Abstract

Broadband spectral tuning in the long wavelength range (greater than 10 μm) was demonstrated with an external-cavity quantum cascade laser. The tunable wavelength of the laser ranged from 9.5 to 11.4 μm (176cm−1; corresponding to 18% of the center wavelength) in continuous wave (cw) operation at room temperature, without any anti-reflection coating. The gain chip based on the anti-crossed dual-upper-state (DAU) design provided a cw lasing up to 300 K, with a low threshold current density of 2.1 kA/cm2. The highly stable broadband spectral tuning and high laser performance were enabled by the spectrally homogeneous gain profile of the anti-crossed DAU active region.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  3. G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  4. R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. J. Manne, O. Sukhorukov, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ammonia detection in breath,” Appl. Opt. 45(36), 9230–9237 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. J. Faist, M. Beck, T. Aellen, and E. Gini, “Quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 147–149 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  7. R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  8. Y. Yao, W. O. Charles, T. Tsai, J. Chen, G. Wysocki, and C. F. Gmachl, “Broadband quantum cascade laser gain medium based on a ‘continuum-to-bound’ active region design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211106 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. Y. Yao, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance ‘continuum-to-continuum’ quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Fujita, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance, homogeneous broad-gain quantum cascade lasers based on dual-upper-state design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241107 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  11. K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (~600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0</~0.4), temperature-insensitive (T<0~510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, and T. Edamura, “Extremely temperature-insensitive continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181111 (2012).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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  16. K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, K. Tanaka, T. Edamura, T. Kubis, and G. Klimeck, “Indirectly pumped 3.7 THz InGaAs/InAlAs quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20647–20658 (2012).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  18. P. Harrison and R. W. Kelsall, “The relative importance of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Solid-State Electron. 42(7-8), 1449–1451 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  19. A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
    [Crossref]

2012 (2)

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, and T. Edamura, “Extremely temperature-insensitive continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181111 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, K. Tanaka, T. Edamura, T. Kubis, and G. Klimeck, “Indirectly pumped 3.7 THz InGaAs/InAlAs quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20647–20658 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2011 (3)

T. Dougakiuchi, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broadband tuning of external cavity dual-upper-state quantum-cascade lasers in continuous wave operation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(10), 102101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (~600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0</~0.4), temperature-insensitive (T<0~510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (4)

A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(8), 083001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, W. O. Charles, T. Tsai, J. Chen, G. Wysocki, and C. F. Gmachl, “Broadband quantum cascade laser gain medium based on a ‘continuum-to-bound’ active region design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance ‘continuum-to-continuum’ quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance, homogeneous broad-gain quantum cascade lasers based on dual-upper-state design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

2008 (2)

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

J. Manne, O. Sukhorukov, W. Jäger, and J. Tulip, “Pulsed quantum cascade laser-based cavity ring-down spectroscopy for ammonia detection in breath,” Appl. Opt. 45(36), 9230–9237 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[Crossref]

2001 (3)

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, M. Beck, T. Aellen, and E. Gini, “Quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 147–149 (2001).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

P. Harrison and R. W. Kelsall, “The relative importance of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Solid-State Electron. 42(7-8), 1449–1451 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aellen, T.

J. Faist, M. Beck, T. Aellen, and E. Gini, “Quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 147–149 (2001).
[Crossref]

Akikusa, N.

T. Dougakiuchi, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broadband tuning of external cavity dual-upper-state quantum-cascade lasers in continuous wave operation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(10), 102101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Baillargeon, J. N.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bastard, G.

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Beck, M.

J. Faist, M. Beck, T. Aellen, and E. Gini, “Quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 147–149 (2001).
[Crossref]

Bour, D.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Charles, W. O.

Y. Yao, W. O. Charles, T. Tsai, J. Chen, G. Wysocki, and C. F. Gmachl, “Broadband quantum cascade laser gain medium based on a ‘continuum-to-bound’ active region design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Chen, J.

Y. Yao, W. O. Charles, T. Tsai, J. Chen, G. Wysocki, and C. F. Gmachl, “Broadband quantum cascade laser gain medium based on a ‘continuum-to-bound’ active region design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Corzine, S.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Curl, R. F.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Diehl, L.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Dougakiuchi, T.

T. Dougakiuchi, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broadband tuning of external cavity dual-upper-state quantum-cascade lasers in continuous wave operation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(10), 102101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (~600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0</~0.4), temperature-insensitive (T<0~510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Edamura, T.

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, K. Tanaka, T. Edamura, T. Kubis, and G. Klimeck, “Indirectly pumped 3.7 THz InGaAs/InAlAs quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20647–20658 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, and T. Edamura, “Extremely temperature-insensitive continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181111 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Dougakiuchi, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broadband tuning of external cavity dual-upper-state quantum-cascade lasers in continuous wave operation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(10), 102101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (~600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0</~0.4), temperature-insensitive (T<0~510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance, homogeneous broad-gain quantum cascade lasers based on dual-upper-state design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Faist, J.

A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(8), 083001 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[Crossref]

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, M. Beck, T. Aellen, and E. Gini, “Quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 147–149 (2001).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.-Y.

Y. Yao, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance ‘continuum-to-continuum’ quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Fedorov, G.

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fujita, K.

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, K. Tanaka, T. Edamura, T. Kubis, and G. Klimeck, “Indirectly pumped 3.7 THz InGaAs/InAlAs quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20647–20658 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, and T. Edamura, “Extremely temperature-insensitive continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181111 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Dougakiuchi, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broadband tuning of external cavity dual-upper-state quantum-cascade lasers in continuous wave operation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(10), 102101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (~600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0</~0.4), temperature-insensitive (T<0~510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance, homogeneous broad-gain quantum cascade lasers based on dual-upper-state design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Furuta, S.

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, and T. Edamura, “Extremely temperature-insensitive continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181111 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, K. Tanaka, T. Edamura, T. Kubis, and G. Klimeck, “Indirectly pumped 3.7 THz InGaAs/InAlAs quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20647–20658 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0</~0.4), temperature-insensitive (T<0~510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (~600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance, homogeneous broad-gain quantum cascade lasers based on dual-upper-state design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Gannot, I.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gini, E.

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, M. Beck, T. Aellen, and E. Gini, “Quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 147–149 (2001).
[Crossref]

Giovannini, M.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gmachl, C. F.

Y. Yao, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance ‘continuum-to-continuum’ quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, W. O. Charles, T. Tsai, J. Chen, G. Wysocki, and C. F. Gmachl, “Broadband quantum cascade laser gain medium based on a ‘continuum-to-bound’ active region design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Harrison, P.

P. Harrison and R. W. Kelsall, “The relative importance of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Solid-State Electron. 42(7-8), 1449–1451 (1998).
[Crossref]

Hofler, G.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hoyler, N.

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hugi, A.

A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(8), 083001 (2010).
[Crossref]

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hwang, W.-Y.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ilev, I. K.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ishaug, B.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
[Crossref]

Ito, A.

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (~600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Jäger, W.

Kelsall, R. W.

P. Harrison and R. W. Kelsall, “The relative importance of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Solid-State Electron. 42(7-8), 1449–1451 (1998).
[Crossref]

Klimeck, G.

Kubis, T.

Le, H. Q.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
[Crossref]

Leuliet, A.

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Lewicki, R.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Lin, C.-H.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
[Crossref]

Luo, G. P.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
[Crossref]

Manne, J.

Maulini, R.

A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(8), 083001 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mohan, A.

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ochiai, T.

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (~600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

Pei, S. S.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
[Crossref]

Peng, C.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
[Crossref]

Sirtori, C.

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smirnov, D.

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sugiyama, A.

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, and T. Edamura, “Extremely temperature-insensitive continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181111 (2012).
[Crossref]

T. Dougakiuchi, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broadband tuning of external cavity dual-upper-state quantum-cascade lasers in continuous wave operation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(10), 102101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (~600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0</~0.4), temperature-insensitive (T<0~510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sukhorukov, O.

Tanaka, K.

Tittel, F. K.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Troccoli, M.

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Tsai, T.

Y. Yao, W. O. Charles, T. Tsai, J. Chen, G. Wysocki, and C. F. Gmachl, “Broadband quantum cascade laser gain medium based on a ‘continuum-to-bound’ active region design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Tulip, J.

Um, J.

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vasanelli, A.

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vinter, B.

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wade, A.

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

Y. Yao, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance ‘continuum-to-continuum’ quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Waynant, R. W.

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
[Crossref]

Wittmann, A.

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[Crossref]

Wysocki, G.

Y. Yao, W. O. Charles, T. Tsai, J. Chen, G. Wysocki, and C. F. Gmachl, “Broadband quantum cascade laser gain medium based on a ‘continuum-to-bound’ active region design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211106 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yamanishi, M.

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, and T. Edamura, “Extremely temperature-insensitive continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181111 (2012).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, K. Tanaka, T. Edamura, T. Kubis, and G. Klimeck, “Indirectly pumped 3.7 THz InGaAs/InAlAs quantum-cascade lasers grown by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy,” Opt. Express 20(18), 20647–20658 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, T. Dougakiuchi, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broad-gain (Δλ/λ0</~0.4), temperature-insensitive (T<0~510K) quantum cascade lasers,” Opt. Express 19(3), 2694–2701 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (~600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

T. Dougakiuchi, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broadband tuning of external cavity dual-upper-state quantum-cascade lasers in continuous wave operation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(10), 102101 (2011).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance, homogeneous broad-gain quantum cascade lasers based on dual-upper-state design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

Yao, Y.

Y. Yao, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance ‘continuum-to-continuum’ quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, W. O. Charles, T. Tsai, J. Chen, G. Wysocki, and C. F. Gmachl, “Broadband quantum cascade laser gain medium based on a ‘continuum-to-bound’ active region design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. Wysocki, R. Lewicki, R. F. Curl, F. K. Tittel, L. Diehl, F. Capasso, M. Troccoli, G. Hofler, D. Bour, S. Corzine, R. Maulini, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Widely tunable mode-hop free external cavity quantum cascade lasers for high resolution spectroscopy and chemical sensing,” Appl. Phys. B 92(3), 305–311 (2008).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Express (1)

T. Dougakiuchi, K. Fujita, N. Akikusa, A. Sugiyama, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “Broadband tuning of external cavity dual-upper-state quantum-cascade lasers in continuous wave operation,” Appl. Phys. Express 4(10), 102101 (2011).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

K. Fujita, M. Yamanishi, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, and T. Edamura, “Extremely temperature-insensitive continuous-wave quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 101(18), 181111 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. P. Luo, C. Peng, H. Q. Le, S. S. Pei, W.-Y. Hwang, B. Ishaug, J. Um, J. N. Baillargeon, and C.-H. Lin, “Grating-tuned external-cavity quantum-cascade semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(19), 2834–2836 (2001).
[Crossref]

J. Faist, M. Beck, T. Aellen, and E. Gini, “Quantum-cascade lasers based on a bound-to-continuum transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 78(2), 147–149 (2001).
[Crossref]

R. Maulini, A. Mohan, M. Giovannini, J. Faist, and E. Gini, “External cavity quantum-cascade laser tunable from 8.2 to 10.4 μm using a gain element with a heterogeneous cascade,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 88(20), 201113 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, W. O. Charles, T. Tsai, J. Chen, G. Wysocki, and C. F. Gmachl, “Broadband quantum cascade laser gain medium based on a ‘continuum-to-bound’ active region design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(21), 211106 (2010).
[Crossref]

Y. Yao, X. Wang, J.-Y. Fan, and C. F. Gmachl, “High performance ‘continuum-to-continuum’ quantum cascade lasers with a broad gain bandwidth of over 400 cm−1,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 97(8), 081115 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, T. Edamura, S. Furuta, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance, homogeneous broad-gain quantum cascade lasers based on dual-upper-state design,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(24), 241107 (2010).
[Crossref]

K. Fujita, S. Furuta, A. Sugiyama, T. Ochiai, A. Ito, T. Dougakiuchi, T. Edamura, and M. Yamanishi, “High-performance quantum cascade lasers with wide electroluminescence (~600 cm−1), operating in continuous-wave above 100 °C,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 98(23), 231102 (2011).
[Crossref]

A. Vasanelli, A. Leuliet, C. Sirtori, A. Wade, G. Fedorov, D. Smirnov, G. Bastard, B. Vinter, M. Giovannini, and J. Faist, “Role of elastic scattering mechanism in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum cascade lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 89(17), 172120 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

A. Wittmann, A. Hugi, E. Gini, N. Hoyler, and J. Faist, “Heterogeneous high-performance quantum-cascade laser sources for broad-band tuning,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 44(11), 1083–1088 (2008).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A (1)

R. W. Waynant, I. K. Ilev, and I. Gannot, “Mid-infrared laser applications in medicine and biology,” Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. A 359(1780), 635–644 (2001).
[Crossref]

Semicond. Sci. Technol. (1)

A. Hugi, R. Maulini, and J. Faist, “External cavity quantum cascade laser,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 25(8), 083001 (2010).
[Crossref]

Solid-State Electron. (1)

P. Harrison and R. W. Kelsall, “The relative importance of electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering in terahertz quantum cascade lasers,” Solid-State Electron. 42(7-8), 1449–1451 (1998).
[Crossref]

Other (1)

K. Fujita, “Mid-infrared InGaAs/InAlAs quantum cascade lasers,” Ph. D. Thesis, Kyoto University (2014).

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic conduction band diagram and moduli squared of the relevant wave functions of injector/active/injector parts in the active region. An electric field of 34 kV/cm was applied to align the structure. The In0.53Ga0.47As/In0.52Al0.48As layer sequence of one period of the active layers, in angstroms, starting from the injection barrier (toward the right side) is as follows: 38/38/23/85/10/69/11/56/12/48/13/45/14/42/16/41/18/40/23/40/26/40 where InAlAs barrier layers are in bold, InGaAs quantum well layers are in roman, and doped layers (Si, 8 × 1010 cm−2) are underlined.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Intersubband EL spectra of the mesa device for various voltages at 300 K measured in pulsed operation (a width of 500ns and a repetition t rate of 100 kHz).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Current–light output characteristics of the 10 μm wide and 3 mm long buried heterostructure laser (HR-CL) at different heat sink temperatures measured in pulsed mode (a width of 100 ns and a repetition rate of 10 kHz). The voltage–current characteristics at 300 and 400 K are also shown. (b) cw current–light output characteristics of the present laser at different heat sink temperatures. The voltage–current characteristics at 260 and 300 K are also shown. The inset shows temperature dependent threshold current densities for pulsed and cw operations for the present device. The experimental data is fitted by the empirical formula Jth = J0exp(T/T0) with a T0 of 276 and 210 K for pulsed and cw operation.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Wavelength tuning with a HR-CL device in cw operation with a fixed current density of 2.1 kA/cm2 at 17 °C. The tuning range is 18% (176cm−1; corresponding from 9.5 to 11.4 μm) of the center wavelength. The output power is also plotted as a function of the emission wavelength. (b) Spectra of the present EC QC laser for the shortest and longest wavelength obtained with a cw operated HR-CL device.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 (a) Wavelength tuning of 273 cm−1 (from 863 to 1136 cm−1) in pulsed operation (a width of 100 ns and a repetition rate of 100 kHz) with a fixed current density of 2.6 kA/cm2 at 15 °C. (b) Wavelength tuning of 190 cm−1 (from 888 to 1078 cm−1) in cw operation with a fixed current density of 2.5 kA/cm2 at 10 °C.

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