Abstract

A new approach for the fabrication of n-type porous silicon layer is proposed. A hole-rich p-layer is arranged underneath the n-layer, and the np-junction is under forward biased condition in the etching process. Therefore sufficient holes can drift straight-upward and pass across the np-junction from p-region to n-region to participate in electrochemical reaction during the etching process with an unfailing supply. Illumination is an optional hole-supplier in this approach, so the problem of illumination-depth limitation can be overcome. Strong visible photoluminescence emissions are demonstrated on the hole-poor n-type porous layer at about 650 nm.

©2006 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. L.T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046–1048 (1990)
    [Crossref]
  2. P. McCord, S. L. Yau, and A. J. Bard, “Chemiluminescence of Anodized and Etched Silicon: Evidence for a Luminescent Siloxene-Like Layer on Porous Silicon,” Science 257, 68–69 (1992)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. O. Bisi, Stefano Ossicini, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon: a quantum sponge structure for silicon based optoelectronics,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 38, 1–126 (2000)
    [Crossref]
  4. A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, “The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys 82, 909–965 (1997)
    [Crossref]
  5. P. M. Fauchet, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from porous silicon,” J. Lumin. 70, 294–309 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  6. L. T. Canham, W. Y. Leong, T. I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 61, 2563–2565 (1992)
    [Crossref]
  7. H. D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M. S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona “Porous silicon and siloxene: Vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8172–8189 (1993)
    [Crossref]
  8. J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1532–1534 (1992)
    [Crossref]
  9. A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200–202 (1993)
    [Crossref]
  10. S. Kalem and M. Rosenbauer, “Optical and structural investigation of stain-etched silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2551–2553 (1995)
    [Crossref]
  11. M. Ghanashyam Krishna, M. Rajendran, D. R. Pyke, and A. K. Bhattacharya, “Formation of porous silicon for large-area silicon solar cells: A new method,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 59, 377–385 (1999)
    [Crossref]
  12. S. Kalem and O. Yavuzcetin “Possibility of fabricating light-emitting porous silicon from gas phase etchants,” Opt. Express 6, 7–11 (2000)
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. M. Saadoun, N. Mliki, H. Kaabi, K. Daoudi, B. Bessaïs, H. Ezzaouia, and R. Bennaceur, “Vapour-etching-based porous silicon: a new approach,” Thin Solid films 405, 29–34 (2002)
    [Crossref]
  14. T. Unagami, “Formation mechanism of porous silicon layer by anodization in HF solution,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 476–483 (1980)
    [Crossref]
  15. Nenad Lalic and Jan Linnros, “A porous silicon light-emitting diode with a high quantum efficiency during pulsed operation,” Thin Solid Films 276, 155–158 (1996)
    [Crossref]
  16. A. Richter, P. Steiner, F. Kozlowski, and W. Lang, “Current-induced light emission from a porous silicon device,” IEEE EDL 12, 691–692 (1991)
    [Crossref]
  17. M. J. Eddowes, “Anodic dissolution of p- and n-type silicon : Kinetic study of the chemical mechanism,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 280, 297–311 (1990)
    [Crossref]
  18. Stumper and L. M. Peter, “A rotating ring-disc study of the photodissolution of n-Si in ammonium fluoride solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 309, 325–331 (1991)
    [Crossref]
  19. A. A. Yaron, S. Bastide, J. L. Maurice, and C. Levy-Clement, “Morphology of porous n-type silicon obtained by photoelectrochemical etching II : Study of the tangled Si wires in the nanoporous layer,” J. Lumim. 57, 67–71 (1993)
    [Crossref]
  20. E. Galun, A. Lagoubi, R. Tenne, and C. Levy-Clement, “Room temperature photoluminescence of photoelectrochemically etched n-type Si,” J. Lumim. 57, 125–129 (1993)
    [Crossref]

2002 (1)

M. Saadoun, N. Mliki, H. Kaabi, K. Daoudi, B. Bessaïs, H. Ezzaouia, and R. Bennaceur, “Vapour-etching-based porous silicon: a new approach,” Thin Solid films 405, 29–34 (2002)
[Crossref]

2000 (2)

S. Kalem and O. Yavuzcetin “Possibility of fabricating light-emitting porous silicon from gas phase etchants,” Opt. Express 6, 7–11 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. Bisi, Stefano Ossicini, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon: a quantum sponge structure for silicon based optoelectronics,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 38, 1–126 (2000)
[Crossref]

1999 (1)

M. Ghanashyam Krishna, M. Rajendran, D. R. Pyke, and A. K. Bhattacharya, “Formation of porous silicon for large-area silicon solar cells: A new method,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 59, 377–385 (1999)
[Crossref]

1997 (1)

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, “The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys 82, 909–965 (1997)
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

P. M. Fauchet, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from porous silicon,” J. Lumin. 70, 294–309 (1996)
[Crossref]

Nenad Lalic and Jan Linnros, “A porous silicon light-emitting diode with a high quantum efficiency during pulsed operation,” Thin Solid Films 276, 155–158 (1996)
[Crossref]

1995 (1)

S. Kalem and M. Rosenbauer, “Optical and structural investigation of stain-etched silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2551–2553 (1995)
[Crossref]

1993 (4)

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200–202 (1993)
[Crossref]

H. D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M. S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona “Porous silicon and siloxene: Vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8172–8189 (1993)
[Crossref]

A. A. Yaron, S. Bastide, J. L. Maurice, and C. Levy-Clement, “Morphology of porous n-type silicon obtained by photoelectrochemical etching II : Study of the tangled Si wires in the nanoporous layer,” J. Lumim. 57, 67–71 (1993)
[Crossref]

E. Galun, A. Lagoubi, R. Tenne, and C. Levy-Clement, “Room temperature photoluminescence of photoelectrochemically etched n-type Si,” J. Lumim. 57, 125–129 (1993)
[Crossref]

1992 (3)

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1532–1534 (1992)
[Crossref]

P. McCord, S. L. Yau, and A. J. Bard, “Chemiluminescence of Anodized and Etched Silicon: Evidence for a Luminescent Siloxene-Like Layer on Porous Silicon,” Science 257, 68–69 (1992)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

L. T. Canham, W. Y. Leong, T. I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 61, 2563–2565 (1992)
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

A. Richter, P. Steiner, F. Kozlowski, and W. Lang, “Current-induced light emission from a porous silicon device,” IEEE EDL 12, 691–692 (1991)
[Crossref]

Stumper and L. M. Peter, “A rotating ring-disc study of the photodissolution of n-Si in ammonium fluoride solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 309, 325–331 (1991)
[Crossref]

1990 (2)

M. J. Eddowes, “Anodic dissolution of p- and n-type silicon : Kinetic study of the chemical mechanism,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 280, 297–311 (1990)
[Crossref]

L.T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046–1048 (1990)
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

T. Unagami, “Formation mechanism of porous silicon layer by anodization in HF solution,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 476–483 (1980)
[Crossref]

Bard, A. J.

P. McCord, S. L. Yau, and A. J. Bard, “Chemiluminescence of Anodized and Etched Silicon: Evidence for a Luminescent Siloxene-Like Layer on Porous Silicon,” Science 257, 68–69 (1992)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bastide, S.

A. A. Yaron, S. Bastide, J. L. Maurice, and C. Levy-Clement, “Morphology of porous n-type silicon obtained by photoelectrochemical etching II : Study of the tangled Si wires in the nanoporous layer,” J. Lumim. 57, 67–71 (1993)
[Crossref]

Bennaceur, R.

M. Saadoun, N. Mliki, H. Kaabi, K. Daoudi, B. Bessaïs, H. Ezzaouia, and R. Bennaceur, “Vapour-etching-based porous silicon: a new approach,” Thin Solid films 405, 29–34 (2002)
[Crossref]

Bessaïs, B.

M. Saadoun, N. Mliki, H. Kaabi, K. Daoudi, B. Bessaïs, H. Ezzaouia, and R. Bennaceur, “Vapour-etching-based porous silicon: a new approach,” Thin Solid films 405, 29–34 (2002)
[Crossref]

Bhattacharya, A. K.

M. Ghanashyam Krishna, M. Rajendran, D. R. Pyke, and A. K. Bhattacharya, “Formation of porous silicon for large-area silicon solar cells: A new method,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 59, 377–385 (1999)
[Crossref]

Bisi, O.

O. Bisi, Stefano Ossicini, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon: a quantum sponge structure for silicon based optoelectronics,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 38, 1–126 (2000)
[Crossref]

Brandt, M. S.

H. D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M. S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona “Porous silicon and siloxene: Vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8172–8189 (1993)
[Crossref]

Breitschwerdt, A.

H. D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M. S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona “Porous silicon and siloxene: Vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8172–8189 (1993)
[Crossref]

Calcott, P. D. J.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, “The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys 82, 909–965 (1997)
[Crossref]

Campbell, J. C.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1532–1534 (1992)
[Crossref]

Canham, L. T.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, “The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys 82, 909–965 (1997)
[Crossref]

L. T. Canham, W. Y. Leong, T. I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 61, 2563–2565 (1992)
[Crossref]

Canham, L.T.

L.T. Canham, “Silicon quantum wire array fabrication by electrochemical and chemical dissolution of wafers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 57, 1046–1048 (1990)
[Crossref]

Cardona, M.

H. D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M. S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona “Porous silicon and siloxene: Vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8172–8189 (1993)
[Crossref]

Cox, T. I.

L. T. Canham, W. Y. Leong, T. I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 61, 2563–2565 (1992)
[Crossref]

Cullis, A. G.

A. G. Cullis, L. T. Canham, and P. D. J. Calcott, “The structural and luminescence properties of porous silicon,” J. Appl. Phys 82, 909–965 (1997)
[Crossref]

Daoudi, K.

M. Saadoun, N. Mliki, H. Kaabi, K. Daoudi, B. Bessaïs, H. Ezzaouia, and R. Bennaceur, “Vapour-etching-based porous silicon: a new approach,” Thin Solid films 405, 29–34 (2002)
[Crossref]

Deak, P.

H. D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M. S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona “Porous silicon and siloxene: Vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8172–8189 (1993)
[Crossref]

Eddowes, M. J.

M. J. Eddowes, “Anodic dissolution of p- and n-type silicon : Kinetic study of the chemical mechanism,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 280, 297–311 (1990)
[Crossref]

Ezzaouia, H.

M. Saadoun, N. Mliki, H. Kaabi, K. Daoudi, B. Bessaïs, H. Ezzaouia, and R. Bennaceur, “Vapour-etching-based porous silicon: a new approach,” Thin Solid films 405, 29–34 (2002)
[Crossref]

Fathauer, R. W.

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200–202 (1993)
[Crossref]

Fauchet, P. M.

P. M. Fauchet, “Photoluminescence and electroluminescence from porous silicon,” J. Lumin. 70, 294–309 (1996)
[Crossref]

Fuchs, H. D.

H. D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M. S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona “Porous silicon and siloxene: Vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8172–8189 (1993)
[Crossref]

Galun, E.

E. Galun, A. Lagoubi, R. Tenne, and C. Levy-Clement, “Room temperature photoluminescence of photoelectrochemically etched n-type Si,” J. Lumim. 57, 125–129 (1993)
[Crossref]

George, T.

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200–202 (1993)
[Crossref]

Ghanashyam Krishna, M.

M. Ghanashyam Krishna, M. Rajendran, D. R. Pyke, and A. K. Bhattacharya, “Formation of porous silicon for large-area silicon solar cells: A new method,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 59, 377–385 (1999)
[Crossref]

Jung, K. H.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1532–1534 (1992)
[Crossref]

Kaabi, H.

M. Saadoun, N. Mliki, H. Kaabi, K. Daoudi, B. Bessaïs, H. Ezzaouia, and R. Bennaceur, “Vapour-etching-based porous silicon: a new approach,” Thin Solid films 405, 29–34 (2002)
[Crossref]

Kalem, S.

S. Kalem and O. Yavuzcetin “Possibility of fabricating light-emitting porous silicon from gas phase etchants,” Opt. Express 6, 7–11 (2000)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Kalem and M. Rosenbauer, “Optical and structural investigation of stain-etched silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2551–2553 (1995)
[Crossref]

Kozlowski, F.

A. Richter, P. Steiner, F. Kozlowski, and W. Lang, “Current-induced light emission from a porous silicon device,” IEEE EDL 12, 691–692 (1991)
[Crossref]

Ksendzov, A.

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200–202 (1993)
[Crossref]

Kwong, D. L.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1532–1534 (1992)
[Crossref]

Lagoubi, A.

E. Galun, A. Lagoubi, R. Tenne, and C. Levy-Clement, “Room temperature photoluminescence of photoelectrochemically etched n-type Si,” J. Lumim. 57, 125–129 (1993)
[Crossref]

Lalic, Nenad

Nenad Lalic and Jan Linnros, “A porous silicon light-emitting diode with a high quantum efficiency during pulsed operation,” Thin Solid Films 276, 155–158 (1996)
[Crossref]

Lang, W.

A. Richter, P. Steiner, F. Kozlowski, and W. Lang, “Current-induced light emission from a porous silicon device,” IEEE EDL 12, 691–692 (1991)
[Crossref]

Leong, W. Y.

L. T. Canham, W. Y. Leong, T. I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 61, 2563–2565 (1992)
[Crossref]

Levy-Clement, C.

A. A. Yaron, S. Bastide, J. L. Maurice, and C. Levy-Clement, “Morphology of porous n-type silicon obtained by photoelectrochemical etching II : Study of the tangled Si wires in the nanoporous layer,” J. Lumim. 57, 67–71 (1993)
[Crossref]

E. Galun, A. Lagoubi, R. Tenne, and C. Levy-Clement, “Room temperature photoluminescence of photoelectrochemically etched n-type Si,” J. Lumim. 57, 125–129 (1993)
[Crossref]

Li, K. H.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1532–1534 (1992)
[Crossref]

Linnros, Jan

Nenad Lalic and Jan Linnros, “A porous silicon light-emitting diode with a high quantum efficiency during pulsed operation,” Thin Solid Films 276, 155–158 (1996)
[Crossref]

Maurice, J. L.

A. A. Yaron, S. Bastide, J. L. Maurice, and C. Levy-Clement, “Morphology of porous n-type silicon obtained by photoelectrochemical etching II : Study of the tangled Si wires in the nanoporous layer,” J. Lumim. 57, 67–71 (1993)
[Crossref]

McCord, P.

P. McCord, S. L. Yau, and A. J. Bard, “Chemiluminescence of Anodized and Etched Silicon: Evidence for a Luminescent Siloxene-Like Layer on Porous Silicon,” Science 257, 68–69 (1992)
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mliki, N.

M. Saadoun, N. Mliki, H. Kaabi, K. Daoudi, B. Bessaïs, H. Ezzaouia, and R. Bennaceur, “Vapour-etching-based porous silicon: a new approach,” Thin Solid films 405, 29–34 (2002)
[Crossref]

Ossicini, Stefano

O. Bisi, Stefano Ossicini, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon: a quantum sponge structure for silicon based optoelectronics,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 38, 1–126 (2000)
[Crossref]

Pavesi, L.

O. Bisi, Stefano Ossicini, and L. Pavesi, “Porous silicon: a quantum sponge structure for silicon based optoelectronics,” Surf. Sci. Rep. 38, 1–126 (2000)
[Crossref]

Peter, L. M.

Stumper and L. M. Peter, “A rotating ring-disc study of the photodissolution of n-Si in ammonium fluoride solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 309, 325–331 (1991)
[Crossref]

Pike, W. T.

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200–202 (1993)
[Crossref]

Pyke, D. R.

M. Ghanashyam Krishna, M. Rajendran, D. R. Pyke, and A. K. Bhattacharya, “Formation of porous silicon for large-area silicon solar cells: A new method,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 59, 377–385 (1999)
[Crossref]

Rajendran, M.

M. Ghanashyam Krishna, M. Rajendran, D. R. Pyke, and A. K. Bhattacharya, “Formation of porous silicon for large-area silicon solar cells: A new method,” Solar Energy Mater. Solar Cells 59, 377–385 (1999)
[Crossref]

Richter, A.

A. Richter, P. Steiner, F. Kozlowski, and W. Lang, “Current-induced light emission from a porous silicon device,” IEEE EDL 12, 691–692 (1991)
[Crossref]

Rosenbauer, M.

S. Kalem and M. Rosenbauer, “Optical and structural investigation of stain-etched silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2551–2553 (1995)
[Crossref]

H. D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M. S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona “Porous silicon and siloxene: Vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8172–8189 (1993)
[Crossref]

Saadoun, M.

M. Saadoun, N. Mliki, H. Kaabi, K. Daoudi, B. Bessaïs, H. Ezzaouia, and R. Bennaceur, “Vapour-etching-based porous silicon: a new approach,” Thin Solid films 405, 29–34 (2002)
[Crossref]

Sarathy, J.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1532–1534 (1992)
[Crossref]

Shih, S.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1532–1534 (1992)
[Crossref]

Steiner, P.

A. Richter, P. Steiner, F. Kozlowski, and W. Lang, “Current-induced light emission from a porous silicon device,” IEEE EDL 12, 691–692 (1991)
[Crossref]

Stumper,

Stumper and L. M. Peter, “A rotating ring-disc study of the photodissolution of n-Si in ammonium fluoride solutions,” J. Electroanal. Chem. 309, 325–331 (1991)
[Crossref]

Stutzmann, M.

H. D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M. S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona “Porous silicon and siloxene: Vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8172–8189 (1993)
[Crossref]

Taylor, L.

L. T. Canham, W. Y. Leong, T. I. Cox, and L. Taylor, “Efficient visible electroluminescence from highly porous silicon under cathodic bias,” Appl. Phys. Letts. 61, 2563–2565 (1992)
[Crossref]

Tenne, R.

E. Galun, A. Lagoubi, R. Tenne, and C. Levy-Clement, “Room temperature photoluminescence of photoelectrochemically etched n-type Si,” J. Lumim. 57, 125–129 (1993)
[Crossref]

Tsai, C.

J. Sarathy, S. Shih, K. H. Jung, C. Tsai, K. H. Li, D. L. Kwong, and J. C. Campbell, “Demonstration of photoluminescence in nonanodized silicon,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1532–1534 (1992)
[Crossref]

Unagami, T.

T. Unagami, “Formation mechanism of porous silicon layer by anodization in HF solution,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 127, 476–483 (1980)
[Crossref]

Vasquez, R. P.

A. Ksendzov, R. W. Fathauer, T. George, W. T. Pike, and R. P. Vasquez, “Visible photoluminescence of porous Si1-xGex obtained by stain etching,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 200–202 (1993)
[Crossref]

Weber, J.

H. D. Fuchs, M. Stutzmann, M. S. Brandt, M. Rosenbauer, J. Weber, A. Breitschwerdt, P. Deak, and M. Cardona “Porous silicon and siloxene: Vibrational and structural properties,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 8172–8189 (1993)
[Crossref]

Yaron, A. A.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1.
Fig. 1. (a) The schematic diagram of experimental setup for preparing n-PS layer, (b) the sketch of electrochemical etching in n-on-n Si without any hole-assistance, (c) the mechanism sketch with the illumination-assistance approach, and (d) the mechanism sketch with the bottom-hole-assisted approach.
Fig. 2.
Fig. 2. The top view SEM images of the PS samples with different electrochemical etching approaches: (A) n-on-n, without any hole-assistance, (B) n-on-n, with illumination-assistance, (C) n-on-p, with bottom-hole-assistance, (D)–(F) n-on-p, with the superimposition-assistance.
Fig. 3.
Fig. 3. The cross-section SEM images of the PS samples as shown in Fig. 2.
Fig. 4.
Fig. 4. The PL spectra and the naked-eye photos of A~F samples under UV light at room temperature.

Equations (2)

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S i + 2 H F + 2 h + S i F 2 + 2 H +
S i F 2 + 4 H F H 2 + H 2 S i F 6

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