Abstract

In this paper, we present an experimental study on transmission of RF signals over turbulent free-space optics (FSO) channel by using off-the-shelf Radio Frequency – FSO (RF-FSO) antennas. The results demonstrate potential of utilizing FSO links for transmission of RF signals and are used as a guideline in the design, prediction and evaluation of an advanced Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) RoFSO system we are developing capable of transmitting multiple RF signals. An analytical modeling of the system is also conducted to identify key parameters in evaluating the performance of RF signal transmission using FSO links. The results confirm that the effect of scintillation on RF-FSO system performance can be estimated by using a simple estimation equation and satisfactory result are obtained from comparing the experimental and theoretical derived data under weak to strong turbulence condition.

©2009 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. H. Al-Raweshidy, and S. Komaki, eds., Radio over Fiber Technologies for Mobile Communications Networks. Artech House Publishers, first ed., 2002.
  2. W. Chang, ed., RF Photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links. Cambridge University Press, first ed., Oct. 2002.
  3. A. Seeds, “Microwave Photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 877–887 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  4. J. Wu, J. Wu, and H. Tsao, “A Radio-over Fiber Network for Microcellular System Application,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 47(1), 84–94 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. Davis, I. Smolyaninov, and S. Milner, “Flexible Optical Wireless Links and Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 51–57 (2003).
    [Crossref]
  6. A. Mahdy, and J. Deogun, Wireless Optical Communications: A Survey,” Proc. IEEE WCNC, 2399–2404 (2004).
  7. K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).
  8. H. H. Refai, J. J. Sluss, H. H. Refai, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Comparative study of the performance of analog fiber optic links versus free-space optical links,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 025003 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  10. K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, and M. Matsumoto, “Development Project of Radio on Free Space Optics,” Proc. SPIE 6788, 677606.1–8 (2007).
  11. L. Andrews, and R. Phillips, Laser Beam propagation through Random Media, second ed, SPIE Press, 2005.
  12. L. Wasiczko and C. Davis, “Aperture averaging of optical scintillations in the atmosphere: experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 5793, 197–207 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  13. L. Andrews, R. Phillips, C. Hopen, and M. Al-Habash, “Theory of optical scintillation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 16(6), 1417–1429 (1999).
    [Crossref]
  14. G. Katz, S. Arnon, P. Goldgeier, Y. Hauptman, and N. Atias, “Cellular over optical wireless networks,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 153(4), 195–198 (2006).
    [Crossref]
  15. 3GPP TS 25.141, 3rd Generation Partnership Project. http://www.3gpp.org/ , 2002.
  16. K. Wakamori, T. Hayashi, H. Yamashita, Y. Kimura, and M. Hosoda, “155-Mbps ATM Backbone for Interbuilding Intranet using an Optical Wireless System,” Proc. PIMRC (1999).
  17. G. Keiser, “Optical Communications Essentials,” by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.
  18. O. Bouche II, T. Marquis, M. Chabane, M. Alnaboulsi, and H. Sizun, “FSO and Quality of Service Software Prediction,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589204.1–12 (2005).
  19. D. Giggenbach and H. Henninger, “Fading-loss assessment in atmospheric free-space optical communication links with on-off keying,” Opt. Eng. 47,046001.1–6 (2006).

2008 (1)

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

2007 (1)

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

2006 (3)

G. Katz, S. Arnon, P. Goldgeier, Y. Hauptman, and N. Atias, “Cellular over optical wireless networks,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 153(4), 195–198 (2006).
[Crossref]

D. Giggenbach and H. Henninger, “Fading-loss assessment in atmospheric free-space optical communication links with on-off keying,” Opt. Eng. 47,046001.1–6 (2006).

H. H. Refai, J. J. Sluss, H. H. Refai, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Comparative study of the performance of analog fiber optic links versus free-space optical links,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 025003 (2006).
[Crossref]

2005 (1)

L. Wasiczko and C. Davis, “Aperture averaging of optical scintillations in the atmosphere: experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 5793, 197–207 (2005).
[Crossref]

2003 (1)

C. Davis, I. Smolyaninov, and S. Milner, “Flexible Optical Wireless Links and Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 51–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

2002 (1)

A. Seeds, “Microwave Photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 877–887 (2002).
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

1998 (1)

J. Wu, J. Wu, and H. Tsao, “A Radio-over Fiber Network for Microcellular System Application,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 47(1), 84–94 (1998).
[Crossref]

Aburakawa, Y.

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

Al-Habash, M.

Andrews, L.

Arimoto, Y.

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Arnon, S.

G. Katz, S. Arnon, P. Goldgeier, Y. Hauptman, and N. Atias, “Cellular over optical wireless networks,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 153(4), 195–198 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atias, N.

G. Katz, S. Arnon, P. Goldgeier, Y. Hauptman, and N. Atias, “Cellular over optical wireless networks,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 153(4), 195–198 (2006).
[Crossref]

Atiquzzaman, M.

H. H. Refai, J. J. Sluss, H. H. Refai, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Comparative study of the performance of analog fiber optic links versus free-space optical links,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 025003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Davis, C.

L. Wasiczko and C. Davis, “Aperture averaging of optical scintillations in the atmosphere: experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 5793, 197–207 (2005).
[Crossref]

C. Davis, I. Smolyaninov, and S. Milner, “Flexible Optical Wireless Links and Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 51–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Giggenbach, D.

D. Giggenbach and H. Henninger, “Fading-loss assessment in atmospheric free-space optical communication links with on-off keying,” Opt. Eng. 47,046001.1–6 (2006).

Goldgeier, P.

G. Katz, S. Arnon, P. Goldgeier, Y. Hauptman, and N. Atias, “Cellular over optical wireless networks,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 153(4), 195–198 (2006).
[Crossref]

Hauptman, Y.

G. Katz, S. Arnon, P. Goldgeier, Y. Hauptman, and N. Atias, “Cellular over optical wireless networks,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 153(4), 195–198 (2006).
[Crossref]

Henninger, H.

D. Giggenbach and H. Henninger, “Fading-loss assessment in atmospheric free-space optical communication links with on-off keying,” Opt. Eng. 47,046001.1–6 (2006).

Higashino, T.

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

Hopen, C.

Katz, G.

G. Katz, S. Arnon, P. Goldgeier, Y. Hauptman, and N. Atias, “Cellular over optical wireless networks,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 153(4), 195–198 (2006).
[Crossref]

Kazaura, K.

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Komaki, S.

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

Matsumoto, H.

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Matsumoto, M.

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Milner, S.

C. Davis, I. Smolyaninov, and S. Milner, “Flexible Optical Wireless Links and Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 51–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Murakami, T.

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Mutafungwa, E.

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, T.

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

Omae, K.

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Phillips, R.

Refai, H. H.

H. H. Refai, J. J. Sluss, H. H. Refai, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Comparative study of the performance of analog fiber optic links versus free-space optical links,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 025003 (2006).
[Crossref]

H. H. Refai, J. J. Sluss, H. H. Refai, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Comparative study of the performance of analog fiber optic links versus free-space optical links,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 025003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Seeds, A.

A. Seeds, “Microwave Photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 877–887 (2002).
[Crossref]

Sluss, J. J.

H. H. Refai, J. J. Sluss, H. H. Refai, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Comparative study of the performance of analog fiber optic links versus free-space optical links,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 025003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Smolyaninov, I.

C. Davis, I. Smolyaninov, and S. Milner, “Flexible Optical Wireless Links and Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 51–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

Suzuki, T.

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Takahashi, K.

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Tsao, H.

J. Wu, J. Wu, and H. Tsao, “A Radio-over Fiber Network for Microcellular System Application,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 47(1), 84–94 (1998).
[Crossref]

Tsukamoto, K.

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

Wakamori, K.

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

Wasiczko, L.

L. Wasiczko and C. Davis, “Aperture averaging of optical scintillations in the atmosphere: experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 5793, 197–207 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wu, J.

J. Wu, J. Wu, and H. Tsao, “A Radio-over Fiber Network for Microcellular System Application,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 47(1), 84–94 (1998).
[Crossref]

J. Wu, J. Wu, and H. Tsao, “A Radio-over Fiber Network for Microcellular System Application,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 47(1), 84–94 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEE Proc., Optoelectron. (1)

G. Katz, S. Arnon, P. Goldgeier, Y. Hauptman, and N. Atias, “Cellular over optical wireless networks,” IEE Proc., Optoelectron. 153(4), 195–198 (2006).
[Crossref]

IEEE Commun. Mag. (1)

C. Davis, I. Smolyaninov, and S. Milner, “Flexible Optical Wireless Links and Networks,” IEEE Commun. Mag. 41(3), 51–57 (2003).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. (1)

A. Seeds, “Microwave Photonics,” IEEE Trans. Microw. Theory Tech. 50(3), 877–887 (2002).
[Crossref]

IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. (1)

J. Wu, J. Wu, and H. Tsao, “A Radio-over Fiber Network for Microcellular System Application,” IEEE Trans. Vehicular Technol. 47(1), 84–94 (1998).
[Crossref]

IEICE Transactions on Electronics E (1)

K. Kazaura, K. Omae, T. Suzuki, M. Matsumoto, E. Mutafungwa, T. Murakami, K. Takahashi, H. Matsumoto, K. Wakamori, and Y. Arimoto, “Performance Evaluation of Next Generation Free-Space Optical Communication System,” IEICE Transactions on Electronics E 90-C, 381–388 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

Opt. Eng. (2)

D. Giggenbach and H. Henninger, “Fading-loss assessment in atmospheric free-space optical communication links with on-off keying,” Opt. Eng. 47,046001.1–6 (2006).

H. H. Refai, J. J. Sluss, H. H. Refai, and M. Atiquzzaman, “Comparative study of the performance of analog fiber optic links versus free-space optical links,” Opt. Eng. 45(2), 025003 (2006).
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (2)

K. Takahashi, T. Higashino, T. Nakamura, Y. Aburakawa, K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, K. Wakamori, T. Suzuki, K. Kazaura, and M. Matsumoto, “Design and evaluation of optical antenna module suitable for Radio on Free-Space Optics link system for ubiquitous wireless,” Proc. SPIE 6877, 112–123 (2008).

L. Wasiczko and C. Davis, “Aperture averaging of optical scintillations in the atmosphere: experimental results,” Proc. SPIE 5793, 197–207 (2005).
[Crossref]

Other (9)

K. Tsukamoto, S. Komaki, and M. Matsumoto, “Development Project of Radio on Free Space Optics,” Proc. SPIE 6788, 677606.1–8 (2007).

L. Andrews, and R. Phillips, Laser Beam propagation through Random Media, second ed, SPIE Press, 2005.

3GPP TS 25.141, 3rd Generation Partnership Project. http://www.3gpp.org/ , 2002.

K. Wakamori, T. Hayashi, H. Yamashita, Y. Kimura, and M. Hosoda, “155-Mbps ATM Backbone for Interbuilding Intranet using an Optical Wireless System,” Proc. PIMRC (1999).

G. Keiser, “Optical Communications Essentials,” by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003.

O. Bouche II, T. Marquis, M. Chabane, M. Alnaboulsi, and H. Sizun, “FSO and Quality of Service Software Prediction,” Proc. SPIE 5892, 589204.1–12 (2005).

A. Mahdy, and J. Deogun, Wireless Optical Communications: A Survey,” Proc. IEEE WCNC, 2399–2404 (2004).

H. Al-Raweshidy, and S. Komaki, eds., Radio over Fiber Technologies for Mobile Communications Networks. Artech House Publishers, first ed., 2002.

W. Chang, ed., RF Photonic Technology in Optical Fiber Links. Cambridge University Press, first ed., Oct. 2002.

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1 FSO communication system concepts.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2 Experimental setup for RF signal transmission measurement (a) and Devices setup on the rooftop (b).
Fig. 3
Fig. 3 Relation of ACLR and CNR under dynamic operation measurement.
Fig. 4
Fig. 4 System performance in a clear sunny day.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5 Statistics of system performance in clear sunny days in 2008 summer.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6 Correlation between CNR deviation and Scintillation index
Fig. 7
Fig. 7 Received spectrum of W-CDMA signal after being transmitted over FSO Link
Fig. 8
Fig. 8 Variation of ACLR and CNR in rain event (October 24, 2008).
Fig. 9
Fig. 9 Calculated and measured CNR for the RF-FSO system in a clear sunny day.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Specifications of RF-FSO system

Tables Icon

Table 2 Atmospheric loss statistics of the RF-FSO system

Equations (9)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

σI2=[II]2I2
σR2=1.23k7/6L11/6Cn2
σI2(DRX,L)=exp[0.49σR2(1+0.65d2+1.11σR12/5)7/6+0.51σR2(1+0.69σR12/5)5/61+0.90d2+0.62d2σR12/5]1
Attrain=α*Rβ
Attrain=4.9R.63
CNR=12(OMI.r.M.Ppd)2RIN(rPpd)2+2eM2+F(rPpd+Idr)+(4KT/Rf)
Ppd=PtLoptrLgeoLatm(Lpoint)        ​ ​ ​(dBm)
Lgeo=10log(DRXDTX+L.θ)2   (dB)
ascin=4.343{erf_1(2pthr1).[2ln(σP2+1)]1/212ln(σP2+1)}

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