Abstract

Electrowetting retroreflectors use a simple and scalable construction, and incorporate an electrically tunable liquid lenslet. By electrically modulating the lenslet geometry, the reflection is switched between retroreflection and scattering. In this paper, we report new capability and characterization, including higher index liquids and contrast ratio as a function of contact angle (θV). The reflected intensity is also spatially profiled and reported as a function of view angle. A high contrast ratio of >16X is demonstrated, and methods for further improving performance are discussed. Because the electrowetting retroreflector platform is broad spectrum (VIS-IR), the electrowetting retroreflector may be useful for a large variety of naked eye applications such as safety markings, road-signage, or friend-foe-identification.

©2009 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article
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References

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  1. H. D. Eckhardt, “Simple Model of Corner Reflector Phenomena,” Appl. Opt. 10(7), 1559–1566 (1971).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  2. J. Llyoyd, “A brief history of retroreflective sign face sheet materials,” http://www.rema.org.uk/pdf/history-retroreflective-materials.pdf .
  3. G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).
  5. M. K. Kilaru, B. Cumby, and J. Heikenfeld, “Electrowetting retroreflectors: Scalable and wide-spectrum modulation between corner cube and scattering reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041108 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  6. “Reflexite - reflective products - lighting optics, optical engineers, polymer processing,” http://www.reflexite.com/ .
  7. F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(28), R705–R774 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  8. B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
    [Crossref]
  9. J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
    [Crossref]
  10. T. B. Jones, “An electromechanical interpretation of electrowetting,” J. Micromech. Microeng.1184 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  11. D. A. Arnold, “Method of calculating retroreflector-Array transfer functions,” Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory special report 382, 1 (1979).
  12. P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, G. C. Gilbreath, J. L. Murphy, H. R. Burris, and M. F. Stell, “Practical considerations of retroreflector choice in modulating retroreflector systems,” 2005 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, 49–50 (2005).
  13. V. A. Handerek, and L. C. Laycock, “Feasibility of retroreflective free-space optical communication using retroreflectors with very wide field of view,” in M. Ross and A. M. Scott, eds. (SPIE), pp. 1–9 (2004.

2009 (2)

M. K. Kilaru, B. Cumby, and J. Heikenfeld, “Electrowetting retroreflectors: Scalable and wide-spectrum modulation between corner cube and scattering reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041108 (2009).
[Crossref]

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

2005 (2)

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(28), R705–R774 (2005).
[Crossref]

T. B. Jones, “An electromechanical interpretation of electrowetting,” J. Micromech. Microeng.1184 (2005).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

Barbehenn, R.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Baret, J. C.

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(28), R705–R774 (2005).
[Crossref]

Berge, B.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[Crossref]

Binari, S.

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

Bovais, C. S.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Burris, H. R.

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

Burris, R.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cochrell, K.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Cumby, B.

M. K. Kilaru, B. Cumby, and J. Heikenfeld, “Electrowetting retroreflectors: Scalable and wide-spectrum modulation between corner cube and scattering reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Dhindsa, M.

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eckhardt, H. D.

Ferraro, M.

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Gilbreath, G. C.

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Goetz, P. G.

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

Goins, K. C.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Heikenfeld, J.

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
[Crossref]

M. K. Kilaru, B. Cumby, and J. Heikenfeld, “Electrowetting retroreflectors: Scalable and wide-spectrum modulation between corner cube and scattering reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Hou, L.

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
[Crossref]

Ikossi-Anastasiou, K.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Jones, T. B.

T. B. Jones, “An electromechanical interpretation of electrowetting,” J. Micromech. Microeng.1184 (2005).
[Crossref]

Katzer, D. S.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Kilaru, M.

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kilaru, M. K.

M. K. Kilaru, B. Cumby, and J. Heikenfeld, “Electrowetting retroreflectors: Scalable and wide-spectrum modulation between corner cube and scattering reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Kreit, E.

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
[Crossref]

Mahon, R.

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Meehan, T. J.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Montes, M.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Moore, C. I.

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

Mugele, F.

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(28), R705–R774 (2005).
[Crossref]

Murphy, J.

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

Peseux, J.

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[Crossref]

Rabinovich, W. S.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Raj, B.

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
[Crossref]

Smith, N.

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
[Crossref]

Sokolsky, I.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Suite, M.

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

Swingen, L.

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

Vasquez, J. A.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Vilcheck, M. J.

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

William, S. R.

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

Zhang, J.

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
[Crossref]

Zhou, K.

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. K. Kilaru, B. Cumby, and J. Heikenfeld, “Electrowetting retroreflectors: Scalable and wide-spectrum modulation between corner cube and scattering reflection,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 94(4), 041108 (2009).
[Crossref]

Eur. Phys. J. E (1)

B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: An application of electrowetting,” Eur. Phys. J. E 3(2), 159–163 (2000).
[Crossref]

J. Micromech. Microeng. (1)

T. B. Jones, “An electromechanical interpretation of electrowetting,” J. Micromech. Microeng.1184 (2005).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

F. Mugele and J. C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 17(28), R705–R774 (2005).
[Crossref]

Opt. Eng. (1)

G. C. Gilbreath, W. S. Rabinovich, T. J. Meehan, M. J. Vilcheck, R. Mahon, R. Burris, M. Ferraro, I. Sokolsky, J. A. Vasquez, C. S. Bovais, K. Cochrell, K. C. Goins, R. Barbehenn, D. S. Katzer, K. Ikossi-Anastasiou, and M. Montes, “Large-aperture multiple quantum well modulating retroreflector for free-space optical data transfer on unmanned aerial vehicles,” Opt. Eng. 40(7), 1348–1356 (2001).
[Crossref]

Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. (1)

S. R. William, P. G. Goetz, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, J. Murphy, M. Ferraro, H. R. Burris, C. I. Moore, M. Suite, G. C. Gilbreath, and S. Binari, “45-Mbit/s cat's-eye modulating retroreflectors,” Opt. Engin. J. Soc.Photo-Opt. Instrum. Eng. 46, 10400 (2007).

Opt. Photon. News (1)

J. Heikenfeld, N. Smith, M. Dhindsa, K. Zhou, M. Kilaru, L. Hou, J. Zhang, E. Kreit, and B. Raj, “Recent Progress in Arrayed Electrowetting Optics,” Opt. Photon. News 20(1), 20–26 (2009).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

“Reflexite - reflective products - lighting optics, optical engineers, polymer processing,” http://www.reflexite.com/ .

J. Llyoyd, “A brief history of retroreflective sign face sheet materials,” http://www.rema.org.uk/pdf/history-retroreflective-materials.pdf .

D. A. Arnold, “Method of calculating retroreflector-Array transfer functions,” Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory special report 382, 1 (1979).

P. G. Goetz, W. S. Rabinovich, R. Mahon, L. Swingen, G. C. Gilbreath, J. L. Murphy, H. R. Burris, and M. F. Stell, “Practical considerations of retroreflector choice in modulating retroreflector systems,” 2005 Digest of the LEOS Summer Topical Meetings, 49–50 (2005).

V. A. Handerek, and L. C. Laycock, “Feasibility of retroreflective free-space optical communication using retroreflectors with very wide field of view,” in M. Ross and A. M. Scott, eds. (SPIE), pp. 1–9 (2004.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 Hollow corner cube retroreflectors. (a) Photo of arrays of fabricated hollow corner cubes and diagram of the retroreflecting (light) and non-retroreflecting regions (dark). (b) Simple 2D ray trace diagram of a hollow corner cube.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Side diagram of electrowetting retroreflector modulation. (a) Scattering state (off). (b) Retroreflective state (on).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 (a) Plot of contrast ratio vs. θV for dodecane and DC 702 oil. (b) Diagram of characterization setup. Percentage error was found to be less than 5%.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 On and off intensity plots of electrowetting corner cube for (a) dodecane oil and (b) DC 702 oil. Photos of the device in the on and off states, along with the characterization setup, is shown in (c). Percentage error was found to be less than 5%.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Photos of arrays of hollow corner cube retroreflectors showing the decrease of the effective aperture with increase in incidence angle. (a) ϕext=0°. (b) ϕext=15°. (c) ϕext=30°.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Field of view. (a) Air ηoil~1. (b) Dodecane ηoil~1.42. (c) DC 702 ηoil~1.52. Percentage error was found to be less than 5%.

Equations (1)

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(φext)(00)=(12tan(φint))2[123tan(φint)]2cos2(φext)

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