James Leger, Editor-in-Chief
Gal Shulkind and Moshe Nazarathy
Gal Shulkind and Moshe Nazarathy*
EE Dept., Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000, Israel
*Corresponding author: email@example.com
DFT-spread (DFT-S) coherent optical OFDM was numerically and experimentally shown to provide improved nonlinear tolerance over an optically amplified dispersion uncompensated fiber link, relative to both conventional coherent OFDM and single-carrier transmission. Here we provide an analytic model rigorously accounting for this numerical result and precisely predicting the optimal bandwidth per DFT-S sub-band (or equivalently the optimal number of sub-bands per optical channel) required in order to maximize the link non-linear tolerance (NLT). The NLT advantage of DFT-S OFDM is traced to the particular statistical dependency introduced among the OFDM sub-carriers by means of the DFT spreading operation. We further extend DFT-S to a unitary-spread generalized modulation format which includes as special cases the DFT-S scheme as well as a new format which we refer to as wavelet-spread (WAV-S) OFDM, replacing the spreading DFTs by Hadamard matrices which have elements +/−1 hence are multiplier-free. The extra complexity incurred in the spreading operation is almost negligible, however the performance improvement with WAV-S relative to plain OFDM is more modest than that achieved by DFT-S, which remains the preferred format for nonlinear tolerance improvement, outperforming both plain OFDM and single-carrier schemes.
©2012 Optical Society of America
Xi Chen, An Li, Guanjun Gao, and William Shieh
Opt. Express 19(27) 26198-26207 (2011)
Qi Yang, Zhixue He, Zhu Yang, Shaohua Yu, Xingwen Yi, and William Shieh
Opt. Express 20(3) 2379-2385 (2012)
Susmita Adhikari, Sander Jansen, Maxim Kuschnerov, Beril Inan, Marc Bohn, and Werner Rosenkranz
Opt. Express 20(26) B608-B614 (2012)
Alex Tolmachev and Moshe Nazarathy
Opt. Express 19(26) B370-B384 (2011)
Gal Shulkind and Moshe Nazarathy
Opt. Express 21(11) 13145-13161 (2013)
C. Li, Q. Yang, T. Jiang, Z. He, M. Luo, C. Li, X. Xiao, D. Xue, and X. Yi, “Investigation of Coherent Optical Multi-band DFT-S OFDM in Long Haul Transmission,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 24, 1704–1707 (2012).
Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, X. Yi, and W. Shieh, “Coherent optical DFT-spread OFDM transmission using orthogonal band multiplexing,” Opt. Express 20(3), 2379–2385 (2012).
L. Liu, L. Li, Y. Huang, K. Cui, Q. Xiong, F. N. Hauske, C. Xie, and Y. Cai, “Intrachannel Nonlinearity Compensation by Inverse Volterra Series Transfer Function,” J. Lightwave Technol. 30(3), 310–316 (2012).
X. Chen, A. Li, G. Gao, and W. Shieh, “Experimental demonstration of improved fiber nonlinearity tolerance for unique-word DFT-spread OFDM systems,” Opt. Express 19(27), 26198–26207 (2011).
C. R. Berger, Y. Benlachtar, R. I. Killey, and P. A. Milder, “Theoretical and experimental evaluation of clipping and quantization noise for optical OFDM,” Opt. Express 19(18), 17713–17728 (2011).
W. Shieh and Yan Tang, “Ultrahigh-Speed Signal Transmission Over Nonlinear and Dispersive Fiber Optic Channel: The Multicarrier Advantage,” IEEE Photonics J. 2(3), 276–283 (2010).
Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-Spread OFDM for Fiber Nonlinearity Mitigation,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 22(16), 1250–1252 (2010).
A. Li, W. Shieh, R. S. Tucker, and A. Wavelet, “Wavelet Packet Transform-Based OFDM for Optical Communications,” J. Lightwave Technol. 28, 3519–3528 (2010).
A. Aung, B. P. Ng, and S. Rahardja, “Sequency-Ordered Complex Hadamard Transform: Properties, Computational Complexity and Applications,” IEEE Trans. Sig. Process. 56(8), 3562–3571 (2008).
M. Nazarathy, J. Khurgin, R. Weidenfeld, Y. Meiman, P. Cho, R. Noe, I. Shpantzer, and V. Karagodsky, “Phased-array cancellation of nonlinear FWM in coherent OFDM dispersive multi-span links,” Opt. Express 16(20), 15777–15810 (2008).
M. H. Lee, S. Member, B. S. Rajan, and J. Y. Park, “A Generalized Reverse Jacket Transform,” IEEE Trans. Circ. Syst. II 48(7), 684–690 (2001).
K. Peddanarappagari and M. Brandt-Pearce, “Volterra series transfer function of single-mode fibers,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15(12), 2232–2241 (1997).
W. Shieh, Y. Tang, and B. S. Krongold, “DFT-Spread OFDM for Optical Communications,” in 9th International Conference on Optical Internet (COIN), (2010).
F. Wang and X. Wang, “Coherent Optical DFT-Spread OFDM,” in Advances in Optical Technologies (Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2011).
Y. Tang, W. Shieh, and B. S. Krongold, “Fiber Nonlinearity Mitigation in 428-Gb / s Multiband Coherent Optical OFDM Systems,” in OFC/NFOEC - Conference on Optical Fiber Communication and the National Fiber Optic Engineers Conference, (2010).
Q. Yang, Z. He, Z. Yang, S. Yu, X. Yi, A. A. Amin, and W. Shieh, “Coherent optical DFT-Spread OFDM in Band-Multiplexed Transmissions, We.8.A.6,” in European Conference of Optical Communication (ECOC), (2011).
A. Li and G. Chen, Xi, A. Guanjun, A. Amin, W. Shieh, William, B. S. Krongold, “Transmission of 1. 63-Tb/s PDM-16QAM Unique-word DFT-Spread OFDM Signal over 1, 010-km SSMF,” in OFC/NFOEC, paper OW4C.1, (2012).
C. Ciochina and H. Sari, “A review of OFDMA and single-carrier FDMA,” in Wireless Conference (EW), 706– 710, (2010).
X. Liu and S. Chandrasekhar, “High Spectral-Efficiency Transmission Techniques for Beyond 100-Gb/s Systems, SPMA1,” in SPPCom - Signal Processing in Photonic Communications - OSA Technical Digest, 1–36, (2011).
S. Kumar, Impact of Nonlinearities on Fiber Optic Communications, Ch. 3 (Springer, 2011).
M. P. H. Jun and J. Cho, “PAPR Reduction in OFDM transmission using Hadamard Transform,” in IEEE International Conference on Communications1, 430–433, (2000).
Y. Wu, C. K. Ho, and S. Sun, “On some properties of Walsh-Hadamard transformed OFDM,” in Proceedings IEEE 56th Vehicular Technology Conference4, 2096–2100, (2002).
B. Porat, A Course in Digital Signal Processing (John Wiley and Sons, 1997).
H. Myung, J. Lim, and D. Godman, “Peak-To-Average Power Ratio of Single Carrier FDMA Signals with Pulse Shapingý,” in IEEE 17th International Symposium on Personal, Indoor and Mobile Radio Communications, (2006)ý, pp. 1–5.
B. Goebel, S. Hellerbrand, N. Haufe, and N. Hanik, “PAPR reduction techniques for coherent optical OFDM transmission,” in 2009 11th International Conference on Transparent Optical Networks1, 1–4, (2009).
OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.
Alert me when this article is cited.
Click here to see a list of articles that cite this paper
Download Full Size | PPT Slide | PDF
Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.