Abstract

This paper analyzes the effects due to the angular motion of a small-sized imaging system equipped with an optical image stabilizer (OIS) on image quality. Accurate lens moving distances for the OIS required to compensate the ray distortion induced by the angular motion are determined. To calculate the associated modulation transfer function, the integrated and the compensated point spread functions are defined. Finally, the deterioration of the image resolution due to angular motion and the restorative performance of the OIS are analyzed by isolating seven types of angular motion.

©2008 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. O. Hadar, M. Robbins, Y. Novogrozky, and D. Kaplan, “Image motion restoration from a sequence of images,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2898–2904 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  2. A. Stern and N.S. Kopeika, “General restoration filter for vibrated-image restoration,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7596–7603 (1998)
    [Crossref]
  3. Y. Yitzhaky, I. Mor, A. Lantzman, and N.S. Kopeika, “Direct method for restoration of motion-blurred images,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 15, 1512–1519 (1998)
    [Crossref]
  4. C.W. Chiu, P.C.-P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, “Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm,” IEEE T. Magn. 43, 2582–2584 (2007)
    [Crossref]
  5. B. Golik and D. Wueller, “Measurement method for image stabilizing systems,” Proc. SPIE 6502, 65020O-1-10 (2007)
  6. A. Stern and N. S. Kopeika, “Analytical method to calculate optical transfer functions for image motion and vibrations using moments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 388–396 (1997)
    [Crossref]
  7. I. Klapp and Y. Yitzhaky, “Angular motion point spread function model considering aberrations and defocus effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 23, 1856–1864 (2006)
    [Crossref]
  8. A. Stern and N. S. Kopeika, “Analytical method to calculate optical transfer functions for image motion and its implementation in vibrated image restoration,” in Proceedings of Nineteenth Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Israel, 1996), pp. 379–382.
    [Crossref]
  9. D. Sachs, S. Nasiri, and D. Goehl, “Image stabilization technology overview,” http://www.invensense.com/shared/pdf/ImageStabilizationWhitepaper_051606.pdf
  10. J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, Chap. 6, Roberts and Company Publishers (2005)
  11. N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging, (SPIE, 1998) Chap. 8.

2007 (2)

C.W. Chiu, P.C.-P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, “Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm,” IEEE T. Magn. 43, 2582–2584 (2007)
[Crossref]

B. Golik and D. Wueller, “Measurement method for image stabilizing systems,” Proc. SPIE 6502, 65020O-1-10 (2007)

2006 (1)

1998 (2)

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

A. Stern and N. S. Kopeika, “Analytical method to calculate optical transfer functions for image motion and its implementation in vibrated image restoration,” in Proceedings of Nineteenth Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Israel, 1996), pp. 379–382.
[Crossref]

O. Hadar, M. Robbins, Y. Novogrozky, and D. Kaplan, “Image motion restoration from a sequence of images,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2898–2904 (1996)
[Crossref]

Chao, P.C.-P.

C.W. Chiu, P.C.-P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, “Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm,” IEEE T. Magn. 43, 2582–2584 (2007)
[Crossref]

Chiu, C.W.

C.W. Chiu, P.C.-P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, “Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm,” IEEE T. Magn. 43, 2582–2584 (2007)
[Crossref]

Goehl, D.

D. Sachs, S. Nasiri, and D. Goehl, “Image stabilization technology overview,” http://www.invensense.com/shared/pdf/ImageStabilizationWhitepaper_051606.pdf

Golik, B.

B. Golik and D. Wueller, “Measurement method for image stabilizing systems,” Proc. SPIE 6502, 65020O-1-10 (2007)

Goodman, J. W.

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, Chap. 6, Roberts and Company Publishers (2005)

Hadar, O.

O. Hadar, M. Robbins, Y. Novogrozky, and D. Kaplan, “Image motion restoration from a sequence of images,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2898–2904 (1996)
[Crossref]

Kaplan, D.

O. Hadar, M. Robbins, Y. Novogrozky, and D. Kaplan, “Image motion restoration from a sequence of images,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2898–2904 (1996)
[Crossref]

Klapp, I.

Kopeika, N. S.

A. Stern and N. S. Kopeika, “Analytical method to calculate optical transfer functions for image motion and vibrations using moments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 388–396 (1997)
[Crossref]

A. Stern and N. S. Kopeika, “Analytical method to calculate optical transfer functions for image motion and its implementation in vibrated image restoration,” in Proceedings of Nineteenth Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Israel, 1996), pp. 379–382.
[Crossref]

N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging, (SPIE, 1998) Chap. 8.

Kopeika, N.S.

Lantzman, A.

Mor, I.

Nasiri, S.

D. Sachs, S. Nasiri, and D. Goehl, “Image stabilization technology overview,” http://www.invensense.com/shared/pdf/ImageStabilizationWhitepaper_051606.pdf

Novogrozky, Y.

O. Hadar, M. Robbins, Y. Novogrozky, and D. Kaplan, “Image motion restoration from a sequence of images,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2898–2904 (1996)
[Crossref]

Robbins, M.

O. Hadar, M. Robbins, Y. Novogrozky, and D. Kaplan, “Image motion restoration from a sequence of images,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2898–2904 (1996)
[Crossref]

Sachs, D.

D. Sachs, S. Nasiri, and D. Goehl, “Image stabilization technology overview,” http://www.invensense.com/shared/pdf/ImageStabilizationWhitepaper_051606.pdf

Stern, A.

A. Stern and N.S. Kopeika, “General restoration filter for vibrated-image restoration,” Appl. Opt. 37, 7596–7603 (1998)
[Crossref]

A. Stern and N. S. Kopeika, “Analytical method to calculate optical transfer functions for image motion and vibrations using moments,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 388–396 (1997)
[Crossref]

A. Stern and N. S. Kopeika, “Analytical method to calculate optical transfer functions for image motion and its implementation in vibrated image restoration,” in Proceedings of Nineteenth Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Israel, 1996), pp. 379–382.
[Crossref]

Wu, D.Y.

C.W. Chiu, P.C.-P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, “Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm,” IEEE T. Magn. 43, 2582–2584 (2007)
[Crossref]

Wueller, D.

B. Golik and D. Wueller, “Measurement method for image stabilizing systems,” Proc. SPIE 6502, 65020O-1-10 (2007)

Yitzhaky, Y.

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE T. Magn. (1)

C.W. Chiu, P.C.-P. Chao, and D.Y. Wu, “Optimal design of magnetically actuated optical image stabilizer mechanism for cameras in mobile phones via genetic algorithm,” IEEE T. Magn. 43, 2582–2584 (2007)
[Crossref]

in Proceedings of Nineteenth Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (1)

A. Stern and N. S. Kopeika, “Analytical method to calculate optical transfer functions for image motion and its implementation in vibrated image restoration,” in Proceedings of Nineteenth Convention of Electrical and Electronics Engineers in Israel (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Israel, 1996), pp. 379–382.
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (3)

Opt. Eng. (1)

O. Hadar, M. Robbins, Y. Novogrozky, and D. Kaplan, “Image motion restoration from a sequence of images,” Opt. Eng. 35, 2898–2904 (1996)
[Crossref]

Proc. SPIE (1)

B. Golik and D. Wueller, “Measurement method for image stabilizing systems,” Proc. SPIE 6502, 65020O-1-10 (2007)

Other (3)

D. Sachs, S. Nasiri, and D. Goehl, “Image stabilization technology overview,” http://www.invensense.com/shared/pdf/ImageStabilizationWhitepaper_051606.pdf

J. W. Goodman, Introduction to Fourier Optics, Chap. 6, Roberts and Company Publishers (2005)

N. S. Kopeika, A System Engineering Approach to Imaging, (SPIE, 1998) Chap. 8.

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. Schematic diagram of the small-sized optical imaging system.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of the principles underlying OIS functionality.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. Absolute values of the lens moving distances and the overall compensation rate as a function of the tilt angle induced by the angular motion of the optical imaging system.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. Original PSF, integrated PSF, and PSF compensated by the OIS for the 0.0 field.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. Calculated MTF for linear angular motion with a velocity and exposure time of 0.5 deg/s and 0.1 s, respectively, for the 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, and 0.95 fields. The crosses, filled circles, and triangles represent MTFs without angular motion, with angular motion, and with OIS correction, respectively.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. Calculated MTF for linear angular motion with a velocity and exposure time of 0.5 deg/s and 0.2 s, respectively, for the 0.0, 0.3, 0.7, and 0.95 fields.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. Example measurement of hand tremors.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. Modeling the motion patterns of mobile phones based on experimental results.
Fig. 9.
Fig. 9. MTFs of the motion patterns defined in Fig. 8 applied to the 0.7 field.
Fig. 10.
Fig. 10. Compensated MTFs with OIS actuator with time delay

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1. Optical specifications of the optical imaging system.

Tables Icon

Table 2. Summary of the chief-ray position and the variation due to the angular motion of the imaging system, and the compensation for each field. The chief-ray positions are relative changes in the y direction. The “variation” columns represent changes of the chief-ray position due to angular motion and a compensation comparison with respect to the original position, respectively.

Equations (6)

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η comp = e motion abs ( e comp ) e motion × 100 ,
d = EFL × tan ( θ ) ,
P ( x , y ) = P 0 ( x , y ) exp [ i 2 π λ W ( x , y ) ] ,
OTF = S ( ω x , ω y ) S ( 0 , 0 ) ,
PSF motion = 0 t exp PSF ( x motion ( t ) , y motion ( t ) , α motion ( t ) ) dt ,
PSF compensated = 0 t exp PSF ( x comp ( t ) , y comp ( t ) , α motion ( t ) ) dt ,

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