Abstract

We demonstrate a wire-obstructed cluster flow technique for making periodically modulated plasma waveguides in hydrogen, nitrogen, and argon with sharp, stable voids as short as 50 μm with a period as small as 200 μm. These gaps persist as the plasma expands for the full lifetime of the waveguide. We demonstrate guided propagation at intensities up to 2×1017 W/cm2, limited by our laser energy currently available. This technique is useful for quasi-phase matching applications where index-modulated guides are superior to diameter modulated guides.

©2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. G. Durfee and H. M. Milchberg, “Light Pipe for High Intensity Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2409–2412 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. Y. Ehrlich, A. Zigler, C. Cohen, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Guiding of High Intensity Laser Pulses in Straight and Curved Plasma Channel Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. G. York and H. M. Milchberg, “Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 195001 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. H. M. Milchberg, C. G. Durfee, and T. J. McIlrath, “Application of a Plasma Waveguide to soft-x-ray Lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 731–737 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  6. T. M. Antonsen, J. P. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Excitation of terahertz radiation by laser pulses in nonuniform plasma channels,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 033107 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-Resolved Explosion of Intense-Laser-Heated Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. B. D. Layer, A. York, T. M. Antonsen, S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Leng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Ultrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nature Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of the average size and density of clusters in a gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3210 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  11. S. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
    [Crossref]

2008 (1)

A. G. York and H. M. Milchberg, “Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 195001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (3)

T. M. Antonsen, J. P. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Excitation of terahertz radiation by laser pulses in nonuniform plasma channels,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 033107 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. D. Layer, A. York, T. M. Antonsen, S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Leng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Ultrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nature Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
[Crossref]

2003 (2)

K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of the average size and density of clusters in a gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3210 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-Resolved Explosion of Intense-Laser-Heated Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (1)

S. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (1)

Y. Ehrlich, A. Zigler, C. Cohen, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Guiding of High Intensity Laser Pulses in Straight and Curved Plasma Channel Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

1993 (1)

C. G. Durfee and H. M. Milchberg, “Light Pipe for High Intensity Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2409–2412 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Alexeev, I.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-Resolved Explosion of Intense-Laser-Heated Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[Crossref]

Antonsen, T. M.

B. D. Layer, A. York, T. M. Antonsen, S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Leng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Ultrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Antonsen, J. P. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Excitation of terahertz radiation by laser pulses in nonuniform plasma channels,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 033107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y.-H.

B. D. Layer, A. York, T. M. Antonsen, S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Leng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Ultrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, C.

Y. Ehrlich, A. Zigler, C. Cohen, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Guiding of High Intensity Laser Pulses in Straight and Curved Plasma Channel Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Cohen, O.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nature Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

Durfee, C. G.

H. M. Milchberg, C. G. Durfee, and T. J. McIlrath, “Application of a Plasma Waveguide to soft-x-ray Lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 731–737 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee and H. M. Milchberg, “Light Pipe for High Intensity Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2409–2412 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ehrlich, Y.

Y. Ehrlich, A. Zigler, C. Cohen, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Guiding of High Intensity Laser Pulses in Straight and Curved Plasma Channel Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Esarey, E. B.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
[Crossref]

Fan, J.

S. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[Crossref]

Geddes, C. G. R.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
[Crossref]

Gonsalves, A. J.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hooker, S. M.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kapteyn, H. C.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nature Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

Kim, K. Y.

K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of the average size and density of clusters in a gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3210 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-Resolved Explosion of Intense-Laser-Heated Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Krall, J.

Y. Ehrlich, A. Zigler, C. Cohen, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Guiding of High Intensity Laser Pulses in Straight and Curved Plasma Channel Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kumarappan, V.

K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of the average size and density of clusters in a gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3210 (2003).
[Crossref]

Layer, B. D.

B. D. Layer, A. York, T. M. Antonsen, S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Leng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Ultrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leemans, W. P.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
[Crossref]

Leng, Y.

B. D. Layer, A. York, T. M. Antonsen, S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Leng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Ultrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Lytle, A. L.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nature Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

McIlrath, T. J.

Milchberg, H. M.

A. G. York and H. M. Milchberg, “Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 195001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. M. Antonsen, J. P. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Excitation of terahertz radiation by laser pulses in nonuniform plasma channels,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 033107 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. D. Layer, A. York, T. M. Antonsen, S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Leng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Ultrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of the average size and density of clusters in a gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3210 (2003).
[Crossref]

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-Resolved Explosion of Intense-Laser-Heated Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[Crossref]

H. M. Milchberg, C. G. Durfee, and T. J. McIlrath, “Application of a Plasma Waveguide to soft-x-ray Lasers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 731–737 (1995).
[Crossref]

C. G. Durfee and H. M. Milchberg, “Light Pipe for High Intensity Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2409–2412 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nature Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nagler, B.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, K.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
[Crossref]

Nikitin, S.

S. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[Crossref]

Palastro, J. P.

T. M. Antonsen, J. P. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Excitation of terahertz radiation by laser pulses in nonuniform plasma channels,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 033107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Parra, E.

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-Resolved Explosion of Intense-Laser-Heated Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Popmintchev, T.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nature Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

Schroeder, C.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
[Crossref]

Sprangle, P.

Y. Ehrlich, A. Zigler, C. Cohen, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Guiding of High Intensity Laser Pulses in Straight and Curved Plasma Channel Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Toth, C.

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
[Crossref]

Varma, S.

B. D. Layer, A. York, T. M. Antonsen, S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Leng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Ultrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

York, A.

B. D. Layer, A. York, T. M. Antonsen, S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Leng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Ultrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

York, A. G.

A. G. York and H. M. Milchberg, “Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 195001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nature Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zhou, X.

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nature Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

Zigler, A.

Y. Ehrlich, A. Zigler, C. Cohen, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Guiding of High Intensity Laser Pulses in Straight and Curved Plasma Channel Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

K. Y. Kim, V. Kumarappan, and H. M. Milchberg, “Measurement of the average size and density of clusters in a gas jet,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 83, 3210 (2003).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature Phys. (2)

X. Zhang, A. L. Lytle, T. Popmintchev, X. Zhou, H. C. Kapteyn, M. M. Murnane, and O. Cohen, “Quasi-phase-matching and quantum-path control of high-harmonic generation using counterpropagating light,” Nature Phys. 3, 270–275 (2007).
[Crossref]

W. P. Leemans, B. Nagler, A. J. Gonsalves, C. Toth, K. Nakamura, C. G. R. Geddes, E. B. Esarey, C. Schroeder, and S. M. Hooker, “GeV electron beams from a centimetre-scale accelerator,” Nature Phys. 2, 696–699 (2006).
[Crossref]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

T. M. Antonsen, J. P. Palastro, and H. M. Milchberg, “Excitation of terahertz radiation by laser pulses in nonuniform plasma channels,” Phys. Plasmas 14, 033107 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

S. Nikitin, I. Alexeev, J. Fan, and H. M. Milchberg, “High efficiency coupling and guiding of intense femtosecond laser pulses in preformed plasma channels in an elongated gas jet,” Phys. Rev. E 59, R3839–R3842 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

K. Y. Kim, I. Alexeev, E. Parra, and H. M. Milchberg, “Time-Resolved Explosion of Intense-Laser-Heated Clusters,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 023401 (2003).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. D. Layer, A. York, T. M. Antonsen, S. Varma, Y.-H. Chen, Y. Leng, and H. M. Milchberg, “Ultrahigh-Intensity Optical Slow-Wave Structure,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 99, 035001 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. G. York and H. M. Milchberg, “Direct Acceleration of Electrons in a Corrugated Plasma Waveguide,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 100, 195001 (2008).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. G. Durfee and H. M. Milchberg, “Light Pipe for High Intensity Laser Pulses,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2409–2412 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ehrlich, A. Zigler, C. Cohen, J. Krall, and P. Sprangle, “Guiding of High Intensity Laser Pulses in Straight and Curved Plasma Channel Experiments,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4186–4189 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Experimental geometry: Nd:YAG laser pulse (200–500 mJ, 100 ps, 1064 nm) focused by an axicon onto a elongated cluster jet (a) generates a channel to allow guiding of a (a) Ti:Sapphire laser pulse (70 mJ, 70 fs, 800 nm). A 1 mJ portion of the femtosecond pulse was directed transversely through the modulated guide for time resolved interferometric/scattering images. Image of channel with (b) 250 μm wires at a 1mm period and (c) phase image of channel with 25 μm wires at a 200 μm modulation period in argon cluster targets.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Waveguide electron density profiles at indicated delays vs. radius and axial position produced in nitrogen (a–d) and argon (e–h) cluster jets at 800 psi backing pressure and -145°C (22°C), with single 25 μm diameter wire across the exit of the elongated nozzle and in contact with it. Channels were formed using a Nd:YAG pump (1064 nm, 500 mJ, 100 ps ).
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Image (a) ((b)) shows the Abel-inverted electron density profile of radius vs. propagation direction of a waveguide produced in a Nitrogen (Argon) cluster jet at 800 psi backing pressure and -145°C (-80°C) with 25 um diameter obstructions at a 200 um period 2ns after channel generation. In (c) a 70 mJ, 70 fs, 800 nm Ti:Sapphire pulse has been guided down the channel, but otherwise experimental conditions are the same as (b). In (d) Rayleigh scattering from (c) was imaged by blocking the probe pulse and placing an 800 nm interference filter in the transverse imaging setup.

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