Abstract

We present the results of a study of highly linear polarized light emissions from an Organic Light-Emitting Device (OLED) that consisted of a flexible Giant Birefringent Optical (GBO) multilayer polymer reflecting polarizer substrate. Luminous Electroluminescent (EL) emissions over 4,500 cd/m2 were produced from the polarized OLED with high peak efficiencies in excess of 6 cd/A and 2 lm/W at relatively low operating voltages. The direction of polarization for the emitted EL light corresponded to the passing (ordinary) axis of the GBO-reflecting polarizer. Furthermore, the estimated polarization ratio between the brightness of two linearly polarized EL emissions parallel and perpendicular to the passing axis could be as high as 25 when measured over the whole emitted luminance range.

©2009 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913–915 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  3. M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4–6 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  4. M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156–158 (2001).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 372–377 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  6. V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8, 146–149 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11, 1518–1521 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  8. D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  9. P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  10. C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 417–423 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11, 895–905 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  12. K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183509 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  13. K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55, 454–459 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  14. M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2436–2438 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  15. M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243503 (2005).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. of Applied Polymer Science 91, 489–493 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  19. B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
    [Crossref]
  20. G. Alagappan, X. W. Sun, P. Shum, M. B. Yu, and M. T. Doan, “One-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal with a tunable bandgap,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 23, 159–167 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  21. J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, “Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107–4121 (1996).
    [Crossref]

2008 (3)

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023304 (2008).
[Crossref]

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
[Crossref]

2007 (1)

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183509 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (1)

2005 (1)

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243503 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (2)

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. of Applied Polymer Science 91, 489–493 (2004).
[Crossref]

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 417–423 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 372–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

2001 (1)

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

2000 (1)

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Glbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirror,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1999 (4)

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11, 1518–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11, 895–905 (1999).
[Crossref]

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8, 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, “Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107–4121 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (2)

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2436–2438 (1995).
[Crossref]

1993 (1)

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55, 454–459 (1993).
[Crossref]

1987 (1)

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Adachi, C.

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 372–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

Alagappan, G.

Andersson, M. R.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Azumi, R.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023304 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183509 (2007).
[Crossref]

Bai, S. J.

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 417–423 (2004).
[Crossref]

Baldo, M. A.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bendickson, J. M.

J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, “Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107–4121 (1996).
[Crossref]

Berggren, M.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Blagidze, I.

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. of Applied Polymer Science 91, 489–493 (2004).
[Crossref]

Bradley, D. D. C.

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11, 895–905 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bradly, D. D. C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Bredas, J. L.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Brutting, W.

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11, 1518–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Burn, P. L.

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55, 454–459 (1993).
[Crossref]

Burroughes, J. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Burrows, P. E.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

Cheng, H. Y.

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 417–423 (2004).
[Crossref]

Chikamatsu, M.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023304 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183509 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Cimrova, V.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8, 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

Doan, M. T.

Dos Santos, D. A.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Dowling, J. P.

J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, “Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107–4121 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dyreklev, P.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Era, M.

M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2436–2438 (1995).
[Crossref]

Forrest, S. R.

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 372–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

Friend, R. H.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55, 454–459 (1993).
[Crossref]

Glbert, L. R.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Glbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirror,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gmeiner, J.

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11, 1518–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Grell, M.

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11, 895–905 (1999).
[Crossref]

Gvatua, S.

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. of Applied Polymer Science 91, 489–493 (2004).
[Crossref]

Gymer, R. W.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Han, M. Y.

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Hjertberg, T.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Holmes, A. B.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55, 454–459 (1993).
[Crossref]

Ikai, M.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

Inganas, O.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Jandke, M.

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11, 1518–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Lamansky, S.

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

Liu, X.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[Crossref]

Logdlund, M.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Marks, R. N.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Miki, K.

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183509 (2007).
[Crossref]

Misaki, M.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023304 (2008).
[Crossref]

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183509 (2007).
[Crossref]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Nadareishvili, L.

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. of Applied Polymer Science 91, 489–493 (2004).
[Crossref]

Nagamatsu, S.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023304 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Neher, D.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8, 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

Nevitt, T. J.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Glbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirror,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Oh, S. S.

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Ouderkirk, A. J.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Glbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirror,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Park, B.

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
[Crossref]

Pichler, K.

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55, 454–459 (1993).
[Crossref]

Remmers, M.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8, 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

Saito, S.

M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2436–2438 (1995).
[Crossref]

Sakaguchi, K.

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183509 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, K.

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183509 (2007).
[Crossref]

Sakamoto, Y.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

Salaneck, W. R.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Scalora, M.

J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, “Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107–4121 (1996).
[Crossref]

Schwoerer, M.

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11, 1518–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Shum, P.

Stover, C. A.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Glbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirror,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Strohriegl, P.

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11, 1518–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

Sun, X. W.

Suzuki, T.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

Taga, Y.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

Taliani, C.

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tang, C. W.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Tanigaki, N.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023304 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Thompson, M. E.

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 372–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

Tokito, S.

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

Tsay, P. Y.

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 417–423 (2004).
[Crossref]

Tsutsui, T.

M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2436–2438 (1995).
[Crossref]

Ueda, Y.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023304 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Van Slyke, S. A.

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

Weber, M. F.

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Glbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirror,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wegner, G.

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8, 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

Wennerstrom, O.

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wu, C. C.

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 417–423 (2004).
[Crossref]

Yase, K.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023304 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ye, H.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[Crossref]

Yoshida, Y.

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023304 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243503 (2005).
[Crossref]

Yu, M. B.

Zaikov, G.

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. of Applied Polymer Science 91, 489–493 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhen, H. Y.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[Crossref]

Zhu, D. X.

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[Crossref]

Adv. Mater. (4)

V. Cimrova, M. Remmers, D. Neher, and G. Wegner, “Polarized light emission from LEDs prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique,” Adv. Mater. 8, 146–149 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Jandke, P. Strohriegl, J. Gmeiner, W. Brutting, and M. Schwoerer, “Polarized electroluminescence from rubbing-aligned poly(p-phenylenevinylene),” Adv. Mater. 11, 1518–1521 (1999).
[Crossref]

P. Dyreklev, M. Berggren, O. Inganas, M. R. Andersson, O. Wennerstrom, and T. Hjertberg, “Polarized electroluminescence from an oriented substituted polythiophene in a light emitting diode,” Adv. Mater. 7, 43–45 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Grell and D. D. C. Bradley, “Polarized luminescence from oriented molecular materials,” Adv. Mater. 11, 895–905 (1999).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (9)

K. Sakamoto, K. Miki, M. Misaki, K. Sakaguchi, M. Chikamatsu, and R. Azumi, “Very thin photoalignment films for liquid crystalline conjugated polymers: Application to polarized light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 91, 183509 (2007).
[Crossref]

B. Park, M. Y. Han, and S. S. Oh, “Solution processable ionic p-i-n phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 093302 (2008).
[Crossref]

M. Era, T. Tsutsui, and S. Saito, “Polarized electroluminescence from oriented p-sexiphenyl vacuum-deposited film,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2436–2438 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. Misaki, Y. Ueda, S. Nagamatsu, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, N. Tanigaki, and K. Yase, “Highly polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing friction-transferred poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene) thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 87, 243503 (2005).
[Crossref]

M. Misaki, M. Chikamatsu, Y. Yoshida, R. Azumi, N. Tanigaki, K. Yase, S. Nagamatsu, and Y. Ueda, “Highly efficient polarized polymer light-emitting diodes utilizing oriented films of β-phase poly(9, 9-dioctylfluorene),” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 023304 (2008).
[Crossref]

D. X. Zhu, H. Y. Zhen, H. Ye, and X. Liu, “Highly polarized white-light emission from a single copolymer based on fluorene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 93, 163309 (2008).
[Crossref]

C. W. Tang and S. A. Van Slyke, “Organic electroluminescent diodes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 913–915 (1987).
[Crossref]

M. A. Baldo, S. Lamansky, P. E. Burrows, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Very high-efficiency green organic light-emitting devices based on electrophosphorescence,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 75, 4–6 (1999).
[Crossref]

M. Ikai, S. Tokito, Y. Sakamoto, T. Suzuki, and Y. Taga, “Highly efficient phosphorescence from organic light-emitting devices with an exciton-block layer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 156–158 (2001).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Adachi, M. E. Thompson, and S. R. Forrest, “Architectures for efficient electrophosphorescent organic light-emitting devices,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 8, 372–377 (2002).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

C. C. Wu, P. Y. Tsay, H. Y. Cheng, and S. J. Bai, “Polarized luminescence and absorption of highly oriented, fully conjugated, heterocyclic aromatic rigid-rod polymer poly-p-phenylenebenzobisoxazole,” J. Appl. Phys. 95, 417–423 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. of Applied Polymer Science (1)

L. Nadareishvili, S. Gvatua, I. Blagidze, and G. Zaikov, “Gradient of birefringence: A new direction for gradient optics,” J. of Applied Polymer Science 91, 489–493 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Nature (London) (1)

R. H. Friend, R. W. Gymer, A. B. Holmes, J. H. Burroughes, R. N. Marks, C. Taliani, D. D. C. Bradly, D. A. Dos Santos, J. L. Bredas, M. Logdlund, and W. R. Salaneck, “Electroluminescence in conjugated polymers,” Nature (London) 397, 121–128 (1999).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

J. M. Bendickson, J. P. Dowling, and M. Scalora, “Analytic expressions for the electromagnetic mode density in finite, one-dimensional, photonic band-gap structures,” Phys. Rev. E 53, 4107–4121 (1996).
[Crossref]

Science (1)

M. F. Weber, C. A. Stover, L. R. Glbert, T. J. Nevitt, and A. J. Ouderkirk, “Giant birefringent optics in multilayer polymer mirror,” Science 287, 2451–2456 (2000), and references therein.
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Synth. Met. (1)

K. Pichler, R. H. Friend, P. L. Burn, and A. B. Holmes, “Chain alignment in poly(p-phenylene vinylene) on oriented substrates,” Synth. Met. 55, 454–459 (1993).
[Crossref]

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a). Photograph showing the flexible transparent GBO reflecting polymer polarizer film and (b). SEM image of the cross-section of the studied GBO reflecting polymer polarizer film.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. (a). Polarized microphotographs under crossed polarizers at four angles of sample rotation of the flexible GBO reflecting polymer polarizer film that was studied. (b) Polarized transmittance spectra for incident light polarized linearly along the x (ordinary) and y (extraordinary) axes.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. (a). Current density-voltage and luminance-voltage characteristics and (b) current efficiency-voltage and power efficiency-voltage characteristics of the sample OLED on the flexible GBO reflecting polarizer. The dotted curves show the characteristics of the reference device.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. (a). Polarized EL emission spectra along the o (red solid curves) and e (blue solid curves) axes for the fabricated polarized OLED. The dotted curves show the total emission spectra (o + e). The detection angle is fixed at normal incidence (0o). (b) The relative L-V characteristics for polarization along the o (red curves) and e (blue curves) axes of EL emission. (c) The polarization ratio characteristics obtained using the relative L-V characteristics.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Photographs showing the operating polarized OLED sample (3×3 mm2, 10 V) for the polarizations along the o (left) and e (right) axes of the flexible GBO reflecting polarizer substrate under a rotating linear dichroic polarizer film. The passing axis represents the transmission axis of the linear dichroic polarizer.

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