Abstract

We propose broadband one-dimensional optical cloaking design based on isotropic and purely dielectric non-absorbent materials. The photonic structures are formed by utilizing graded index (GRIN) concept in stacked form. All simulations are performed by finite-difference time-domain and plane wave basis frequency domain numerical methods. Indications in ray optics are also presented for the cloaking device. The refractive index distribution of the design is also obtained via effective medium theory. The cloaking devices can reroute wavelengths of light in one dimension. The rerouted light is avoided to reach the interior region of the stacked GRIN structure. Unidirectional GRIN cloaking structure demonstrates low-loss and large bandwidth characteristics. It is shown that the structure operates in dual polarization mode. Performed numerical analyses reveal the capability of cloaking devices to hide arbitrary shaped large objects from the incident light.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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2014 (1)

2013 (3)

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3652 (2013).

B. B. Oner, M. Turduev, and H. Kurt, “High-efficiency beam bending using graded photonic crystals,” Opt. Lett. 38(10), 1688–1690 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Selvanayagam and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Experimental demonstration of active electromagnetic cloaking,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041011 (2013).

2012 (1)

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, “A full-parameter unidirectional metamaterial cloak for microwaves,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 25–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (1)

M. Gharghi, C. Gladden, T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, X. Yin, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “A carpet cloak for visible light,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2825–2828 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. E. Serebryannikov and E. Ozbay, “Non-ideal multifrequency cloaking using strongly dispersive materials,” Physica B 405(14), 2959–2963 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (4)

A. E. Serebryannikov, P. V. Usik, and E. Ozbay, “Non-ideal cloaking based on Fabry-Perot resonances in single-layer high-index,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16869–16876 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[Crossref]

N. A. Mortensen, O. Sigmund, and O. Breinbjerg, “Prospects for poor-man's cloaking with low-contrast all-dielectric optical elements,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09008 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

D. P. Gaillot, C. Croënne, and D. Lippens, “An all-dielectric route for terahertz cloaking,” Opt. Express 16(6), 3986–3992 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bermel, P.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Breinbjerg, O.

N. A. Mortensen, O. Sigmund, and O. Breinbjerg, “Prospects for poor-man's cloaking with low-contrast all-dielectric optical elements,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09008 (2009).
[Crossref]

Brenner, P.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cai, W.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

Cardenas, J.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, H.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3652 (2013).

Chettiar, U. K.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

Choi, J. S.

Croënne, C.

Cummer, S. A.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eleftheriades, G. V.

M. Selvanayagam and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Experimental demonstration of active electromagnetic cloaking,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041011 (2013).

Ergin, T.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gabrielli, L. H.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gaillot, D. P.

Gharghi, M.

M. Gharghi, C. Gladden, T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, X. Yin, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “A carpet cloak for visible light,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2825–2828 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gladden, C.

M. Gharghi, C. Gladden, T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, X. Yin, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “A carpet cloak for visible light,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2825–2828 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Howell, J. B.

Howell, J. C.

Ibanescu, M.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Joannopoulos, J. D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Johnson, S. G.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Justice, B. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kildishev, A. V.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kurt, H.

Landy, N.

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, “A full-parameter unidirectional metamaterial cloak for microwaves,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 25–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Li, J.

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lippens, D.

Lipson, M.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Liu, Y.

M. Gharghi, C. Gladden, T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, X. Yin, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “A carpet cloak for visible light,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2825–2828 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mock, J. J.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mortensen, N. A.

N. A. Mortensen, O. Sigmund, and O. Breinbjerg, “Prospects for poor-man's cloaking with low-contrast all-dielectric optical elements,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09008 (2009).
[Crossref]

Neff, C. W.

Z. C. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oner, B. B.

Oskooi, A. F.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ozbay, E.

A. E. Serebryannikov and E. Ozbay, “Non-ideal multifrequency cloaking using strongly dispersive materials,” Physica B 405(14), 2959–2963 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. E. Serebryannikov, P. V. Usik, and E. Ozbay, “Non-ideal cloaking based on Fabry-Perot resonances in single-layer high-index,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16869–16876 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pendry, J. B.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Poitras, C. B.

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Qiu, M.

Z. C. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roundy, D.

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

Ruan, Z. C.

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schurig, D.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Selvanayagam, M.

M. Selvanayagam and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Experimental demonstration of active electromagnetic cloaking,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041011 (2013).

Serebryannikov, A. E.

A. E. Serebryannikov and E. Ozbay, “Non-ideal multifrequency cloaking using strongly dispersive materials,” Physica B 405(14), 2959–2963 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. E. Serebryannikov, P. V. Usik, and E. Ozbay, “Non-ideal cloaking based on Fabry-Perot resonances in single-layer high-index,” Opt. Express 17(19), 16869–16876 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shalaev, V. M.

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shen, L.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3652 (2013).

Sigmund, O.

N. A. Mortensen, O. Sigmund, and O. Breinbjerg, “Prospects for poor-man's cloaking with low-contrast all-dielectric optical elements,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09008 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smith, D. R.

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, “A full-parameter unidirectional metamaterial cloak for microwaves,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 25–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Starr, A. F.

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stenger, N.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Turduev, M.

Usik, P. V.

Valentine, J.

M. Gharghi, C. Gladden, T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, X. Yin, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “A carpet cloak for visible light,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2825–2828 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, H.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3652 (2013).

Wegener, M.

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yan, M.

Z. C. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yin, X.

M. Gharghi, C. Gladden, T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, X. Yin, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “A carpet cloak for visible light,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2825–2828 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

M. Gharghi, C. Gladden, T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, X. Yin, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “A carpet cloak for visible light,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2825–2828 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, B.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3652 (2013).

Zhang, X.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3652 (2013).

M. Gharghi, C. Gladden, T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, X. Yin, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “A carpet cloak for visible light,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2825–2828 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zheludev, N. I.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3652 (2013).

Zheng, B.

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3652 (2013).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Comput. Phys. Commun. (1)

A. F. Oskooi, D. Roundy, M. Ibanescu, P. Bermel, J. D. Joannopoulos, and S. G. Johnson, “MEEP: a flexible free software package for electromagnetic simulations by the FDTD method,” Comput. Phys. Commun. 181(3), 687–702 (2010).
[Crossref]

J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. (1)

N. A. Mortensen, O. Sigmund, and O. Breinbjerg, “Prospects for poor-man's cloaking with low-contrast all-dielectric optical elements,” J. Eur. Opt. Soc. Rapid Publ. 4, 09008 (2009).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Gharghi, C. Gladden, T. Zentgraf, Y. Liu, X. Yin, J. Valentine, and X. Zhang, “A carpet cloak for visible light,” Nano Lett. 11(7), 2825–2828 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Commun. (1)

H. Chen, B. Zheng, L. Shen, H. Wang, X. Zhang, N. I. Zheludev, and B. Zhang, “Ray-optics cloaking devices for large objects in incoherent natural light,” Nat. Commun. 4, 3652 (2013).

Nat. Mater. (2)

J. Valentine, J. Li, T. Zentgraf, G. Bartal, and X. Zhang, “An optical cloak made of dielectrics,” Nat. Mater. 8(7), 568–571 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. Landy and D. R. Smith, “A full-parameter unidirectional metamaterial cloak for microwaves,” Nat. Mater. 12(1), 25–28 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nat. Photonics (2)

W. Cai, U. K. Chettiar, A. V. Kildishev, and V. M. Shalaev, “Optical cloaking with metamaterials,” Nat. Photonics 1(4), 224–227 (2007).
[Crossref]

L. H. Gabrielli, J. Cardenas, C. B. Poitras, and M. Lipson, “Silicon nanostructure cloak operating at optical frequencies,” Nat. Photonics 3(8), 461–463 (2009).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

J. Li and J. B. Pendry, “Hiding under the carpet: a new strategy for cloaking,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 101(20), 203901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Yan, Z. C. Ruan, and M. Qiu, “Cylindrical invisibility cloak with simplified material parameters is inherently visible,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(23), 233901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Z. C. Ruan, M. Yan, C. W. Neff, and M. Qiu, “Ideal cylindrical cloak: perfect but sensitive to tiny perturbations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99(11), 113903 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. X (1)

M. Selvanayagam and G. V. Eleftheriades, “Experimental demonstration of active electromagnetic cloaking,” Phys. Rev. X 3(4), 041011 (2013).

Physica B (1)

A. E. Serebryannikov and E. Ozbay, “Non-ideal multifrequency cloaking using strongly dispersive materials,” Physica B 405(14), 2959–2963 (2010).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

T. Ergin, N. Stenger, P. Brenner, J. B. Pendry, and M. Wegener, “Three-dimensional invisibility cloak at optical wavelengths,” Science 328(5976), 337–339 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Schurig, J. J. Mock, B. J. Justice, S. A. Cummer, J. B. Pendry, A. F. Starr, and D. R. Smith, “Metamaterial electromagnetic cloak at microwave frequencies,” Science 314(5801), 977–980 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Pendry, D. Schurig, and D. R. Smith, “Controlling electromagnetic fields,” Science 312(5781), 1780–1782 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

R. K. Lüneburg, Mathematical Theory of Optics (University of California, 1964).

C. Gomez-Reino, M. V. Perez, and C. Bao, Gradient-Index Optics: Fundamentals and Applications (Springer, 2002).

A. Taflove and S. C. Hagness, Computational Electrodynamics: The Finite-Difference Time-Domain Method (Artech House Publisher, 2005).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 The effective group refractive index variations with the normalized frequency are plotted for the cases of (a) Δy=0.487a and (b) Δy=2.970a . The PC rods have the radii of 0.20a with the permittivity value of ε r =2.25 . (The distance in the x direction is kept 1.0a for all of the unit cells respectively).
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Ray trajectories of the cloaking design with two stacked GRIN waveguides are shown. Zero spherical aberration of the HS profile and the cloaked region can be easily seen. The gradient parameter is chosen as α=0.0245 a 1 .
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) The geometry of the cloaking device with two stacked GRIN PC waveguides is shown. (b) Power ratios of the cloaked region and output over the input signal.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Schematic of the cloaking device with four stacked GRIN PC waveguides (three cloaked regions) is shown. Electric field (Ez) distributions for three frequencies: (b) a/λ=0.1130, (c) a/λ=0.1195 and (d) a/λ=0.1260 under the plane wave excitation. The boundaries are determined keeping phase mismatch below 10%.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Hz field distribution regarding TE polarization plane wave excitation at the normalized frequency a/λ=0.1650.

Equations (3)

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n 2 TM =(1f) ε h +f ε r forTMmodes, n 2 TE = (1f) ε h +(1+f) ε r (1+f) ε h +(1f) ε r ε h forTE modes,
n= 2 n 0 / ( e α(y y 0 ) + e α(y y 0 ) ) ,
lim λ0 ( δ| n TE n TM | )=0,or lim ε r ε h ( δ| n TE n TM | )=0,

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