Abstract

This paper reports a simple and effective ultrasonic embossing method which enables the rapid fabrication of dual-side surface-relief plastic diffusers with various cross angles. Metallic master molds bearing microstructures are fabricated using a tungsten carbide turning machine. A 1500-Watt ultrasonic vibrator with an output frequency of 20 kHz was used to replicate the microstructure onto 1 mm thick PMMA and PET films in the experiments. During ultrasonic embossing, the ultrasonic energy is converted into heat through intermolecular friction at the master mold/plastic plate interface due to asperities to melt the thermoplastic at the interface and thereby to replicate the microstructure. Under the proper processing conditions, high-performance dual-sided plastic diffusers of various cross-angles can be successfully fabricated. The proposed method shows great potential for fast fabrication of micro-optical components due to its simplicity and versatility.

©2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. T. K. Shih, C. F. Chen, J. R. Ho, and F. T. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(11-12), 2499–2503 (2006).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  4. S. I. Chang, J. B. Yoon, H. K. Kim, J. J. Kim, B. K. Lee, and D. H. Shin, “Microlens array diffuser for a light-emitting diode backlight system,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 3016–3018 (2006).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
  8. T. C. Huang, J. R. Ciou, P. H. Huang, K. H. Hsieh, and S. Y. Yang, “Fast fabrication of integrated surface-relief and particle-diffusing plastic diffuser by use of a hybrid extrusion roller embossing process,” Opt. Express 16(1), 440–447 (2008).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2008 (1)

2007 (1)

2006 (2)

T. K. Shih, C. F. Chen, J. R. Ho, and F. T. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(11-12), 2499–2503 (2006).
[Crossref]

S. I. Chang, J. B. Yoon, H. K. Kim, J. J. Kim, B. K. Lee, and D. H. Shin, “Microlens array diffuser for a light-emitting diode backlight system,” Opt. Lett. 31(20), 3016–3018 (2006).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

D. Sakai, K. Harada, S. I. Kamemaru, M. A. El-Morsy, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Direct fabrication of surface relief holographic diffusers in azobenzene polymer films,” Opt. Rev. 12(5), 383–386 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

2001 (2)

Chang, S. I.

Chen, C. F.

T. K. Shih, C. F. Chen, J. R. Ho, and F. T. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(11-12), 2499–2503 (2006).
[Crossref]

Choi, Y. S.

Chuang, F. T.

T. K. Shih, C. F. Chen, J. R. Ho, and F. T. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(11-12), 2499–2503 (2006).
[Crossref]

Ciou, J. R.

El-Morsy, M. A.

D. Sakai, K. Harada, S. I. Kamemaru, M. A. El-Morsy, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Direct fabrication of surface relief holographic diffusers in azobenzene polymer films,” Opt. Rev. 12(5), 383–386 (2005).
[Crossref]

Escamilla, H. M.

García-Guerrero, E. E.

Ham, Y. N.

Harada, K.

D. Sakai, K. Harada, S. I. Kamemaru, M. A. El-Morsy, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Direct fabrication of surface relief holographic diffusers in azobenzene polymer films,” Opt. Rev. 12(5), 383–386 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ho, J. R.

T. K. Shih, C. F. Chen, J. R. Ho, and F. T. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(11-12), 2499–2503 (2006).
[Crossref]

Honkanen, M.

Hsieh, K. H.

Huang, P. H.

Huang, T. C.

Itoh, M.

D. Sakai, K. Harada, S. I. Kamemaru, M. A. El-Morsy, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Direct fabrication of surface relief holographic diffusers in azobenzene polymer films,” Opt. Rev. 12(5), 383–386 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kaikuranta, T.

Kamemaru, S. I.

D. Sakai, K. Harada, S. I. Kamemaru, M. A. El-Morsy, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Direct fabrication of surface relief holographic diffusers in azobenzene polymer films,” Opt. Rev. 12(5), 383–386 (2005).
[Crossref]

Kim, H. K.

Kim, J. J.

Kim, J. M.

Kim, S. I.

Kuittinen, M.

Laakkonen, P.

Lautanen, J.

Lee, B. K.

Leskova, T. A.

Maradudin, A. A.

Méndez, E. R.

Parikka, M.

Park, C. Y.

Sakai, D.

D. Sakai, K. Harada, S. I. Kamemaru, M. A. El-Morsy, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Direct fabrication of surface relief holographic diffusers in azobenzene polymer films,” Opt. Rev. 12(5), 383–386 (2005).
[Crossref]

Shchegrov, A. V.

Shih, T. K.

T. K. Shih, C. F. Chen, J. R. Ho, and F. T. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(11-12), 2499–2503 (2006).
[Crossref]

Shin, D. H.

Tervo, J.

Turunen, J.

Yang, S. Y.

Yatagai, T.

D. Sakai, K. Harada, S. I. Kamemaru, M. A. El-Morsy, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Direct fabrication of surface relief holographic diffusers in azobenzene polymer films,” Opt. Rev. 12(5), 383–386 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yoon, J. B.

Appl. Opt. (3)

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

T. K. Shih, C. F. Chen, J. R. Ho, and F. T. Chuang, “Fabrication of PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) microlens and diffuser using replica molding,” Microelectron. Eng. 83(11-12), 2499–2503 (2006).
[Crossref]

Opt. Express (2)

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Rev. (1)

D. Sakai, K. Harada, S. I. Kamemaru, M. A. El-Morsy, M. Itoh, and T. Yatagai, “Direct fabrication of surface relief holographic diffusers in azobenzene polymer films,” Opt. Rev. 12(5), 383–386 (2005).
[Crossref]

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Schematic diagram showing the ultrasonic embossing facility.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Surface profiles and SEM images of (a) greater microstructure, x45, and (b) smaller microstructure, x350, master molds.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Schematically the diffusers of (a) greater-greater, (b) greater-smaller, (c) offset (peak-to-valley), (d) 45° cross-angle, and (e) 90° cross-angle microstructures.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 An AFM image and surface roughness of a replicated microstructure.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 The images of a laser light source observed behind (a) a flat PMMA plate, and (b) a PMMA plate with single-sided 150 μm surface microstructures, and (c) a PMMA plate with single-sided 20 μm microstructure.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 The images of a laser light source observed behind diffusers of 150 μm/20 μm dual-side microstructure with different cross angles: (a) PMMA, 0°, (b) PMMA, 45°, (c) PMMA, 90°, (d) PET, 0°, (e) PET, 45°, and (f) PET 90° (the microstructures for top and bottom molds used are 150 μm and 20 μm respectively).
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 The images of a laser light source observed behind diffusers of 150 μm/ 150 μm dual-side microstructure with different cross angles: (a) PMMA, (b) PMMA, peak-to-valley offset, (c) PMMA, 45° cross angle (d) PMMA, 90° cross angle, (e) PET, and (f) PET, peak-to-valley offset (g) PET, 45° cross angle (h) PET, 90° cross angle.

Tables (3)

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Table 1 Influence of processing parameters on the quality of replicated PMMA microstructures.

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Table 2 Influence of processing parameters on the quality of replicated PET microstructures.

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Table 3 Measured optical properties of the diffusers.

Equations (2)

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Q=ωεo2E"/2
E*=E'+iE"

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