Abstract

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer vast possibilities for future ultra-fast photonic devices. One of the biggest challenges to realize the devices is handling of carbon nanotubes. To achieve efficient handling, we have proposed and demonstrated the optical deposition of CNTs onto optical fiber ends. We found that a sphere-shaped super-structure made of carbon nanotubes can be fabricated by changing the light intensity. Chemical functionalization was not necessary in contrast to the conventional techniques of fabricating super-structures. We demonstrated physical manipulation of the sphere, and realized a passively mode-locked fiber laser employing the sphere.

©2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  2. S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 51–56 (2004).
    [Crossref]
  3. Y Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotubepoly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1621–1625 (2005).
    [Crossref]
  4. S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamasita, and S. Y. Set, “Novel cost effective carbon nanotubes deposition technique using optical tweezer effect,” in Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 6478; Photonics Packaging, Integration and Interconnects VII, A. M. Earman and R. T. Chen, eds., pp. 6478–15 (SPIE, 2007).
  6. K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Optically manipulated deposition of carbon nanotubes onto optical fiber end,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L988–L990 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  7. J.W. Nicholson, “Optically assisted deposition of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies 2007 Technical Digest, p. CMU6 (Optical Society of America, Wasington, DC, 2007).
  8. J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express,  15, 9176–9183 (2007).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. M. Sano, A. Kamino, J. Okamura, and S. Shinkai, “Noncovalent self-assembly of carbon nanotubes for construction of ‘cages’,” Nano Lett.,  2, 531–533 (2002).
    [Crossref]
  10. X. Fan, Z. Zhang, G. Li, and N.A. Rowson, “Attachment of solid particles to air bubbles in surfactant-free aqueous solutions,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 59, 2639–2645 (2004).
    [Crossref]

2007 (2)

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Optically manipulated deposition of carbon nanotubes onto optical fiber end,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L988–L990 (2007).
[Crossref]

J. W. Nicholson, R. S. Windeler, and D. J. DiGiovanni, “Optically driven deposition of single-walled carbon-nanotube saturable absorbers on optical fiber end-faces,” Opt. Express,  15, 9176–9183 (2007).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

2005 (1)

Y Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotubepoly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1621–1625 (2005).
[Crossref]

2004 (3)

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X. Fan, Z. Zhang, G. Li, and N.A. Rowson, “Attachment of solid particles to air bubbles in surfactant-free aqueous solutions,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 59, 2639–2645 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 51–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

2002 (2)

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

M. Sano, A. Kamino, J. Okamura, and S. Shinkai, “Noncovalent self-assembly of carbon nanotubes for construction of ‘cages’,” Nano Lett.,  2, 531–533 (2002).
[Crossref]

Achiba, Y.

Y Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotubepoly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1621–1625 (2005).
[Crossref]

Ajayan, P. M.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chen, Y. -C.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Fan, X.

X. Fan, Z. Zhang, G. Li, and N.A. Rowson, “Attachment of solid particles to air bubbles in surfactant-free aqueous solutions,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 59, 2639–2645 (2004).
[Crossref]

Inoue, Y.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Jablonski, M.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 51–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

Kamino, A.

M. Sano, A. Kamino, J. Okamura, and S. Shinkai, “Noncovalent self-assembly of carbon nanotubes for construction of ‘cages’,” Nano Lett.,  2, 531–533 (2002).
[Crossref]

Kashiwagi, K.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Optically manipulated deposition of carbon nanotubes onto optical fiber end,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L988–L990 (2007).
[Crossref]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamasita, and S. Y. Set, “Novel cost effective carbon nanotubes deposition technique using optical tweezer effect,” in Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 6478; Photonics Packaging, Integration and Interconnects VII, A. M. Earman and R. T. Chen, eds., pp. 6478–15 (SPIE, 2007).

Kataura, H.

Y Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotubepoly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1621–1625 (2005).
[Crossref]

Li, G.

X. Fan, Z. Zhang, G. Li, and N.A. Rowson, “Attachment of solid particles to air bubbles in surfactant-free aqueous solutions,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 59, 2639–2645 (2004).
[Crossref]

Lu, T. -M.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Maruyama, S.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Murakami, Y.

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nicholson, J. W.

Nicholson, J.W.

J.W. Nicholson, “Optically assisted deposition of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies 2007 Technical Digest, p. CMU6 (Optical Society of America, Wasington, DC, 2007).

Okamura, J.

M. Sano, A. Kamino, J. Okamura, and S. Shinkai, “Noncovalent self-assembly of carbon nanotubes for construction of ‘cages’,” Nano Lett.,  2, 531–533 (2002).
[Crossref]

Raravikar, N. R.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Rowson, N.A.

X. Fan, Z. Zhang, G. Li, and N.A. Rowson, “Attachment of solid particles to air bubbles in surfactant-free aqueous solutions,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 59, 2639–2645 (2004).
[Crossref]

Rozhin, A. G.

Y Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotubepoly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1621–1625 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sakakibara, Y

Y Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotubepoly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1621–1625 (2005).
[Crossref]

Sano, M.

M. Sano, A. Kamino, J. Okamura, and S. Shinkai, “Noncovalent self-assembly of carbon nanotubes for construction of ‘cages’,” Nano Lett.,  2, 531–533 (2002).
[Crossref]

Schadler, L. S.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Set, S. Y.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Optically manipulated deposition of carbon nanotubes onto optical fiber end,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L988–L990 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 51–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamasita, and S. Y. Set, “Novel cost effective carbon nanotubes deposition technique using optical tweezer effect,” in Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 6478; Photonics Packaging, Integration and Interconnects VII, A. M. Earman and R. T. Chen, eds., pp. 6478–15 (SPIE, 2007).

Shinkai, S.

M. Sano, A. Kamino, J. Okamura, and S. Shinkai, “Noncovalent self-assembly of carbon nanotubes for construction of ‘cages’,” Nano Lett.,  2, 531–533 (2002).
[Crossref]

Tanaka, Y.

Tokumoto, M.

Y Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotubepoly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1621–1625 (2005).
[Crossref]

Wang, G. -C.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Windeler, R. S.

Yaguchi, H.

S. Y. Set, H. Yaguchi, Y. Tanaka, and M. Jablonski, “Laser mode locking using a saturable absorber incorporating carbon nanotubes,” J. Lightwave Technol. 22, 51–56 (2004).
[Crossref]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamashita, S.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Optically manipulated deposition of carbon nanotubes onto optical fiber end,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L988–L990 (2007).
[Crossref]

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamasita, S.

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamasita, and S. Y. Set, “Novel cost effective carbon nanotubes deposition technique using optical tweezer effect,” in Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 6478; Photonics Packaging, Integration and Interconnects VII, A. M. Earman and R. T. Chen, eds., pp. 6478–15 (SPIE, 2007).

Zhang, X. -C.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Zhang, Z.

X. Fan, Z. Zhang, G. Li, and N.A. Rowson, “Attachment of solid particles to air bubbles in surfactant-free aqueous solutions,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 59, 2639–2645 (2004).
[Crossref]

Zhao, Y. -P.

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

Y. -C. Chen, N. R. Raravikar, L. S. Schadler, P. M. Ajayan, Y. -P. Zhao, T. -M. Lu, G. -C. Wang, and X. -C. Zhang, “Ultrafast optical switching properties of single-wall carbon nanotube polymer composites at 1.55 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 81, 975–977 (2002).
[Crossref]

Chem. Eng. Sci. (1)

X. Fan, Z. Zhang, G. Li, and N.A. Rowson, “Attachment of solid particles to air bubbles in surfactant-free aqueous solutions,” Chem. Eng. Sci. 59, 2639–2645 (2004).
[Crossref]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (2)

Y Sakakibara, A. G. Rozhin, H. Kataura, Y. Achiba, and M. Tokumoto, “Carbon nanotubepoly(vinylalcohol) nanocomposite film devices: applications for femtosecond fiber laser mode lockers and optical amplifier noise suppressors,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 44, 1621–1625 (2005).
[Crossref]

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamashita, and S. Y. Set, “Optically manipulated deposition of carbon nanotubes onto optical fiber end,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 46, L988–L990 (2007).
[Crossref]

Nano Lett. (1)

M. Sano, A. Kamino, J. Okamura, and S. Shinkai, “Noncovalent self-assembly of carbon nanotubes for construction of ‘cages’,” Nano Lett.,  2, 531–533 (2002).
[Crossref]

Opt Lett. (1)

S. Yamashita, Y. Inoue, S. Maruyama, Y. Murakami, H. Yaguchi, M. Jablonski, and S. Y. Set, “Saturable absorbers incorporating carbon nanotubes directly syntehsized onto substrates and fibers and their application to mode-locked fiber lasers,” Opt Lett. 29, 1581–1583 (2004).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Opt. Express (1)

Other (2)

J.W. Nicholson, “Optically assisted deposition of carbon nanotube saturable absorbers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics/Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference and Photonic Applications Systems Technologies 2007 Technical Digest, p. CMU6 (Optical Society of America, Wasington, DC, 2007).

K. Kashiwagi, S. Yamasita, and S. Y. Set, “Novel cost effective carbon nanotubes deposition technique using optical tweezer effect,” in Proceedings of the SPIE Vol. 6478; Photonics Packaging, Integration and Interconnects VII, A. M. Earman and R. T. Chen, eds., pp. 6478–15 (SPIE, 2007).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of experimental setup for CNT spheres formation.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Microscope images of CNTs deposited optical fiber ends. (a) CNTs are deposited onto the core (b) CNTs are deposited around the core.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Microscope images of a growing CNT sphere (every 10sec.).
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Mechanism of a CNT sphere formation using light injection.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Physical manipulation of a CNT sphere
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. (a) Schematic of an experiment setup for a passively mode-locked fiber laser using a CNT sphere. (b) Microscope image of a CNT sphere inserted between two fiber ends.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Output spectrum of a passively mode-locked fiber laser using a CNT sphere (0.1 nm resolution)

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