Abstract

We investigate direct-modulated waveguide-coupled microspiral disk lasers for on-chip optical interconnects. Microspiral resonators, with a rotationally asymmetric shape and a waveguide directly gapless coupled to the notch, offer a compact unidirectional-emission on-chip laser source. We employ spatially selective injection by means of a ring-shaped p-contact on top of the microdisk rim region to selectively inject current to the whispering-gallery-like modes and thus enhance the laser performance. Here we report room-temperature continuous-wave electrically injected AlGaInAs/InP waveguide-coupled microspiral disk lasers with a disk radius of 30 and 40 μm. For a 30μm microspiral disk laser gaplessly coupled with a 100μm-long passive waveguide that is directly connected to an on-chip AlGaInAs/InP photodiode, we estimate a laser output power of at least 200 μW upon a 70mA injection. We realize small-signal modulation with a 3dB bandwidth exceeding 10 GHz for the 30μm microspiral disk. We demonstrate an open eye diagram at 15 Gbit/s with a bias current of 90 mA at a stage temperature of 15°C.

© 2014 Optical Society of America

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References

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2013 (2)

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

X. M. Lv, Y. Z. Huang, L. X. Zou, H. Long, and Y. Du, “Optimization of direct modulation rate for circular microlasers by adjusting mode Q factor,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 818–829 (2013).
[Crossref]

2012 (5)

L. Xie, J. Man, B. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zhao, H. Zhu, N. Zhu, and W. Wang, “24-GHz directly modulated DFB laser modules for analog applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 407–409 (2012).
[Crossref]

Q. Song, L. Ge, B. Redding, and H. Cao, “Channeling chaotic rays into waveguides for efficient collection of microcavity emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 243902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. W. Kim, C. H. Yi, and C. M. Kim, “Emission characteristics of a spiral-shaped microcavity laser with a waveguide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60(5), 750–753 (2012).
[Crossref]

M. H. Mao and H. C. Chien, “Transient behaviors of current-injection quantum-dot microdisk lasers,” Opt. Express 20(3), 3302–3310 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Tassaert, H. J. S. Dorren, G. Roelkens, and O. Raz, “Passive InP regenerator integrated on SOI for the support of broadband silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11383–11388 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2010 (3)

L. Liu, G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon-on-Insulator nanophotonic cavities for optical network-on-chip,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1461–1472 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Jaffrennou, J. Claudon, M. Bazin, N. S. Malik, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and J.-M. Gérard, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in high quality GaAsAlAs pillar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071103 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

2009 (2)

2008 (2)

C. M. Kim, J. Cho, J. Lee, S. Rim, S. H. Lee, K. R. Oh, and J. H. Kim, “Continuous wave operation of a spiral-shaped microcavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131110 (2008).
[Crossref]

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining directional light output and ultralow loss in deformed microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (5)

R. Audet, M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, B. G. Lee, K. Lin, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, and G. Höfler, “Single-mode laser action in quantum cascade lasers with spiral-shaped chaotic resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

V. N. Astratov, S. Yang, S. Lam, B. D. Jones, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, and M. Hopkinson, “Whispering gallery resonances in semiconductor micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071115 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Van Campenhout, P. Rojo Romeo, P. Regreny, C. Seassal, D. Van Thourhout, S. Verstuyft, L. Di Cioccio, J. M. Fedeli, C. Lagahe, and R. Baets, “Electrically pumped InP-based microdisk lasers integrated with a nanophotonic silicon-on-insulator waveguide circuit,” Opt. Express 15(11), 6744–6749 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room temperature continous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

T. Tanaka, M. Hentschel, T. Fukushima, and T. Harayama, “Classical phase space revealed by coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 033902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, “Current-injection spiral-shaped microcavity disk laser diodes with unidirectional emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2485–2487 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Lee, S. Rim, J. W. Ryu, T. Y. Kwon, M. Choi, and C. M. Kim, “Quasiscarred resonances in a spiral-shaped microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 164102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861–863 (2004).
[Crossref]

Y. Baryshnikov, P. Heider, W. Parz, and V. Zharnitsky, “Whispering gallery modes inside asymmetric resonant cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 133902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (2)

T. Baba and D. Sano, “Low-threshold lasing and Purcell effect in microdisk lasers at room temperature,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1340–1346 (2003).
[Crossref]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, “Observation of scarred modes in asymmetrically deformed microcylinder lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (2)

S. K. J. Luo, J. Y. Xu, H. Cao, Y. Ma, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Dynamics of GaAs/AlGaAs microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2304–2306 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(24), 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery modes of GaN microdisk cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 166–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1997 (1)

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, “Ray and wave chaos in asymmetric resonant optical cavities,” Nature 385(6611), 45–47 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

1992 (1)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (1)

G. Bjork and Y. Yamamoto, “Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(11), 2386–2396 (1991).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

R. S. Tucker, J. M. Wiesenfeld, P. M. Downey, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delays and transition times in pulse-modulated semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(25), 1707–1709 (1986).
[Crossref]

An, K.

S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, “Observation of scarred modes in asymmetrically deformed microcylinder lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Astratov, V. N.

V. N. Astratov, S. Yang, S. Lam, B. D. Jones, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, and M. Hopkinson, “Whispering gallery resonances in semiconductor micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Audet, R.

R. Audet, M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, B. G. Lee, K. Lin, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, and G. Höfler, “Single-mode laser action in quantum cascade lasers with spiral-shaped chaotic resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Baba, T.

T. Baba and D. Sano, “Low-threshold lasing and Purcell effect in microdisk lasers at room temperature,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1340–1346 (2003).
[Crossref]

Baets, R.

Baryshnikov, Y.

Y. Baryshnikov, P. Heider, W. Parz, and V. Zharnitsky, “Whispering gallery modes inside asymmetric resonant cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 133902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bazin, M.

P. Jaffrennou, J. Claudon, M. Bazin, N. S. Malik, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and J.-M. Gérard, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in high quality GaAsAlAs pillar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Belkin, M. A.

R. Audet, M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, B. G. Lee, K. Lin, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, and G. Höfler, “Single-mode laser action in quantum cascade lasers with spiral-shaped chaotic resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bjork, G.

G. Bjork and Y. Yamamoto, “Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(11), 2386–2396 (1991).
[Crossref]

Bour, D.

R. Audet, M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, B. G. Lee, K. Lin, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, and G. Höfler, “Single-mode laser action in quantum cascade lasers with spiral-shaped chaotic resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J.

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

Bowers, J. E.

R. S. Tucker, J. M. Wiesenfeld, P. M. Downey, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delays and transition times in pulse-modulated semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(25), 1707–1709 (1986).
[Crossref]

Brouckaert, J.

L. Liu, G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon-on-Insulator nanophotonic cavities for optical network-on-chip,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1461–1472 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cao, H.

Q. Song, L. Ge, B. Redding, and H. Cao, “Channeling chaotic rays into waveguides for efficient collection of microcavity emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 243902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(24), 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. K. J. Luo, J. Y. Xu, H. Cao, Y. Ma, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Dynamics of GaAs/AlGaAs microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2304–2306 (2000).
[Crossref]

Capasso, F.

R. Audet, M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, B. G. Lee, K. Lin, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, and G. Höfler, “Single-mode laser action in quantum cascade lasers with spiral-shaped chaotic resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, J.-S.

S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, “Observation of scarred modes in asymmetrically deformed microcylinder lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, “Current-injection spiral-shaped microcavity disk laser diodes with unidirectional emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2485–2487 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[Crossref]

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery modes of GaN microdisk cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 166–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

J. U. Nöockel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, “Directional emission from asymmetric resonant cavities,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1609–1611 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, S.

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery modes of GaN microdisk cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 166–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

Chang, S. H.

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[Crossref]

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R. Audet, M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, B. G. Lee, K. Lin, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, and G. Höfler, “Single-mode laser action in quantum cascade lasers with spiral-shaped chaotic resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131106 (2007).
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A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room temperature continous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 61–64 (2007).
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M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, “Current-injection spiral-shaped microcavity disk laser diodes with unidirectional emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2485–2487 (2004).
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M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, “Current-injection spiral-shaped microcavity disk laser diodes with unidirectional emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2485–2487 (2004).
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G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
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C. M. Kim, J. Cho, J. Lee, S. Rim, S. H. Lee, K. R. Oh, and J. H. Kim, “Continuous wave operation of a spiral-shaped microcavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131110 (2008).
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S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, “Observation of scarred modes in asymmetrically deformed microcylinder lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033903 (2002).
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C. M. Kim, J. Cho, J. Lee, S. Rim, S. H. Lee, K. R. Oh, and J. H. Kim, “Continuous wave operation of a spiral-shaped microcavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131110 (2008).
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S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
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X. M. Lv, Y. Z. Huang, L. X. Zou, H. Long, and Y. Du, “Optimization of direct modulation rate for circular microlasers by adjusting mode Q factor,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 818–829 (2013).
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S. K. J. Luo, J. Y. Xu, H. Cao, Y. Ma, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Dynamics of GaAs/AlGaAs microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2304–2306 (2000).
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X. M. Lv, Y. Z. Huang, L. X. Zou, H. Long, and Y. Du, “Optimization of direct modulation rate for circular microlasers by adjusting mode Q factor,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 818–829 (2013).
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H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(24), 3519–3521 (2000).
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P. Jaffrennou, J. Claudon, M. Bazin, N. S. Malik, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and J.-M. Gérard, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in high quality GaAsAlAs pillar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071103 (2010).
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S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, “Observation of scarred modes in asymmetrically deformed microcylinder lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033903 (2002).
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Nöockel, J. U.

Oh, K. R.

C. M. Kim, J. Cho, J. Lee, S. Rim, S. H. Lee, K. R. Oh, and J. H. Kim, “Continuous wave operation of a spiral-shaped microcavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131110 (2008).
[Crossref]

Özdemir, S. K.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Park, H.-G.

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861–863 (2004).
[Crossref]

Parz, W.

Y. Baryshnikov, P. Heider, W. Parz, and V. Zharnitsky, “Whispering gallery modes inside asymmetric resonant cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 133902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pearton, S. J.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Raz, O.

Redding, B.

Q. Song, L. Ge, B. Redding, and H. Cao, “Channeling chaotic rays into waveguides for efficient collection of microcavity emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 243902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Regreny, P.

Reitzenstein, S.

P. Jaffrennou, J. Claudon, M. Bazin, N. S. Malik, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and J.-M. Gérard, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in high quality GaAsAlAs pillar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Rex, N. B.

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery modes of GaN microdisk cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 166–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

Rim, S.

C. M. Kim, J. Cho, J. Lee, S. Rim, S. H. Lee, K. R. Oh, and J. H. Kim, “Continuous wave operation of a spiral-shaped microcavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131110 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Lee, S. Rim, J. W. Ryu, T. Y. Kwon, M. Choi, and C. M. Kim, “Quasiscarred resonances in a spiral-shaped microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 164102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Roelkens, G.

M. Tassaert, H. J. S. Dorren, G. Roelkens, and O. Raz, “Passive InP regenerator integrated on SOI for the support of broadband silicon modulators,” Opt. Express 20(10), 11383–11388 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. Liu, G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon-on-Insulator nanophotonic cavities for optical network-on-chip,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1461–1472 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rojo Romeo, P.

Ryu, J. W.

S. Y. Lee, S. Rim, J. W. Ryu, T. Y. Kwon, M. Choi, and C. M. Kim, “Quasiscarred resonances in a spiral-shaped microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 164102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sano, D.

T. Baba and D. Sano, “Low-threshold lasing and Purcell effect in microdisk lasers at room temperature,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1340–1346 (2003).
[Crossref]

Sanvitto, D.

V. N. Astratov, S. Yang, S. Lam, B. D. Jones, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, and M. Hopkinson, “Whispering gallery resonances in semiconductor micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Seassal, C.

Sharma, R.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room temperature continous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Shin, D.-J.

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861–863 (2004).
[Crossref]

Sivco, D. L.

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Skolnick, M. S.

V. N. Astratov, S. Yang, S. Lam, B. D. Jones, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, and M. Hopkinson, “Whispering gallery resonances in semiconductor micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Slusher, R. E.

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

Solomon, G. S.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(24), 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

S. K. J. Luo, J. Y. Xu, H. Cao, Y. Ma, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Dynamics of GaAs/AlGaAs microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2304–2306 (2000).
[Crossref]

Song, Q.

Q. Song, L. Ge, B. Redding, and H. Cao, “Channeling chaotic rays into waveguides for efficient collection of microcavity emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 243902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stone, A. D.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[Crossref]

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, “Ray and wave chaos in asymmetric resonant optical cavities,” Nature 385(6611), 45–47 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. U. Nöockel, A. D. Stone, G. Chen, H. L. Grossman, and R. K. Chang, “Directional emission from asymmetric resonant cavities,” Opt. Lett. 21(19), 1609–1611 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Syvridis, D.

A. Kapsalis, D. Syvridis, U. Troppenz, M. Hamacher, and H. Heidrich, “7Gb/s direct modulation of bertically coupled microring lasers,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2008), pp. 2917–2919.

Tahraoui, A.

V. N. Astratov, S. Yang, S. Lam, B. D. Jones, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, and M. Hopkinson, “Whispering gallery resonances in semiconductor micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tamboli, A. C.

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room temperature continous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, T.

T. Tanaka, M. Hentschel, T. Fukushima, and T. Harayama, “Classical phase space revealed by coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 033902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tassaert, M.

Teepe, M.

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, “Current-injection spiral-shaped microcavity disk laser diodes with unidirectional emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2485–2487 (2004).
[Crossref]

Troppenz, U.

A. Kapsalis, D. Syvridis, U. Troppenz, M. Hamacher, and H. Heidrich, “7Gb/s direct modulation of bertically coupled microring lasers,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2008), pp. 2917–2919.

Tucker, R. S.

R. S. Tucker, J. M. Wiesenfeld, P. M. Downey, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delays and transition times in pulse-modulated semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(25), 1707–1709 (1986).
[Crossref]

Tureci, H. E.

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[Crossref]

Van Campenhout, J.

Van Thourhout, D.

Verstuyft, S.

Wang, B.

L. Xie, J. Man, B. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zhao, H. Zhu, N. Zhu, and W. Wang, “24-GHz directly modulated DFB laser modules for analog applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 407–409 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, S. J.

Wang, W.

L. Xie, J. Man, B. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zhao, H. Zhu, N. Zhu, and W. Wang, “24-GHz directly modulated DFB laser modules for analog applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 407–409 (2012).
[Crossref]

Wang, X.

L. Xie, J. Man, B. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zhao, H. Zhu, N. Zhu, and W. Wang, “24-GHz directly modulated DFB laser modules for analog applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 407–409 (2012).
[Crossref]

Whittaker, D. M.

V. N. Astratov, S. Yang, S. Lam, B. D. Jones, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, and M. Hopkinson, “Whispering gallery resonances in semiconductor micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wiersig, J.

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining directional light output and ultralow loss in deformed microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wiesenfeld, J. M.

R. S. Tucker, J. M. Wiesenfeld, P. M. Downey, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delays and transition times in pulse-modulated semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(25), 1707–1709 (1986).
[Crossref]

Worschech, L.

P. Jaffrennou, J. Claudon, M. Bazin, N. S. Malik, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and J.-M. Gérard, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in high quality GaAsAlAs pillar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071103 (2010).
[Crossref]

Xiang, W. H.

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(24), 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Xie, L.

L. Xie, J. Man, B. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zhao, H. Zhu, N. Zhu, and W. Wang, “24-GHz directly modulated DFB laser modules for analog applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 407–409 (2012).
[Crossref]

Xu, J. Y.

S. K. J. Luo, J. Y. Xu, H. Cao, Y. Ma, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Dynamics of GaAs/AlGaAs microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2304–2306 (2000).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(24), 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

Yamamoto, Y.

G. Bjork and Y. Yamamoto, “Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(11), 2386–2396 (1991).
[Crossref]

Yang, L.

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Yang, S.

V. N. Astratov, S. Yang, S. Lam, B. D. Jones, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, and M. Hopkinson, “Whispering gallery resonances in semiconductor micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071115 (2007).
[Crossref]

Yang, Y. D.

Yi, C. H.

M. W. Kim, C. H. Yi, and C. M. Kim, “Emission characteristics of a spiral-shaped microcavity laser with a waveguide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60(5), 750–753 (2012).
[Crossref]

Yuan, H.

L. Xie, J. Man, B. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zhao, H. Zhu, N. Zhu, and W. Wang, “24-GHz directly modulated DFB laser modules for analog applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 407–409 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhao, L.

L. Xie, J. Man, B. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zhao, H. Zhu, N. Zhu, and W. Wang, “24-GHz directly modulated DFB laser modules for analog applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 407–409 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zharnitsky, V.

Y. Baryshnikov, P. Heider, W. Parz, and V. Zharnitsky, “Whispering gallery modes inside asymmetric resonant cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 133902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhu, H.

L. Xie, J. Man, B. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zhao, H. Zhu, N. Zhu, and W. Wang, “24-GHz directly modulated DFB laser modules for analog applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 407–409 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zhu, J.

R. Audet, M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, B. G. Lee, K. Lin, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, and G. Höfler, “Single-mode laser action in quantum cascade lasers with spiral-shaped chaotic resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhu, N.

L. Xie, J. Man, B. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zhao, H. Zhu, N. Zhu, and W. Wang, “24-GHz directly modulated DFB laser modules for analog applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 407–409 (2012).
[Crossref]

Zou, L. X.

X. M. Lv, Y. Z. Huang, L. X. Zou, H. Long, and Y. Du, “Optimization of direct modulation rate for circular microlasers by adjusting mode Q factor,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 818–829 (2013).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (12)

S. L. McCall, A. F. J. Levi, R. E. Slusher, S. J. Pearton, and R. A. Logan, “Whispering-gallery mode microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60(3), 289–291 (1992).
[Crossref]

S. Chang, N. B. Rex, R. K. Chang, G. Chong, and L. J. Guido, “Stimulated emission and lasing in whispering-gallery modes of GaN microdisk cavities,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75(2), 166–168 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. Cao, J. Y. Xu, W. H. Xiang, Y. Ma, S.-H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Optically pumped InAs quantum dot microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 76(24), 3519–3521 (2000).
[Crossref]

V. N. Astratov, S. Yang, S. Lam, B. D. Jones, D. Sanvitto, D. M. Whittaker, A. M. Fox, M. S. Skolnick, A. Tahraoui, P. W. Fry, and M. Hopkinson, “Whispering gallery resonances in semiconductor micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(7), 071115 (2007).
[Crossref]

P. Jaffrennou, J. Claudon, M. Bazin, N. S. Malik, S. Reitzenstein, L. Worschech, M. Kamp, A. Forchel, and J.-M. Gérard, “Whispering gallery mode lasing in high quality GaAsAlAs pillar,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 96(7), 071103 (2010).
[Crossref]

S.-K. Kim, S.-H. Kim, G.-H. Kim, H.-G. Park, D.-J. Shin, and Y.-H. Lee, “Highly directional emission from few-micron-size elliptical microdisks,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(6), 861–863 (2004).
[Crossref]

G. D. Chern, H. E. Tureci, A. D. Stone, R. K. Chang, M. Kneissl, and N. M. Johnson, “Unidirectional lasing from InGaN multiple-quantum-well spiral-shaped micropillars,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83(9), 1710–1712 (2003).
[Crossref]

M. Kneissl, M. Teepe, N. Miyashita, N. M. Johnson, G. D. Chern, and R. K. Chang, “Current-injection spiral-shaped microcavity disk laser diodes with unidirectional emission,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 84(14), 2485–2487 (2004).
[Crossref]

R. Audet, M. A. Belkin, J. A. Fan, B. G. Lee, K. Lin, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, D. Bour, S. Corzine, J. Zhu, and G. Höfler, “Single-mode laser action in quantum cascade lasers with spiral-shaped chaotic resonators,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91(13), 131106 (2007).
[Crossref]

C. M. Kim, J. Cho, J. Lee, S. Rim, S. H. Lee, K. R. Oh, and J. H. Kim, “Continuous wave operation of a spiral-shaped microcavity laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 92(13), 131110 (2008).
[Crossref]

S. K. J. Luo, J. Y. Xu, H. Cao, Y. Ma, S. H. Chang, S. T. Ho, and G. S. Solomon, “Dynamics of GaAs/AlGaAs microdisk lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 77(15), 2304–2306 (2000).
[Crossref]

R. S. Tucker, J. M. Wiesenfeld, P. M. Downey, and J. E. Bowers, “Propagation delays and transition times in pulse-modulated semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 48(25), 1707–1709 (1986).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

G. Bjork and Y. Yamamoto, “Analysis of semiconductor microcavity lasers using rate equations,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27(11), 2386–2396 (1991).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

T. Baba and D. Sano, “Low-threshold lasing and Purcell effect in microdisk lasers at room temperature,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 9(5), 1340–1346 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

L. Xie, J. Man, B. Wang, Y. Liu, X. Wang, H. Yuan, L. Zhao, H. Zhu, N. Zhu, and W. Wang, “24-GHz directly modulated DFB laser modules for analog applications,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24(5), 407–409 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Korean Phys. Soc. (1)

M. W. Kim, C. H. Yi, and C. M. Kim, “Emission characteristics of a spiral-shaped microcavity laser with a waveguide,” J. Korean Phys. Soc. 60(5), 750–753 (2012).
[Crossref]

J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. (1)

L. Liu, G. Roelkens, J. Van Campenhout, J. Brouckaert, D. Van Thourhout, and R. Baets, “III-V/silicon-on-Insulator nanophotonic cavities for optical network-on-chip,” J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 10(3), 1461–1472 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Laser Photonics Rev. (3)

X. M. Lv, Y. Z. Huang, L. X. Zou, H. Long, and Y. Du, “Optimization of direct modulation rate for circular microlasers by adjusting mode Q factor,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(5), 818–829 (2013).
[Crossref]

G. Roelkens, L. Liu, D. Liang, R. Jones, A. Fang, B. Koch, and J. Bowers, “III-V/silicon photonics for on-chip and intra-chip optical interconnects,” Laser Photonics Rev. 4(6), 751–779 (2010).
[Crossref]

L. He, Ş. K. Özdemir, and L. Yang, “Whispering gallery microcavity lasers,” Laser Photonics Rev. 7(1), 60–82 (2013).
[Crossref]

Nat. Photonics (1)

A. C. Tamboli, E. D. Haberer, R. Sharma, K. H. Lee, S. Nakamura, and E. L. Hu, “Room temperature continous-wave lasing in GaN/InGaN microdisks,” Nat. Photonics 1(1), 61–64 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nature (1)

J. U. Nöckel and A. D. Stone, “Ray and wave chaos in asymmetric resonant optical cavities,” Nature 385(6611), 45–47 (1997).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (4)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. Lett. (6)

S.-B. Lee, J.-H. Lee, J.-S. Chang, H.-J. Moon, S. W. Kim, and K. An, “Observation of scarred modes in asymmetrically deformed microcylinder lasers,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(3), 033903 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Lee, S. Rim, J. W. Ryu, T. Y. Kwon, M. Choi, and C. M. Kim, “Quasiscarred resonances in a spiral-shaped microcavity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(16), 164102 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Baryshnikov, P. Heider, W. Parz, and V. Zharnitsky, “Whispering gallery modes inside asymmetric resonant cavities,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 93(13), 133902 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Tanaka, M. Hentschel, T. Fukushima, and T. Harayama, “Classical phase space revealed by coherent light,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(3), 033902 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Q. Song, L. Ge, B. Redding, and H. Cao, “Channeling chaotic rays into waveguides for efficient collection of microcavity emission,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 108(24), 243902 (2012).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Wiersig and M. Hentschel, “Combining directional light output and ultralow loss in deformed microdisks,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(3), 033901 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Proc. IEEE (1)

D. A. B. Miller, “Device requirements for optical interconnects to silicon chips,” Proc. IEEE 97(7), 1166–1185 (2009).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

C. Gmachl, F. Capasso, E. E. Narimanov, J. U. Nöckel, A. D. Stone, J. Faist, D. L. Sivco, and A. Y. Cho, “High-power directional emission from microlasers with chaotic resonators,” Science 280(5369), 1556–1564 (1998).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

Y. D. Yang, Y. Zhang, Y. Z. Huang, and A. W. Poon, “AlGaInAs/InP waveguide-coupled unidirectional-emission microspiral lasers for on-chip optical interconnects,” in CLEO (2013), paper CTh1G.2.

A. Kapsalis, D. Syvridis, U. Troppenz, M. Hamacher, and H. Heidrich, “7Gb/s direct modulation of bertically coupled microring lasers,” in 2008 Conference on Optical Fiber Communication/National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference (2008), pp. 2917–2919.

L. Coldren and S. Corzine, Diode Lasers and Photonic Integrated Circuits (John Wiley, 1995).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Top-view schematics of waveguide-coupled AlGaInAs microspiral disk lasers with (a) ring-shaped and (b) disk-shaped p-contacts. (c) Cross-sectional-view schematic of microspiral disk lasers with a ring-shaped p-contact.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 2D-FDTD simulations of a 30μm-radius microspiral cavity with a 1.5μm-wide waveguide coupled to the microspiral notch. (a) Internal-field spectrum of the TE modes normalized to the peak intensity at 1549.2 nm. (b), (c) Internal-field amplitude distributions normalized to the peak amplitude inside the cavity for the resonance mode at (b) 1549.2 nm and (c) 1549.9 nm. Zoom-in: high-order transverse modes of the waveguide.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) 2D-FDTD simulated normalized azimuthal-angle-integrated internal-field intensity radial distributions for the modes at 1549.2 nm and 1549.9 nm. (b) Finite-element-method (FEM) simulated normalized azimuthal-angle-integrated injection current radial distributions for different injection designs.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a)-(d) SEM images of the waveguide-coupled 30μm-radius microspiral disk after ICP etching. (a) Top view, (b) side view, (c) cross-sectional view of the 2μm-wide notch-coupled waveguide and (d) cross-sectional view of the 1.5μm-wide notch-coupled waveguide. (e), (f) Optical microscope images of the microspiral disk laser after p- and n-contact metal deposition for (e) outer-ring contact design and (f) disk contact design. (g) Optical microscope image of the microspiral disk laser with patterned p- and n-electrodes. G: ground, S: signal.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Fiber-coupled laser output power versus injection current of the waveguide-coupled microspiral disk lasers with the outer-ring (solid line), middle-ring (dashed line) and disk injection (dotted line) designs. (a) r0 = 30 μm, ɛ = 0.05, w = 1.5 μm, (b) r0 = 30 μm, ɛ = 0.067, w = 2μm, (c) r0 = 40 μm, ɛ = 0.037, w = 1.5 μm and (d) r0 = 40 μm, ɛ = 0.05, w = 2 μm.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Measured lasing spectra of the 30 μm-radius microdisk laser with w = 2 μm and the outer-ring injection upon injection currents of (a) 40 mA and (b) 60 mA. Inset in (a): Measured lasing peak wavelength versus injection current. Line: linear fit. Inset in (b): Top-view infrared image of the microspiral disk laser upon a 60mA injection.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Measured photocurrent from an on-chip photodiode waveguide-coupled to a 30μm-radius microspiral disk laser versus injection current. Line: visual guide. Inset: Top-view optical microscope image of the microspiral disk laser “1” interconnected with an on-chip photodiode “2”. G: ground; S: signal.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Measured small-signal frequency responses of the 30μm-radius microspiral lasers with w = 2 μm upon different injection designs. (a) Outer-ring injection with Rp = 24 μm, (b) middle-ring injection with Rp = 20 μm, and (c) disk injection. Inset in (a): Fitted curve for the measured S21 response at a 70mA injection.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Extracted relaxation oscillation frequencies versus square root of the bias current above the lasing threshold for different injection designs. Black squares: out-ring injection; Red circles: middle-ring injection; Blue triangles: disk injection. Dashed lines: linear fits from the origin. (a) r0 = 30 μm, ɛ = 0.05, w = 1.5 μm, (b) r0 = 30 μm, ɛ = 0.067, w = 2 μm, (c) r0 = 40 μm, ɛ = 0.037, w = 1.5 μm and (d) r0 = 40 μm, ɛ = 0.05, w = 2 μm. Inset in (b): Extracted damping factor as a function of the squared resonant oscillation frequency for the outer-ring injection. Solid line: linear fit
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Measured direct-modulated laser output waveforms and eye diagrams for the 30μm-radius microspiral lasers with w = 2 μm and the outer-ring injection at (a), (c) 10 Gbit/s and (b), (d) 15 Gbit/s.

Tables (7)

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Table 1 Calculated spatial overlap factor Γ for various spatially selective injection designs in the microspiral disks

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Table 2 Measured lasing thresholds for different waveguide-coupled microspiral disk lasers (unit: mA)

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Table 3 Measured slope-efficiencies for different waveguide-coupled microspiral disk lasers (unit: mW/A)

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Table 4 Measured maximum 3dB bandwidths for different waveguide-coupled microspiral disk lasers (unit: GHz)

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Table 5 Extracted D-factors for different waveguide-coupled microspiral disk lasers (unit: GHz/mA-1/2)

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Table 6 Calculated energy consumption per bit @ 10 Gbit/s for different waveguide-coupled microspiral disk lasers (unit: pJ/bit)

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Table 7 Comparison of direct-modulated semiconductor microresonator lasers

Equations (9)

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r= r 0 (1εθ/2π)
F(r)= 0 2π | H z (r,θ) | 2 rdθ 0 r 0 dr 0 2π | H z (r,θ) | 2 rdθ
I(r)= 0 2π J (r)rdθ 0 r 0 dr 0 2π J (r)rdθ
Γ= 0 r 0 F(r) I(r)dr 0 r 0 F 2 (r) dr 0 r 0 I 2 (r)dr
H( f )= 1 1+ (2πfRC) 2 f R 4 ( f R 2 f 2 ) 2 + f 2 γ 2 / (2π) 2
f R = 1 2π ( v g a N p τ p )=D (I I th ) 1/2
γ= γ 0 +K f R 2
f 3dBmax = 2 2 π K
Energy consumption per bit= VI Data rate

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