Abstract

Light scattering measurements of particle aggregates contain complex information which is difficult to decrypt. Dark-field scattering microscopy in the visible range is used to characterize multi-arranged polystyrene beads. First, measured light scattering spectra of single spheres are compared with the Mie theory. Then, additional spectral measurements of three different sample sets of sphere aggregates are carried out. The aggregates consist of homogeneous spheres and differ in number of spheres, arrangement and contact area. Principal component analysis is used to reduce the number of variables and achieve an accurate classification regarding the aggregate characteristics.

©2010 Optical Society of America

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2009 (6)

M. I. Mishchenko, “Electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles: A tutorial review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(11), 808–832 (2009).
[Crossref]

T. Wriedt, “Light scattering theories and computer codes,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(11), 833–843 (2009).
[Crossref]

K. Si, W. Gong, and C. J. R. Sheppard, “Model for light scattering in biological tissue and cells based on random rough nonspherical particles,” Appl. Opt. 48(6), 1153–1157 (2009).
[Crossref]

Z. J. Smith and A. J. Berger, “Construction of an integrated Raman- and angular-scattering microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 044302 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Voit, J. Schäfer, and A. Kienle, “Light scattering by multiple spheres: comparison between Maxwell theory and radiative-transfer-theory calculations,” Opt. Lett. 34(17), 2593–2595 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Schmitz, R. Michels, and A. Kienle, “Darkfield scattering spectroscopic microscopy evaluation using polystyrene beads,” Proc. SPIE 7368, 73681W (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (3)

R. Michels, F. Foschum, and A. Kienle, “Optical properties of fat emulsions,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5907–5925 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. D. Ward, M. Zhang, and O. Hunt, “Broadband Mie scattering from optically levitated aerosol droplets using a white LED,” Opt. Express 16(21), 16390–16403 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. J. Olmo, A. Quirantes, V. Lara, H. Lyamani, and L. Aladosarboledas, “Aerosol optical properties assessed by an inversion method using the solar principal plane for non-spherical particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(8), 1504–1516 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (7)

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. Kattawar, W. Wiscombe, M. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38(10), 995–1014 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. D. Keener, K. J. Chalut, J. W. Pyhtila, and A. Wax, “Application of Mie theory to determine the structure of spheroidal scatterers in biological materials,” Opt. Lett. 32(10), 1326–1328 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. P. Banada, S. Guo, B. Bayraktar, E. Bae, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(8), 1664–1671 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. J. Cottrell, J. D. Wilson, and T. H. Foster, “Microscope enabling multimodality imaging, angle-resolved scattering, and scattering spectroscopy,” Opt. Lett. 32(16), 2348–2350 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. N. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (4)

A. Curry, W. L. Hwang, and A. Wax, “Epi-illumination through the microscope objective applied to darkfield imaging and microspectroscopy of nanoparticle interaction with cells in culture,” Opt. Express 14(14), 6535–6542 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. Walsh, “Extracting geometrical information of closely packed random media from multiply scattered light via a cross-correlation analysis,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 5(1), 91–94 (2006).
[Crossref]

R. Gupta, D. B. Vaidya, J. S. Bobbie, and P. Chylek, “Scattering properties and composition of cometary dust,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 301(1-4), 21–31 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. Kimura, L. Kolokolova, and I. Mann, “Light scattering by cometary dust numerically simulated with aggregate particles consisting of identical spheres,” Astron. Astrophys. 449(3), 1243–1254 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

2004 (3)

L. X. Yu, R. A. Lionberger, A. S. Raw, R. D’Costa, H. Wu, and A. S. Hussain, “Applications of process analytical technology to crystallization processes,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(3), 349–369 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Holler, S. Zomer, G. F. Crosta, Y. L. Pan, R. K. Chang, and J. R. Bottiger, “Multivariate analysis and classification of two-dimensional angular optical scattering patterns from aggregates,” Appl. Opt. 43(33), 6198–6206 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (1)

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

1908 (1)

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Aladosarboledas, L.

F. J. Olmo, A. Quirantes, V. Lara, H. Lyamani, and L. Aladosarboledas, “Aerosol optical properties assessed by an inversion method using the solar principal plane for non-spherical particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(8), 1504–1516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Andersson, C.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Backman, V.

S. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. Walsh, “Extracting geometrical information of closely packed random media from multiply scattered light via a cross-correlation analysis,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 5(1), 91–94 (2006).
[Crossref]

Y. Liu, X. Li, Y. L. Kim, and V. Backman, “Elastic backscattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2445–2447 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bae, E.

P. P. Banada, S. Guo, B. Bayraktar, E. Bae, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(8), 1664–1671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Banada, P. P.

P. P. Banada, S. Guo, B. Bayraktar, E. Bae, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(8), 1664–1671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bansil, R.

Bayraktar, B.

P. P. Banada, S. Guo, B. Bayraktar, E. Bae, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(8), 1664–1671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Berger, A. J.

Z. J. Smith and A. J. Berger, “Construction of an integrated Raman- and angular-scattering microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 044302 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bhunia, A. K.

P. P. Banada, S. Guo, B. Bayraktar, E. Bae, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(8), 1664–1671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bigio, I.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bobbie, J. S.

R. Gupta, D. B. Vaidya, J. S. Bobbie, and P. Chylek, “Scattering properties and composition of cometary dust,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 301(1-4), 21–31 (2006).
[Crossref]

Bottiger, J. R.

Brock, R. S.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Chalut, K. J.

Chang, R. K.

Chylek, P.

R. Gupta, D. B. Vaidya, J. S. Bobbie, and P. Chylek, “Scattering properties and composition of cometary dust,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 301(1-4), 21–31 (2006).
[Crossref]

Cipolloni, P. B.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cottrell, W. J.

Crosta, G. F.

Curry, A.

D’Costa, R.

L. X. Yu, R. A. Lionberger, A. S. Raw, R. D’Costa, H. Wu, and A. S. Hussain, “Applications of process analytical technology to crystallization processes,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(3), 349–369 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dubovik, O.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. Kattawar, W. Wiscombe, M. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38(10), 995–1014 (2007).
[Crossref]

Fang, H.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feng, Q.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. Kattawar, W. Wiscombe, M. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38(10), 995–1014 (2007).
[Crossref]

Foschum, F.

Foster, T. H.

Freedman, S. D.

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Germer, T. A.

Ghiran, I. C.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Goldberg, M. J.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gong, W.

Guo, S.

P. P. Banada, S. Guo, B. Bayraktar, E. Bae, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(8), 1664–1671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Gupta, R.

R. Gupta, D. B. Vaidya, J. S. Bobbie, and P. Chylek, “Scattering properties and composition of cometary dust,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 301(1-4), 21–31 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hanlon, E. B.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hirleman, E. D.

P. P. Banada, S. Guo, B. Bayraktar, E. Bae, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(8), 1664–1671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Holler, S.

Hong, G.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. Kattawar, W. Wiscombe, M. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38(10), 995–1014 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hu, X.-H.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Hunt, O.

Hussain, A. S.

L. X. Yu, R. A. Lionberger, A. S. Raw, R. D’Costa, H. Wu, and A. S. Hussain, “Applications of process analytical technology to crystallization processes,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(3), 349–369 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hwang, W. L.

Itzkan, I.

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ivanov, C.

S. N. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[Crossref]

Jacobs, K. M.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Kasarova, S. N.

S. N. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kattawar, G.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. Kattawar, W. Wiscombe, M. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38(10), 995–1014 (2007).
[Crossref]

Keates, S. E.

Keener, J. D.

Kienle, A.

Kim, Y. L.

Y. Liu, X. Li, Y. L. Kim, and V. Backman, “Elastic backscattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2445–2447 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimerer, L. M.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kimura, H.

H. Kimura, L. Kolokolova, and I. Mann, “Light scattering by cometary dust numerically simulated with aggregate particles consisting of identical spheres,” Astron. Astrophys. 449(3), 1243–1254 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kolokolova, L.

H. Kimura, L. Kolokolova, and I. Mann, “Light scattering by cometary dust numerically simulated with aggregate particles consisting of identical spheres,” Astron. Astrophys. 449(3), 1243–1254 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kromine, A. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lara, V.

F. J. Olmo, A. Quirantes, V. Lara, H. Lyamani, and L. Aladosarboledas, “Aerosol optical properties assessed by an inversion method using the solar principal plane for non-spherical particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(8), 1504–1516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Laszlo, I.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. Kattawar, W. Wiscombe, M. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38(10), 995–1014 (2007).
[Crossref]

Li, X.

Lim, K.-H.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lionberger, R. A.

L. X. Yu, R. A. Lionberger, A. S. Raw, R. D’Costa, H. Wu, and A. S. Hussain, “Applications of process analytical technology to crystallization processes,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(3), 349–369 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Liu, Y.

Y. Liu, X. Li, Y. L. Kim, and V. Backman, “Elastic backscattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2445–2447 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lu, J. Q.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Lyamani, H.

F. J. Olmo, A. Quirantes, V. Lara, H. Lyamani, and L. Aladosarboledas, “Aerosol optical properties assessed by an inversion method using the solar principal plane for non-spherical particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(8), 1504–1516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ma, X.

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Maitland, D.

S. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. Walsh, “Extracting geometrical information of closely packed random media from multiply scattered light via a cross-correlation analysis,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 5(1), 91–94 (2006).
[Crossref]

Mann, I.

H. Kimura, L. Kolokolova, and I. Mann, “Light scattering by cometary dust numerically simulated with aggregate particles consisting of identical spheres,” Astron. Astrophys. 449(3), 1243–1254 (2006).
[Crossref]

Michels, R.

M. Schmitz, R. Michels, and A. Kienle, “Darkfield scattering spectroscopic microscopy evaluation using polystyrene beads,” Proc. SPIE 7368, 73681W (2009).
[Crossref]

R. Michels, F. Foschum, and A. Kienle, “Optical properties of fat emulsions,” Opt. Express 16(8), 5907–5925 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mie, G.

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Mishchenko, M.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. Kattawar, W. Wiscombe, M. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38(10), 995–1014 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mishchenko, M. I.

M. I. Mishchenko, “Electromagnetic scattering by nonspherical particles: A tutorial review,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(11), 808–832 (2009).
[Crossref]

Modell, M.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Modell, M. D.

Nikolov, I.

S. N. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[Crossref]

Olmo, F. J.

F. J. Olmo, A. Quirantes, V. Lara, H. Lyamani, and L. Aladosarboledas, “Aerosol optical properties assessed by an inversion method using the solar principal plane for non-spherical particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(8), 1504–1516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pan, Y. L.

Perelman, L. T.

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pyhtila, J. W.

Qiu, L.

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quirantes, A.

F. J. Olmo, A. Quirantes, V. Lara, H. Lyamani, and L. Aladosarboledas, “Aerosol optical properties assessed by an inversion method using the solar principal plane for non-spherical particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(8), 1504–1516 (2008).
[Crossref]

Rajwa, B.

P. P. Banada, S. Guo, B. Bayraktar, E. Bae, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(8), 1664–1671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Raw, A. S.

L. X. Yu, R. A. Lionberger, A. S. Raw, R. D’Costa, H. Wu, and A. S. Hussain, “Applications of process analytical technology to crystallization processes,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(3), 349–369 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Robinson, J. P.

P. P. Banada, S. Guo, B. Bayraktar, E. Bae, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(8), 1664–1671 (2007).
[Crossref]

Roy, H. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sachs, B. P.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Salahuddin, S.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schäfer, J.

Schmitz, M.

M. Schmitz, R. Michels, and A. Kienle, “Darkfield scattering spectroscopic microscopy evaluation using polystyrene beads,” Proc. SPIE 7368, 73681W (2009).
[Crossref]

Sheppard, C. J. R.

Si, K.

Smith, Z. J.

Z. J. Smith and A. J. Berger, “Construction of an integrated Raman- and angular-scattering microscope,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 80(4), 044302 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sokolik, I.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. Kattawar, W. Wiscombe, M. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38(10), 995–1014 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sultanova, N.

S. N. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
[Crossref]

Taflove, A.

S. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. Walsh, “Extracting geometrical information of closely packed random media from multiply scattered light via a cross-correlation analysis,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 5(1), 91–94 (2006).
[Crossref]

Tseng, S.

S. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. Walsh, “Extracting geometrical information of closely packed random media from multiply scattered light via a cross-correlation analysis,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 5(1), 91–94 (2006).
[Crossref]

Turner, B. S.

Vaidya, D. B.

R. Gupta, D. B. Vaidya, J. S. Bobbie, and P. Chylek, “Scattering properties and composition of cometary dust,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 301(1-4), 21–31 (2006).
[Crossref]

Vitkin, E.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Voit, F.

Wali, R. K.

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walsh, J.

S. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. Walsh, “Extracting geometrical information of closely packed random media from multiply scattered light via a cross-correlation analysis,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 5(1), 91–94 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ward, A. D.

Wax, A.

Wilson, J. D.

Wiscombe, W.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. Kattawar, W. Wiscombe, M. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38(10), 995–1014 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wriedt, T.

T. Wriedt, “Light scattering theories and computer codes,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 110(11), 833–843 (2009).
[Crossref]

Wu, H.

L. X. Yu, R. A. Lionberger, A. S. Raw, R. D’Costa, H. Wu, and A. S. Hussain, “Applications of process analytical technology to crystallization processes,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(3), 349–369 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yang, P.

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. Kattawar, W. Wiscombe, M. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38(10), 995–1014 (2007).
[Crossref]

X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
[Crossref]

Yu, L. X.

L. X. Yu, R. A. Lionberger, A. S. Raw, R. D’Costa, H. Wu, and A. S. Hussain, “Applications of process analytical technology to crystallization processes,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(3), 349–369 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zaman, M. M.

I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Fang, L. Qiu, E. Vitkin, M. M. Zaman, C. Andersson, S. Salahuddin, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, M. D. Modell, B. S. Turner, S. E. Keates, I. Bigio, I. Itzkan, S. D. Freedman, R. Bansil, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy,” Appl. Opt. 46(10), 1760–1769 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, M.

Zomer, S.

Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. (1)

L. X. Yu, R. A. Lionberger, A. S. Raw, R. D’Costa, H. Wu, and A. S. Hussain, “Applications of process analytical technology to crystallization processes,” Adv. Drug Deliv. Rev. 56(3), 349–369 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ann. Phys. (1)

G. Mie, “Beiträge zur Optik trüber Medien, speziell kolloidaler Metallösungen,” Ann. Phys. 330(3), 377–445 (1908).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (3)

Astron. Astrophys. (1)

H. Kimura, L. Kolokolova, and I. Mann, “Light scattering by cometary dust numerically simulated with aggregate particles consisting of identical spheres,” Astron. Astrophys. 449(3), 1243–1254 (2006).
[Crossref]

Astrophys. Space Sci. (1)

R. Gupta, D. B. Vaidya, J. S. Bobbie, and P. Chylek, “Scattering properties and composition of cometary dust,” Astrophys. Space Sci. 301(1-4), 21–31 (2006).
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Biosens. Bioelectron. (1)

P. P. Banada, S. Guo, B. Bayraktar, E. Bae, B. Rajwa, J. P. Robinson, E. D. Hirleman, and A. K. Bhunia, “Optical forward-scattering for detection of Listeria monocytogenes and other Listeria species,” Biosens. Bioelectron. 22(8), 1664–1671 (2007).
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Gastroenterology (1)

H. K. Roy, Y. Liu, R. K. Wali, Y. L. Kim, A. K. Kromine, M. J. Goldberg, and V. Backman, “Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis,” Gastroenterology 126(4), 1071–1081, discussion 948 (2004).
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IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. (1)

S. Tseng, A. Taflove, D. Maitland, V. Backman, and J. Walsh, “Extracting geometrical information of closely packed random media from multiply scattered light via a cross-correlation analysis,” IEEE Antennas Wirel. Propag. Lett. 5(1), 91–94 (2006).
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J. Aerosol Sci. (1)

P. Yang, Q. Feng, G. Hong, G. Kattawar, W. Wiscombe, M. Mishchenko, O. Dubovik, I. Laszlo, and I. Sokolik, “Modeling of the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols,” J. Aerosol Sci. 38(10), 995–1014 (2007).
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F. J. Olmo, A. Quirantes, V. Lara, H. Lyamani, and L. Aladosarboledas, “Aerosol optical properties assessed by an inversion method using the solar principal plane for non-spherical particles,” J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transf. 109(8), 1504–1516 (2008).
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S. N. Kasarova, N. Sultanova, C. Ivanov, and I. Nikolov, “Analysis of the dispersion of optical plastic materials,” Opt. Mater. 29(11), 1481–1490 (2007).
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X. Ma, J. Q. Lu, R. S. Brock, K. M. Jacobs, P. Yang, and X.-H. Hu, “Determination of complex refractive index of polystyrene microspheres from 370 to 1610 nm,” Phys. Med. Biol. 48(24), 4165–4172 (2003).
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I. Itzkan, L. Qiu, H. Fang, M. M. Zaman, E. Vitkin, I. C. Ghiran, S. Salahuddin, M. Modell, C. Andersson, L. M. Kimerer, P. B. Cipolloni, K.-H. Lim, S. D. Freedman, I. Bigio, B. P. Sachs, E. B. Hanlon, and L. T. Perelman, “Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy monitors organelles in live cells with no exogenous labels,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104(44), 17255–17260 (2007).
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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Scheme describing the rotationally symmetric geometry of the setup. The sample is illuminated by a plane wave with an angle of incidence α. Only light that is scattered within the maximum angle β is detected by the setup (solid arrows), whereas the dashed arrows indicate non-detected light.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 (a)/(b) Experimental spectra (dark blue) I/I 0 of two different single polystyrene spheres ‘1’/’2’ and theoretical (light green) spectra I/I 0 of a single sphere using the diameter obtained by the correlation function C(D). (c) Correlation function C(D) with the experimental data from single sphere ‘1’. (d) Detailed C(D) of single sphere ‘1’ (dark blue) and ‘2’ (light green). The sphere diameters were determined via the maximum at 2.785 µm and 2.807 µm, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Reflected dark-field image from a detailed section of sample set s2 (a). The arranged polystyrene spheres differ in sphere number and sphere geometry (L = linear; NL = non linear). (b) Normalized false color dark-field pattern from four arranged spheres of sample set s2 and s1.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 (a) Reflection spectra for all sample sets and sphere arrangements (— linear;—non linear). (b) First order derivative spectra (Savitzky-Golay derivative, 5 points segment and 2nd order of polynomial).
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Score (a) and loading (b) plots from PCA of first order derivative reflection spectra. The first two PCs explain 55% and 31% respectively of the total variance.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Score (a) and loading (b) plots from PCA of the first order derivative reflection spectra. PC2 explain 31% and PC3 9% of the total variance.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Score (a) and loading (b) plots from PCA of the first order derivative reflection spectra. PC3 explain 9% and PC4 3% of the total variance.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Labeling of each sample set and particle aggregate.

Equations (7)

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d C sca ( λ ) d Ω = S 11 ( Θ , λ ) k 2
Θ = arccos k i k s | k i | | k s |
k i | k i | = ( sin α 0 cos α )
k s | k s | = ( sin θ cos ϕ sin θ cos ϕ cos θ )
I ( λ ) I 0 ( λ ) 1 k 2 θ = π π + β ϕ = 0 2 π S 11 ( Θ ( θ , ϕ , α ) , λ ) s ( λ ) sin θ d θ d ϕ
X = T P T + E
C ( D ) = λ d [ I theory ( λ , D ) I 0 , theory ( λ , D ) ] d λ d [ I exp ( λ ) I 0 , exp ( λ , D ) ] d λ

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