ )d( λ )
α abs (λ)= em ( λ )×( Z u Z l )exp[ ( E zl hc λ 1 ) K B T ]
G( λ )=N( P× α em ( λ )( 1p )× α abs (λ) )

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