Abstract

In photorefractive waveguide arrays, the process and extent of spectral broadening of femtosecond laser pulse caused by self-phase modulation are studied theoretically and experimentally. The threshold of self-phase modulation is more than two times larger than the common threshold in a bulk sample, which affects the extent of spectral broadening dramatically. The coupling length and the ratio between the common threshold and the input peak intensity of the femtosecond laser pulse are the two key parameters dominating these phenomena. The experimental results confirm the theoretical expectation.

©2010 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2009 (2)

K. Shandarova, C. E. Rüter, D. Kip, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Experimental observation of Rabi oscillations in photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123905 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-mu J pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

2008 (4)

C. J. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, and D. V. Skryabin, “Spatiotemporal quasisolitons and resonant radiation in arrays of silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Phys. Rev. A 78(3), 033818 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Ding, C. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, D. V. Skryabin, M. Gnan, M. Sorrel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Solitons and spectral broadening in long silicon-on- insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3310–3319 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, K. Shish, T. R. Schibli, J. N. Kutz, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Morandotti, and S. T. Cundiff, “Nonlinear femtosecond pulse reshaping in waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1440–1442 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. B. Perets, Y. Lahini, F. Pozzi, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and Y. Silberberg, “Realization of quantum walks with negligible decoherence in waveguide lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(17), 170506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (2)

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, “Transport and Anderson localization in disordered two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Nature 446(7131), 52–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lahini, E. Frumker, Y. Silberberg, S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, R. Morandotti, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete X-wave formation in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2006 (2)

H. Trompeter, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, D. Michaelis, U. Streppel, A. Bräuer, and U. Peschel, “Visual observation of Zener tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, “Observation of discrete surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (2)

S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and R. Morandotti, “Waveguide array-grating compressors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131104 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2004 (4)

C. Lou, J. Xu, H. Qiao, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, and Z. Chen, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by means of high-power confinement in a photovoltaic soliton-induced waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 953–955 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Neshev, T. J. Alexander, E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, H. Martin, I. Makasyuk, and Z. Chen, “Observation of discrete vortex solitons in optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, O. Manela, M. Segev, J. Hudock, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of vortex-ring “discrete” solitons in 2D photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and Y. Silberberg, “Gap solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(9), 093904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2003 (4)

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213906 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “All-optical switching in quadratically nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 28(2), 102–104 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, “Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices,” Nature 424(6950), 817–823 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cheskis, S. Bar-Ad, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, and D. Ross, “Strong spatiotemporal localization in a silica nonlinear waveguide array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 223901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2002 (1)

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Bräuer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 093901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2001 (1)

D. N. Christodoulides and E. D. Eugenieva, “Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 233901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2000 (1)

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(9), 1863–1866 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, and K. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(23), 4756–4759 (1999).
[Crossref]

1998 (1)

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete Spatial Optical Solitons in Waveguide Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(16), 3383–3386 (1998).
[Crossref]

1988 (1)

1978 (1)

R. Stolen and C. Lin, “Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 17(4), 1448–1453 (1978).
[Crossref]

1970 (1)

R. Cubeddu, R. Polloni, C. A. Sacchi, and O. Svelto, ““Self-Phase Modulation and “Rocking” of Molecules in Trapped Filaments of Light with Picosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 2(5), 1955–1963 (1970).
[Crossref]

Aitchison, J. S.

D. Mandelik, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and Y. Silberberg, “Gap solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(9), 093904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cheskis, S. Bar-Ad, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, and D. Ross, “Strong spatiotemporal localization in a silica nonlinear waveguide array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 223901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(9), 1863–1866 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, and K. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(23), 4756–4759 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete Spatial Optical Solitons in Waveguide Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(16), 3383–3386 (1998).
[Crossref]

Alexander, T. J.

D. N. Neshev, T. J. Alexander, E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, H. Martin, I. Makasyuk, and Z. Chen, “Observation of discrete vortex solitons in optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bar-Ad, S.

D. Cheskis, S. Bar-Ad, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, and D. Ross, “Strong spatiotemporal localization in a silica nonlinear waveguide array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 223901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bartal, G.

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, “Transport and Anderson localization in disordered two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Nature 446(7131), 52–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, O. Manela, M. Segev, J. Hudock, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of vortex-ring “discrete” solitons in 2D photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Baum, P.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-mu J pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Benton, C.

Benton, C. J.

C. J. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, and D. V. Skryabin, “Spatiotemporal quasisolitons and resonant radiation in arrays of silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Phys. Rev. A 78(3), 033818 (2008).
[Crossref]

Boyd, A. R.

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete Spatial Optical Solitons in Waveguide Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(16), 3383–3386 (1998).
[Crossref]

Bradler, M.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-mu J pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Bräuer, A.

H. Trompeter, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, D. Michaelis, U. Streppel, A. Bräuer, and U. Peschel, “Visual observation of Zener tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Bräuer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 093901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, Y.

Chen, Z.

C. Lou, J. Xu, H. Qiao, X. Zhang, Y. Chen, and Z. Chen, “Enhanced second-harmonic generation by means of high-power confinement in a photovoltaic soliton-induced waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 29(9), 953–955 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Neshev, T. J. Alexander, E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, H. Martin, I. Makasyuk, and Z. Chen, “Observation of discrete vortex solitons in optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cheskis, D.

D. Cheskis, S. Bar-Ad, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, and D. Ross, “Strong spatiotemporal localization in a silica nonlinear waveguide array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 223901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Christodoulides, D. N.

K. Shandarova, C. E. Rüter, D. Kip, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Experimental observation of Rabi oscillations in photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123905 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, K. Shish, T. R. Schibli, J. N. Kutz, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Morandotti, and S. T. Cundiff, “Nonlinear femtosecond pulse reshaping in waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1440–1442 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lahini, E. Frumker, Y. Silberberg, S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, R. Morandotti, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete X-wave formation in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, “Observation of discrete surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and R. Morandotti, “Waveguide array-grating compressors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131104 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, O. Manela, M. Segev, J. Hudock, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of vortex-ring “discrete” solitons in 2D photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, “Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices,” Nature 424(6950), 817–823 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213906 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and E. D. Eugenieva, “Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 233901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and R. I. Joseph, “Discrete self-focusing in nonlinear arrays of coupled waveguides,” Opt. Lett. 13(9), 794–796 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

J. W. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, O. Manela, M. Segev, J. Hudock, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of vortex-ring “discrete” solitons in 2D photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213906 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cubeddu, R.

R. Cubeddu, R. Polloni, C. A. Sacchi, and O. Svelto, ““Self-Phase Modulation and “Rocking” of Molecules in Trapped Filaments of Light with Picosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 2(5), 1955–1963 (1970).
[Crossref]

Cundiff, S. T.

De La Rue, R. M.

Ding, W.

Droulias, S.

Y. Lahini, E. Frumker, Y. Silberberg, S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, R. Morandotti, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete X-wave formation in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and R. Morandotti, “Waveguide array-grating compressors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Efremidis, N. K.

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213906 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Eisenberg, H. S.

D. Cheskis, S. Bar-Ad, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, and D. Ross, “Strong spatiotemporal localization in a silica nonlinear waveguide array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 223901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(9), 1863–1866 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, and K. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(23), 4756–4759 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete Spatial Optical Solitons in Waveguide Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(16), 3383–3386 (1998).
[Crossref]

Eugenieva, E. D.

D. N. Christodoulides and E. D. Eugenieva, “Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 233901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fishman, S.

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, “Transport and Anderson localization in disordered two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Nature 446(7131), 52–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Fleischer, J. W.

J. W. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, O. Manela, M. Segev, J. Hudock, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of vortex-ring “discrete” solitons in 2D photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213906 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Frumker, E.

Y. Lahini, E. Frumker, Y. Silberberg, S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, R. Morandotti, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete X-wave formation in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gnan, M.

Gorbach, A. V.

W. Ding, C. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, D. V. Skryabin, M. Gnan, M. Sorrel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Solitons and spectral broadening in long silicon-on- insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3310–3319 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. J. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, and D. V. Skryabin, “Spatiotemporal quasisolitons and resonant radiation in arrays of silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Phys. Rev. A 78(3), 033818 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hache, A.

Haché, A.

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, “Observation of discrete surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hizanidis, K.

Y. Lahini, E. Frumker, Y. Silberberg, S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, R. Morandotti, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete X-wave formation in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and R. Morandotti, “Waveguide array-grating compressors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Hudock, J.

J. W. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, O. Manela, M. Segev, J. Hudock, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of vortex-ring “discrete” solitons in 2D photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213906 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hudson, D. D.

Joseph, R. I.

Kip, D.

K. Shandarova, C. E. Rüter, D. Kip, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Experimental observation of Rabi oscillations in photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123905 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kivshar, Y. S.

D. N. Neshev, T. J. Alexander, E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, H. Martin, I. Makasyuk, and Z. Chen, “Observation of discrete vortex solitons in optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Knight, J. C.

Kutz, J. N.

Lahini, Y.

H. B. Perets, Y. Lahini, F. Pozzi, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and Y. Silberberg, “Realization of quantum walks with negligible decoherence in waveguide lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(17), 170506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lahini, E. Frumker, Y. Silberberg, S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, R. Morandotti, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete X-wave formation in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lederer, F.

H. Trompeter, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, D. Michaelis, U. Streppel, A. Bräuer, and U. Peschel, “Visual observation of Zener tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, “Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices,” Nature 424(6950), 817–823 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “All-optical switching in quadratically nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 28(2), 102–104 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Bräuer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 093901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lin, C.

R. Stolen and C. Lin, “Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 17(4), 1448–1453 (1978).
[Crossref]

Lou, C.

Makasyuk, I.

D. N. Neshev, T. J. Alexander, E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, H. Martin, I. Makasyuk, and Z. Chen, “Observation of discrete vortex solitons in optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Makris, K. G.

K. Shandarova, C. E. Rüter, D. Kip, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Experimental observation of Rabi oscillations in photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123905 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, “Observation of discrete surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mandelik, D.

D. Mandelik, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and Y. Silberberg, “Gap solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(9), 093904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Manela, O.

J. W. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, O. Manela, M. Segev, J. Hudock, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of vortex-ring “discrete” solitons in 2D photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, H.

D. N. Neshev, T. J. Alexander, E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, H. Martin, I. Makasyuk, and Z. Chen, “Observation of discrete vortex solitons in optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Michaelis, D.

H. Trompeter, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, D. Michaelis, U. Streppel, A. Bräuer, and U. Peschel, “Visual observation of Zener tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morandotti, R.

H. B. Perets, Y. Lahini, F. Pozzi, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and Y. Silberberg, “Realization of quantum walks with negligible decoherence in waveguide lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(17), 170506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. D. Hudson, K. Shish, T. R. Schibli, J. N. Kutz, D. N. Christodoulides, R. Morandotti, and S. T. Cundiff, “Nonlinear femtosecond pulse reshaping in waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 33(13), 1440–1442 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lahini, E. Frumker, Y. Silberberg, S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, R. Morandotti, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete X-wave formation in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, “Observation of discrete surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and R. Morandotti, “Waveguide array-grating compressors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131104 (2005).
[Crossref]

D. Mandelik, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and Y. Silberberg, “Gap solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(9), 093904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cheskis, S. Bar-Ad, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, and D. Ross, “Strong spatiotemporal localization in a silica nonlinear waveguide array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 223901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(9), 1863–1866 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, and K. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(23), 4756–4759 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete Spatial Optical Solitons in Waveguide Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(16), 3383–3386 (1998).
[Crossref]

Neshev, D. N.

D. N. Neshev, T. J. Alexander, E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, H. Martin, I. Makasyuk, and Z. Chen, “Observation of discrete vortex solitons in optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ostrovskaya, E. A.

D. N. Neshev, T. J. Alexander, E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, H. Martin, I. Makasyuk, and Z. Chen, “Observation of discrete vortex solitons in optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peleg, O.

K. Shandarova, C. E. Rüter, D. Kip, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Experimental observation of Rabi oscillations in photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123905 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perets, H. B.

H. B. Perets, Y. Lahini, F. Pozzi, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and Y. Silberberg, “Realization of quantum walks with negligible decoherence in waveguide lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(17), 170506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Pertsch, T.

H. Trompeter, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, D. Michaelis, U. Streppel, A. Bräuer, and U. Peschel, “Visual observation of Zener tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “All-optical switching in quadratically nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 28(2), 102–104 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Bräuer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 093901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Peschel, U.

H. Trompeter, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, D. Michaelis, U. Streppel, A. Bräuer, and U. Peschel, “Visual observation of Zener tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, U. Peschel, and F. Lederer, “All-optical switching in quadratically nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Opt. Lett. 28(2), 102–104 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Bräuer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 093901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, and K. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(23), 4756–4759 (1999).
[Crossref]

Polloni, R.

R. Cubeddu, R. Polloni, C. A. Sacchi, and O. Svelto, ““Self-Phase Modulation and “Rocking” of Molecules in Trapped Filaments of Light with Picosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 2(5), 1955–1963 (1970).
[Crossref]

Pozzi, F.

H. B. Perets, Y. Lahini, F. Pozzi, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and Y. Silberberg, “Realization of quantum walks with negligible decoherence in waveguide lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(17), 170506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Qiao, H.

Riedle, E.

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-mu J pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ross, D.

D. Cheskis, S. Bar-Ad, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, and D. Ross, “Strong spatiotemporal localization in a silica nonlinear waveguide array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 223901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rüter, C. E.

K. Shandarova, C. E. Rüter, D. Kip, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Experimental observation of Rabi oscillations in photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123905 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sacchi, C. A.

R. Cubeddu, R. Polloni, C. A. Sacchi, and O. Svelto, ““Self-Phase Modulation and “Rocking” of Molecules in Trapped Filaments of Light with Picosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 2(5), 1955–1963 (1970).
[Crossref]

Salamo, G.

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, “Observation of discrete surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Schibli, T. R.

Schwartz, T.

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, “Transport and Anderson localization in disordered two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Nature 446(7131), 52–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

K. Shandarova, C. E. Rüter, D. Kip, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Experimental observation of Rabi oscillations in photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123905 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, “Transport and Anderson localization in disordered two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Nature 446(7131), 52–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, O. Manela, M. Segev, J. Hudock, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of vortex-ring “discrete” solitons in 2D photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. K. Efremidis, J. Hudock, D. N. Christodoulides, J. W. Fleischer, O. Cohen, and M. Segev, “Two-dimensional optical lattice solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(21), 213906 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shandarova, K.

K. Shandarova, C. E. Rüter, D. Kip, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, O. Peleg, and M. Segev, “Experimental observation of Rabi oscillations in photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 102(12), 123905 (2009).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Shish, K.

Silberberg, K.

R. Morandotti, U. Peschel, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, and K. Silberberg, “Experimental observation of linear and nonlinear optical Bloch oscillations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 83(23), 4756–4759 (1999).
[Crossref]

Silberberg, Y.

H. B. Perets, Y. Lahini, F. Pozzi, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and Y. Silberberg, “Realization of quantum walks with negligible decoherence in waveguide lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(17), 170506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lahini, E. Frumker, Y. Silberberg, S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, R. Morandotti, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete X-wave formation in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Mandelik, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, and Y. Silberberg, “Gap solitons in waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(9), 093904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, “Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices,” Nature 424(6950), 817–823 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cheskis, S. Bar-Ad, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, and D. Ross, “Strong spatiotemporal localization in a silica nonlinear waveguide array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 223901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, and J. S. Aitchison, “Diffraction management,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 85(9), 1863–1866 (2000).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, R. Morandotti, A. R. Boyd, and J. S. Aitchison, “Discrete Spatial Optical Solitons in Waveguide Arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 81(16), 3383–3386 (1998).
[Crossref]

Skryabin, D. V.

C. J. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, and D. V. Skryabin, “Spatiotemporal quasisolitons and resonant radiation in arrays of silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Phys. Rev. A 78(3), 033818 (2008).
[Crossref]

W. Ding, C. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, W. J. Wadsworth, J. C. Knight, D. V. Skryabin, M. Gnan, M. Sorrel, and R. M. De La Rue, “Solitons and spectral broadening in long silicon-on- insulator photonic wires,” Opt. Express 16(5), 3310–3319 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorel, M.

H. B. Perets, Y. Lahini, F. Pozzi, M. Sorel, R. Morandotti, and Y. Silberberg, “Realization of quantum walks with negligible decoherence in waveguide lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100(17), 170506 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, “Observation of discrete surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Sorrel, M.

Stegeman, G. I.

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, “Observation of discrete surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stolen, R.

R. Stolen and C. Lin, “Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 17(4), 1448–1453 (1978).
[Crossref]

Streppel, U.

H. Trompeter, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, D. Michaelis, U. Streppel, A. Bräuer, and U. Peschel, “Visual observation of Zener tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Suntsov, S.

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, “Observation of discrete surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. G. Makris, S. Suntsov, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, and A. Hache, “Discrete surface solitons,” Opt. Lett. 30(18), 2466–2468 (2005).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Svelto, O.

R. Cubeddu, R. Polloni, C. A. Sacchi, and O. Svelto, ““Self-Phase Modulation and “Rocking” of Molecules in Trapped Filaments of Light with Picosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 2(5), 1955–1963 (1970).
[Crossref]

Trompeter, H.

H. Trompeter, T. Pertsch, F. Lederer, D. Michaelis, U. Streppel, A. Bräuer, and U. Peschel, “Visual observation of Zener tunneling,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(2), 023901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wadsworth, W. J.

Xu, J.

Yang, H.

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, “Observation of discrete surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zentgraf, T.

T. Pertsch, T. Zentgraf, U. Peschel, A. Bräuer, and F. Lederer, “Anomalous refraction and diffraction in discrete optical systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 88(9), 093901 (2002).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

Appl. Phys. B (1)

M. Bradler, P. Baum, and E. Riedle, “Femtosecond continuum generation in bulk laser host materials with sub-mu J pump pulses,” Appl. Phys. B 97(3), 561–574 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, D. N. Christodoulides, and R. Morandotti, “Waveguide array-grating compressors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87(13), 131104 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nature (2)

D. N. Christodoulides, F. Lederer, and Y. Silberberg, “Discretizing light behaviour in linear and nonlinear waveguide lattices,” Nature 424(6950), 817–823 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Schwartz, G. Bartal, S. Fishman, and M. Segev, “Transport and Anderson localization in disordered two-dimensional photonic lattices,” Nature 446(7131), 52–55 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Opt. Lett. (5)

Phys. Rev. A (3)

C. J. Benton, A. V. Gorbach, and D. V. Skryabin, “Spatiotemporal quasisolitons and resonant radiation in arrays of silicon-on-insulator photonic wires,” Phys. Rev. A 78(3), 033818 (2008).
[Crossref]

R. Stolen and C. Lin, “Self-phase-modulation in silica optical fibers,” Phys. Rev. A 17(4), 1448–1453 (1978).
[Crossref]

R. Cubeddu, R. Polloni, C. A. Sacchi, and O. Svelto, ““Self-Phase Modulation and “Rocking” of Molecules in Trapped Filaments of Light with Picosecond Pulses,” Phys. Rev. A 2(5), 1955–1963 (1970).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (15)

S. Suntsov, K. G. Makris, D. N. Christodoulides, G. I. Stegeman, A. Haché, R. Morandotti, H. Yang, G. Salamo, and M. Sorel, “Observation of discrete surface solitons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 96(6), 063901 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Neshev, T. J. Alexander, E. A. Ostrovskaya, Y. S. Kivshar, H. Martin, I. Makasyuk, and Z. Chen, “Observation of discrete vortex solitons in optically induced photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123903 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. W. Fleischer, G. Bartal, O. Cohen, O. Manela, M. Segev, J. Hudock, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Observation of vortex-ring “discrete” solitons in 2D photonic lattices,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 92(12), 123904 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Christodoulides and E. D. Eugenieva, “Blocking and routing discrete solitons in two-dimensional networks of nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 87(23), 233901 (2001).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. Cheskis, S. Bar-Ad, R. Morandotti, J. S. Aitchison, H. S. Eisenberg, Y. Silberberg, and D. Ross, “Strong spatiotemporal localization in a silica nonlinear waveguide array,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 91(22), 223901 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Lahini, E. Frumker, Y. Silberberg, S. Droulias, K. Hizanidis, R. Morandotti, and D. N. Christodoulides, “Discrete X-wave formation in nonlinear waveguide arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 98(2), 023901 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Nonlinear phase shift with respect to input peak intensity in Case I (dot) and in Case II (solid), respectively. The inset is the enlargement of the beginning of the curves.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Φmax accumulation during propagation (sample length L = 1.4 cm). (a): Φmax according to different coupling length (normalized by sample length L) for η = Ith /I0 = 23.7%: LC /L = 4.62 × 10−5 (dash-dot), 0.54 (solid), and 76.92 (dash), respectively; The inset is the enlargement of the beginning of solid and dash-dot curves. (b): Φmax for LC /L = 0.11 according to the ratio of threshold to input intensity η = Ith /I0 = a: 11.41%, b: 13.69%, c: 19.56%, d: 32.59%, and e: 1369%, respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Experimental setup. The setup is composed of three parts: waveguide arrays writing system (I), femtosecond laser propagation system (II), and acquisition and analysis system (III). The wave vector of the waveguide arrays fabricated in the sample is along the optical axis of the crystal (inset). P1-P2: polarizer, L1-L3: focal lens, BS: beam splitter, CL1: cylindrical lens, YAG: Nd laser, Spitfire: femtosecond pulse laser, Spectrometer: fiber spectrometer (Ocean Optics Inc., HR4000CG-UV-NIR Spectrometer), CCD (DataRay Inc., WinCamD-UCM) mounted a 4 × objective.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 Simulation of discrete diffraction and the nonlinear phase change versus propagation length. Upper: simulation of discrete diffraction propagation (left) and the output pattern (middle), and the experimental output pattern (right); Lower, simulated maximum phase change Φmax versus propagation length.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Discrete diffraction pattern of femtosecond laser pulse at output facet. (a): 3D image of discrete diffraction; (b): power distribution of discrete diffraction for different input peak intensities, which has been averaged along Y coordinate.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Output Spectra in Case II at an input intensity of 1.18, 193, 438 and 824 GW/cm2 for (a)-(d), respectively.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Contrast of the output spectra for Case I (a) and case II (b) versus the input peak intensities.

Equations (7)

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ϕmax=LeffLNL=γP0Leff,
γ=ω0n2IcAeff,
ϕmax=ω0n2IcAeffP0Leff=ω0n2IIcLeff(I,LC),
dEndz=iC(En1+En+1),
En=(1)nJn(2Cz).
ϕmax=n0L2n2Iπλ0In(z,Ith)In(z,Ith)I0dz,
In(z,Ith)={In(z),In(z)Ith0,In(z)<Ith,

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