Abstract

Optical blue filter is usually regarded as a critical optical component for high speed phosphor-based white light emitting diode (LED) visible-light-communication (VLC). However, the optical blue filter plays different roles in VLC when using modulations of on-off keying (OOK) or discrete multi-tone (DMT). We show that in the DMT VLC system, the blue optical filter may be unnecessary, and even degrade the transmission performance (by reducing the optical signal-to-noise ratio (SNR)). Analyses and verifications by experiments are performed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the function of blue filters in VLC is explicitly analyzed.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newsl. 26, 9–13 (2012).
  2. H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chen, H. H. Lu, C. H. Chang, Y. P. Lin, H. C. Lin, and H. W. Wu, “10m/500 Mbps WDM visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9919–9924 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. Z. Wang, W. D. Zhong, C. Yu, J. Chen, C. P. Francois, and W. Chen, “Performance of dimming control scheme in visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18861–18868 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. C. H. Yeh, Y. L. Liu, and C. W. Chow, “Real-time white-light phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC) with compact size,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26192–26197 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. J. Y. Sung, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Dimming-discrete-multi-tone (DMT) for simultaneous color control and high speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7538–7543 (2014).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. H. Le Minh, D. C. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
    [Crossref]
  11. G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. J. Vučić, C. Kottke, K. Habel, and K.-D. Langer, “803 Mbit/s visible light WDM link based on DMT modulation of a single RGB LED luminary,” in Proc. OFC2011, OWB6.
    [Crossref]

2014 (2)

2013 (1)

2012 (6)

2009 (1)

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (1)

H. Le Minh, D. C. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Chang, C. H.

Chen, C. Y.

Chen, J.

Chen, M. C.

Chen, W.

Choudhury, P.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chow, C. W.

Ciaramella, E.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Corsini, R.

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

Cossu, G.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Faulkner, G.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. C. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Francois, C. P.

Habel, K.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, K. Habel, and K.-D. Langer, “803 Mbit/s visible light WDM link based on DMT modulation of a single RGB LED luminary,” in Proc. OFC2011, OWB6.
[Crossref]

Jhang, T. W.

Jung, D.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. C. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Khalid, A. M.

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kottke, C.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, K. Habel, and K.-D. Langer, “803 Mbit/s visible light WDM link based on DMT modulation of a single RGB LED luminary,” in Proc. OFC2011, OWB6.
[Crossref]

Langer, K.-D.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, K. Habel, and K.-D. Langer, “803 Mbit/s visible light WDM link based on DMT modulation of a single RGB LED luminary,” in Proc. OFC2011, OWB6.
[Crossref]

Le Minh, H.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. C. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lee, K.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. C. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, H. C.

Lin, W. Y.

Lin, Y. P.

Liu, Y.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newsl. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Liu, Y. F.

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newsl. 26, 9–13 (2012).

Liu, Y. L.

Lu, H. H.

O’Brien, D.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

O’Brien, D. C.

H. Le Minh, D. C. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Oh, Y.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. C. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Sung, J. Y.

Vucic, J.

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, K. Habel, and K.-D. Langer, “803 Mbit/s visible light WDM link based on DMT modulation of a single RGB LED luminary,” in Proc. OFC2011, OWB6.
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

Won, E. T.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, H. W.

Wu, P. Y.

Yeh, C. H.

Yu, C.

Zeng, L.

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. C. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhong, W. D.

IEEE Photon. J. (1)

A. M. Khalid, G. Cossu, R. Corsini, P. Choudhury, and E. Ciaramella, “1-Gb/s transmission over a phosphorescent white LED by using rate-adaptive discrete multitone modulation,” IEEE Photon. J. 4(5), 1465–1473 (2012).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Soc. Newsl. (1)

C. W. Chow, C. H. Yeh, Y. Liu, and Y. F. Liu, “Digital signal processing for light emitting diode based visible light communication,” IEEE Photon. Soc. Newsl. 26, 9–13 (2012).

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (2)

H. Le Minh, D. C. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, and Y. Oh, “High-speed visible light communications using multiple-resonant equalization,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 20(14), 1243–1245 (2008).
[Crossref]

H. Le Minh, D. O’Brien, G. Faulkner, L. Zeng, K. Lee, D. Jung, Y. Oh, and E. T. Won, “100-Mb/s NRZ visible light communications using a postequalized white LED,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 21(15), 1063–1065 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (7)

G. Cossu, A. M. Khalid, P. Choudhury, R. Corsini, and E. Ciaramella, “3.4 Gbit/s visible optical wireless transmission based on RGB LED,” Opt. Express 20(26), B501–B506 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. H. Lu, Y. P. Lin, P. Y. Wu, C. Y. Chen, M. C. Chen, and T. W. Jhang, “A multiple-input-multiple-output visible light communication system based on VCSELs and spatial light modulators,” Opt. Express 22(3), 3468–3474 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. Y. Lin, C. Y. Chen, H. H. Lu, C. H. Chang, Y. P. Lin, H. C. Lin, and H. W. Wu, “10m/500 Mbps WDM visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(9), 9919–9924 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, C. Yu, W. D. Zhong, J. Chen, and W. Chen, “Performance of a novel LED lamp arrangement to reduce SNR fluctuation for multi-user visible light communication systems,” Opt. Express 20(4), 4564–4573 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. Wang, W. D. Zhong, C. Yu, J. Chen, C. P. Francois, and W. Chen, “Performance of dimming control scheme in visible light communication system,” Opt. Express 20(17), 18861–18868 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Yeh, Y. L. Liu, and C. W. Chow, “Real-time white-light phosphor-LED visible light communication (VLC) with compact size,” Opt. Express 21(22), 26192–26197 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Y. Sung, C. W. Chow, and C. H. Yeh, “Dimming-discrete-multi-tone (DMT) for simultaneous color control and high speed visible light communication,” Opt. Express 22(7), 7538–7543 (2014).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (1)

J. Vučić, C. Kottke, K. Habel, and K.-D. Langer, “803 Mbit/s visible light WDM link based on DMT modulation of a single RGB LED luminary,” in Proc. OFC2011, OWB6.
[Crossref]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The model for phosphor-based LED VLC system with optical blue filter. A: absorptance; T: transmittance. Insets: schematic electrical spectra of (a) input signal, (b) blue light if received by a PD, (c) yellow light component if received by a PD, (d) blue light transmitted through the yellow phosphor, (e) received white light without using a blue filter, and (f) received white light using a blue filter.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup to evaluate the necessity of the optical blue filter.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 The measured frequency response of VLC with and without using optical blue filters and lenses.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) The measured SNR for the VLC transmission without and with optical blue filter, and the (b) bit loading schemes used.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Constellation diagrams of different bit-loading scheme. Upper rows: without using an optical blue filter. Bottom rows: using an optical blue filter.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 BER performance against different transmission distances with and without using an optical blue filter.

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