Abstract

A technique to enhance the depth range of the multi-layer light field three-dimensional display is proposed. A set of the optical plates are stacked in front of the conventional multi-layer light field display, creating additional internal reflection for one polarization state. By switching between two orthogonal polarization states in synchronization with the displayed three-dimensional images, the depth range of the display can be doubled. The proposed method is verified experimentally, confirming its feasibility.

© 2013 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. Lee, “Three-dimensional displays, past and present,” Phys. Today 66(4), 36–41 (2013).
    [Crossref]
  2. X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, and A. Stern, “Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 546–560 (2013).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 502–523 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Hong, Y. Kim, H.-J. Choi, J. Hahn, J.-H. Park, H. Kim, S.-W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues,” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H87–H115 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. J.-H. Park and K.-M. Jeong, “Frequency domain depth filtering of integral imaging,” Opt. Express 19(19), 18729–18741 (2011).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Ray phase space approach for 3-D imaging and 3-D optical data representation,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 141–150 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  7. G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 1–11 (2011).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(6), 163–172 (2010).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Gotoda, “A multilayer liquid crystal display for autostereoscopic 3D viewing,” Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240P (2010).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  11. J.-H. Park, “Light field analysis of autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” in The 19th international display workshops in conjunction with Asia Display 2012 (IDW/AD'12), Kyoto International Conference Center, Kyoto, Japan, paper 3D1–1, Dec. (2012).
    [Crossref]
  12. E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  13. D.-Q. Pham, N. Kim, K.-C. Kwon, J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, B. Lee, and J.-H. Park, “Depth enhancement of integral imaging by using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films and a dual-depth configuration,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3135–3137 (2010).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. M. Date, T. Hisaki, H. Takada, S. Suyama, and K. Nakazawa, “Luminance addition of a stack of multidomain liquid-crystal displays and capability for depth-fused three-dimensional display application,” Appl. Opt. 44(6), 898–905 (2005).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  15. A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): a superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging 6(1), 81–94 (1984).
    [PubMed]

2013 (2)

2012 (1)

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

2011 (3)

2010 (3)

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

H. Gotoda, “A multilayer liquid crystal display for autostereoscopic 3D viewing,” Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240P (2010).
[Crossref]

D.-Q. Pham, N. Kim, K.-C. Kwon, J.-H. Jung, K. Hong, B. Lee, and J.-H. Park, “Depth enhancement of integral imaging by using polymer-dispersed liquid-crystal films and a dual-depth configuration,” Opt. Lett. 35(18), 3135–3137 (2010).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (1)

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (2)

1984 (1)

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): a superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging 6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[PubMed]

Andersen, A. H.

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): a superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging 6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[PubMed]

Bourhill, G.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Chen, N.

Choi, H.-J.

Date, M.

Evans, A.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gass, P.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gay, G.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Gotoda, H.

H. Gotoda, “A multilayer liquid crystal display for autostereoscopic 3D viewing,” Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240P (2010).
[Crossref]

Hahn, J.

Heidrich, W.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 1–11 (2011).
[Crossref]

Hirsch, M.

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Hisaki, T.

Hong, J.

Hong, K.

Jacobs, A.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Javidi, B.

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, and A. Stern, “Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 546–560 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Ray phase space approach for 3-D imaging and 3-D optical data representation,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 141–150 (2005).
[Crossref]

Jeong, K.-M.

Jung, J.-H.

Kak, A. C.

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): a superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging 6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[PubMed]

Kim, H.

Kim, N.

Kim, Y.

J. Hong, Y. Kim, H.-J. Choi, J. Hahn, J.-H. Park, H. Kim, S.-W. Min, N. Chen, and B. Lee, “Three-dimensional display technologies of recent interest: principles, status, and issues,” Appl. Opt. 50(34), H87–H115 (2011).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Kwack, K.-D.

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kwon, K.-C.

Lanman, D.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 1–11 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Lee, B.

Martinez-Corral, M.

Min, S.-W.

Nakazawa, K.

Park, J.-H.

Pham, D.-Q.

Raskar, R.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 1–11 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

Son, J.-Y.

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

Stern, A.

X. Xiao, B. Javidi, M. Martinez-Corral, and A. Stern, “Advances in three-dimensional integral imaging: sensing, display, and applications,” Appl. Opt. 52(4), 546–560 (2013).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Ray phase space approach for 3-D imaging and 3-D optical data representation,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 141–150 (2005).
[Crossref]

Suyama, S.

Takada, H.

Walton, E.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Walton, H.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wetzstein, G.

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 1–11 (2011).
[Crossref]

Wynne-Powell, T.

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[Crossref]

Xiao, X.

ACM Trans. Graph. (3)

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Layered 3D: tomographic image synthesis for attenuation-based light field and high dynamic range displays,” ACM Trans. Graph. 30(4), 1–11 (2011).
[Crossref]

D. Lanman, M. Hirsch, Y. Kim, and R. Raskar, “Content-adaptive parallax barriers: optimizing dual-layer 3D displays using low-rank light field factorization,” ACM Trans. Graph. 29(6), 163–172 (2010).
[Crossref]

G. Wetzstein, D. Lanman, W. Heidrich, and R. Raskar, “Tensor display: compressive light field synthesis using multilayer display with directional backlighting,” ACM Trans. Graph. 31(4), 1–11 (2012).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

J. Disp. Technol. (1)

A. Stern and B. Javidi, “Ray phase space approach for 3-D imaging and 3-D optical data representation,” J. Disp. Technol. 1(1), 141–150 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Today (1)

B. Lee, “Three-dimensional displays, past and present,” Phys. Today 66(4), 36–41 (2013).
[Crossref]

Proc. IEEE (1)

J.-Y. Son, B. Javidi, and K.-D. Kwack, “Methods for displaying three-dimensional images,” Proc. IEEE 94(3), 502–523 (2006).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

H. Gotoda, “A multilayer liquid crystal display for autostereoscopic 3D viewing,” Proc. SPIE 7524, 75240P (2010).
[Crossref]

Ultrason. Imaging (1)

A. H. Andersen and A. C. Kak, “Simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART): a superior implementation of the art algorithm,” Ultrason. Imaging 6(1), 81–94 (1984).
[PubMed]

Other (2)

J.-H. Park, “Light field analysis of autostereoscopic three-dimensional displays,” in The 19th international display workshops in conjunction with Asia Display 2012 (IDW/AD'12), Kyoto International Conference Center, Kyoto, Japan, paper 3D1–1, Dec. (2012).
[Crossref]

E. Walton, A. Evans, G. Gay, A. Jacobs, T. Wynne-Powell, G. Bourhill, P. Gass, and H. Walton, “Seeing depth from a single LCD,” SID Int. Symp. Dig. Tech. Pap.40(1), 1395–1398 (2009).
[Crossref]

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Concept of multi-layer light field display.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Depth dependent resolution characteristic of a multi-layer light field display (a) Light field spectrum of a single panel, (b) Resolution of a depth slice in a multi-layer display and conventional displays.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Principle of the proposed method.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Schematics of the experimental setup.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Pictures of the implemented system.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Transmittance characteristics of the panel stack (a) Two panels (b) Three panels.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 3D scene used for experiment (a) Conventional scheme (b) Proposed scheme with polarization dependent internal reflection.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Generated panel images for (a) Conventional multi-layer display and (b) Proposed multi-layer display.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Experimental result (a) Conventional multi-layer display and (b) Proposed multi-layer display.
Fig. 10
Fig. 10 Causes of the image artifacts in the experimental results (a) Ghost artifact, (b) Color artifact.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Parameters of the implemented multi-layer light field display

Equations (1)

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L n ( f x , f θ )= G n ( f x )δ( f θ + z n f x ),

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