Abstract

Abstract

The miniature spectrometer has many applications in integrated optics and photonics. The blazed grating with the Rowland circle structure has the advantage of self-focusing and is chosen as the major component in the spectrometer chip. In the simulations for the blaze angle design in the visible spectrum, we discover the phenomenon of the double reflection diffraction. Its cause and parameter space are discussed. The spectrometer utilizing the phenomenon has similar performance to the standard blazed grating and is easier to manufacture in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology. The discovery will greatly ease the design of the spectrometer chip.

©2007 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002).
  2. W. B. Peatman, Gratings, Mirrors, and Slits (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1997).
  3. M. C. Hutley, Diffraction Grating (Academic Press, 1982).
  4. G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” MIT Lincoln Laboratory Reportp.854 (1989).
  5. C.-H. Ko, B.-Y. Shew, and S.-C. Hsu, “Micrograting fabricated by x-ray lithography for optical communications,” Opt. Eng. 46, 048001-1–048001-7 (2007).
    [Crossref]
  6. International Intellectual Group, Inc., PCGrate.http://www.pcgrate.com.
  7. T. J. Suleski and D. C. O’Shea, “Gray-scale masks for diffractive-optics fabrication: I. Commercial slide imagers,” Appl. Opt. 34, 7507–7517 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

2007 (1)

C.-H. Ko, B.-Y. Shew, and S.-C. Hsu, “Micrograting fabricated by x-ray lithography for optical communications,” Opt. Eng. 46, 048001-1–048001-7 (2007).
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

Hecht, E.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002).

Hsu, S.-C.

C.-H. Ko, B.-Y. Shew, and S.-C. Hsu, “Micrograting fabricated by x-ray lithography for optical communications,” Opt. Eng. 46, 048001-1–048001-7 (2007).
[Crossref]

Hutley, M. C.

M. C. Hutley, Diffraction Grating (Academic Press, 1982).

Ko, C.-H.

C.-H. Ko, B.-Y. Shew, and S.-C. Hsu, “Micrograting fabricated by x-ray lithography for optical communications,” Opt. Eng. 46, 048001-1–048001-7 (2007).
[Crossref]

O’Shea, D. C.

Peatman, W. B.

W. B. Peatman, Gratings, Mirrors, and Slits (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1997).

Shew, B.-Y.

C.-H. Ko, B.-Y. Shew, and S.-C. Hsu, “Micrograting fabricated by x-ray lithography for optical communications,” Opt. Eng. 46, 048001-1–048001-7 (2007).
[Crossref]

Suleski, T. J.

Swanson, G. J.

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” MIT Lincoln Laboratory Reportp.854 (1989).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Opt. Eng. (1)

C.-H. Ko, B.-Y. Shew, and S.-C. Hsu, “Micrograting fabricated by x-ray lithography for optical communications,” Opt. Eng. 46, 048001-1–048001-7 (2007).
[Crossref]

Other (5)

International Intellectual Group, Inc., PCGrate.http://www.pcgrate.com.

E. Hecht, Optics, 4th ed. (Addison Wesley, 2002).

W. B. Peatman, Gratings, Mirrors, and Slits (Gordon and Breach Science Publishers, 1997).

M. C. Hutley, Diffraction Grating (Academic Press, 1982).

G. J. Swanson, “Binary optics technology: the theory and design of multilevel diffractive optical elements,” MIT Lincoln Laboratory Reportp.854 (1989).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. The schematic of the Rowland circle structure.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. Blazed grating structure showing the single reflection diffraction.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The diffraction efficiency as the function of the right (ϕ) and the left (θ) blaze angles.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The schematic of the double reflection diffraction.
Fig. 5.
Fig. 5. The contour map of the diffraction efficiency as a function of the right (ϕ) and the left (θ) blaze angles.
Fig. 6.
Fig. 6. The diffraction efficiency as a function of the wavelength of the incident light.
Fig. 7.
Fig. 7. The diffraction efficiency as the function of the right blaze angle with different surface roughness. The left blaze angle θ fixed at 55° and the incident light wavelength is 550 nm.
Fig. 8.
Fig. 8. The diffraction efficiency with different values of the rounding parameter. The incident light wavelength is 550 nm.

Equations (4)

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sin α + sin β = m λ d
α ϕ = β + ϕ
ϕ = α + β 2
β = π + α 2 ( ϕ + θ )

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